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Safety, Volume 5, Issue 2 (June 2019) – 23 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) We used structured observations to record both mobile phone use and safe road crossing behaviours [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Development of an Occupational Health Safe Return to Work Prototype Application and Ergonomics Dataset for Agricultural Tasks
Safety 2019, 5(2), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5020040 - 17 Jun 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3710
Abstract
Serious, restrictive, non-fatal injuries are commonplace in large animal agriculture including in pork and dairy production. Primary care clinicians often have few resources to facilitate workers’ return to work and have difficulties communicating work restrictions/limitations to workers and their employers. This project developed [...] Read more.
Serious, restrictive, non-fatal injuries are commonplace in large animal agriculture including in pork and dairy production. Primary care clinicians often have few resources to facilitate workers’ return to work and have difficulties communicating work restrictions/limitations to workers and their employers. This project developed SafeReturnToWork.org, a web-based platform to aid physicians and farmers in farmworkers’ timely and safe return to work. This prototype characterizes the duties of dairy and pork workers, and facilitates the creation of applicable light duty job assemblies for farmers and farmworkers by physicians and other healthcare providers. Guided by interviews and focus groups with physicians, farmers, and farmworkers, the system was developed for use with workplace injuries that could eventually link to human resource department systems, an electronic health record, or expand to other industries beyond agriculture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Safety and Health)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Summary of Indiana Farm Fatalities Involving Individuals 55 Years and Older—1988–2017
Safety 2019, 5(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5020039 - 15 Jun 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3469
Abstract
Agriculture has historically been one of the most hazardous of all occupations, with a variety of potential safety risks to workers and even higher risks documented for older agricultural workers. This study was undertaken to document and summarize Indiana farm work-related fatalities involving [...] Read more.
Agriculture has historically been one of the most hazardous of all occupations, with a variety of potential safety risks to workers and even higher risks documented for older agricultural workers. This study was undertaken to document and summarize Indiana farm work-related fatalities involving persons 55 years and older over the 30 year period from 1988 to 2017. Data were mined from the Purdue University Agricultural Safety and Health Program’s Fatality Database that dates back to the 1960s. A total of 388 fatalities involving persons 55 years and older was documented. The average age of the victims was 69.3 years old, and an overwhelming majority of the cases involved males (96.1%). The average number of deaths per year has remained fairly consistent, though it has occasionally been erratic, with an unanticipated increase in the number of documented fatalities over the period 2012–2017. There appeared to be a direct positive correlation between the level or intensity of agricultural production in a county and the frequency of fatalities. The type of fatal injury most commonly reported was crush/run-over, with 229 cases (59%). The most common agent or source of injury involved was tractors, with 157 cases (40.5%). Another noted contributing factor was the high frequency of incidents in which the victim was reported to be working alone at the time of death. Findings will be used to develop evidence-based injury prevention strategies, including the development of agricultural safety training materials and methods more relevant to older farmers. A special emphasis should be placed on reducing the risk of tractor and farm machinery overturns, especially when older, non-roll over protection structure (ROPS) equipped tractors are being operated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Safety and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Oral Glutamine Supplement Reduces Subjective Fatigue Ratings during Repeated Bouts of Firefighting Simulations
Safety 2019, 5(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5020038 - 14 Jun 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3440
Abstract
Wildland firefighting requires repetitive (e.g., consecutive work shifts) physical work in dangerous conditions (e.g., heat and pollution). Workers commonly enter these environments in a nonacclimated state, leading to fatigue and heightened injury risk. Strategies to improve tolerance to these stressors are lacking. Purpose: [...] Read more.
Wildland firefighting requires repetitive (e.g., consecutive work shifts) physical work in dangerous conditions (e.g., heat and pollution). Workers commonly enter these environments in a nonacclimated state, leading to fatigue and heightened injury risk. Strategies to improve tolerance to these stressors are lacking. Purpose: To determine if glutamine ingestion prior to and after consecutive days of firefighting simulations in the heat attenuates subjective ratings of fatigue, and evaluate if results were supported by glutamine-induced upregulation of biological stress responses. Methods: Participants (5 male, 3 female) ingested glutamine (0.15 g/kg/day) or a placebo before and after two consecutive days (separated by 24 h) of firefighter simulations in a heated chamber (35 °C, 35% humidity). Perceived fatigue and biological stress were measured pre-, post-, and 4 h postexercise in each trial. Results: Subjective fatigue was reduced pre-exercise on Day 2 in the glutamine group (p < 0.05). Peripheral mononuclear cell expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and serum antioxidants were elevated at 4 h postexercise on Day 1 in the glutamine trial (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Ingestion of glutamine before and after repeated firefighter simulations in the heat resulted in reduced subjective fatigue on Day 2, which may be a result of the upregulation of biological stress systems (antioxidants, HSPs). This response may support recovery and improve work performance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Experience as a Safety Factor in Driving; Methodological Considerations in a Sample of Bus Drivers
Safety 2019, 5(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5020037 - 13 Jun 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3491
Abstract
Experience is generally seen as an important factor for safe driving, but the exact size and details of this effect has never been meta-analytically described, despite a fair number of published results. However, the available data is heterogeneous concerning the methods used, which [...] Read more.
Experience is generally seen as an important factor for safe driving, but the exact size and details of this effect has never been meta-analytically described, despite a fair number of published results. However, the available data is heterogeneous concerning the methods used, which could lead to very different results. Such method effects can be difficult to identify in meta-analysis, and a within-study comparison might yield more reliable results. To test for the difference in effects between some different analytical methods, analyses of data on bus driver experience and crash involvement from a British company were conducted. Effects of within- and between-subjects analysis, non-linearity of effects, and direct and induced exposure methods were compared. Furthermore, changes in the environmental risk were investigated. Between-subject designs yielded smaller effects as compared to within-subjects designs, while non-linearity was not found. The type of exposure control applied had a strong influence on effects, as did differences in overall environmental risk between years. Apparently, “the effect of driving experience” means different things depending upon how calculations have been undertaken, at least for bus drivers. A full meta-analysis, taking several effects of methodology into account, is needed before it can be said that the effect of driving experience on crash involvement is well understood. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Occupational Tasks on Firefighter Hydration During a Live Structural Fire
Safety 2019, 5(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5020036 - 07 Jun 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3576
Abstract
Structural firefighting is a highly stressful occupation with firefighters performing intense bouts of physical activity in environmental extremes while wearing impermeable, heavy and restrictive personal protective equipment. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of performing occupational tasks during an [...] Read more.
Structural firefighting is a highly stressful occupation with firefighters performing intense bouts of physical activity in environmental extremes while wearing impermeable, heavy and restrictive personal protective equipment. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of performing occupational tasks during an active structural fire on firefighters’ hydration status. Nine fully qualified firefighters (mean ± SD age = 39.22 ± 7.89 years) completed a 15 min ‘live’ fire scenario while performing occupational tasks. Urine Specific Gravity (USG), body weight and tympanic membrane temperature were measured pre-scenario and at 0 and 20 min post-scenario. There was a significant decrease in body weight (0 min and 20 min p < 0.0005) and increase in tympanic membrane temperature (0 min and 20 min p < 0.0005) following the fire scenario. There was no significant change in USG post-scenario. Short duration firefighting operations can cause significant fluid loss, as measured by change in body weight but not necessarily USG. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Determinants of Safety Climate in the Professional Logging Industry
Safety 2019, 5(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5020035 - 27 May 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3665
Abstract
Work involving forest logging is considered one of the most dangerous occupations in the world. In the intermountain region of Montana and Idaho in the United States, the extreme terrain, remote location and severe weather conditions escalate risk. Although safety has improved through [...] Read more.
Work involving forest logging is considered one of the most dangerous occupations in the world. In the intermountain region of Montana and Idaho in the United States, the extreme terrain, remote location and severe weather conditions escalate risk. Although safety has improved through the development of mechanized equipment, logging tasks continue to be very hazardous. Thus, as with leading companies in other occupational sectors, logging enterprises are beginning to consider safety climate as a useful measure in their safety systems. The purpose of this study was to quantify safety climate within the logging industry of Montana, USA and to identify specific determinants of safety climate. A demographic, musculoskeletal symptom (MSS), and safety climate survey (NOSACQ-50) was administered to 743 professional loggers. Analyses were conducted to determine the association between demographic characteristics, MSS, workplace variables and the scores on five safety climate dimensions (management safety priority and ability, workers’ safety commitment, workers’ safety priority and risk non-acceptance, peer safety communication, learning and trust in safety ability, and workers’ trust in efficacy of safety systems). Variables identified as predictors of safety climate included logging system type, supervisory status, age, years of experience and reported MSS. As safety climate is a leading indicator of workplace safety, if work groups with the lowest safety climate scores can be identified, they could receive targeted safety intervention programs or resources; thereby directing resources to the groups who need it the most, without relying on lagging indicators such as injury and fatality rates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Safety and Health)
Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of a Road Safety Education Program Based on Driving Under Influence and Traffic Risks for Higher Secondary School Students in Belgium
Safety 2019, 5(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5020034 - 27 May 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3778
Abstract
Road safety education has been recognized as an instrument for reducing road accidents. This study aims to evaluate the road safety education program “Traffic Weeks” among higher secondary school students (age 16–19) in Belgium. The program focuses on driving under influence (DUI) and [...] Read more.
Road safety education has been recognized as an instrument for reducing road accidents. This study aims to evaluate the road safety education program “Traffic Weeks” among higher secondary school students (age 16–19) in Belgium. The program focuses on driving under influence (DUI) and traffic risks. This study investigates whether the program has an effect on socio-cognitive variables using a questionnaire based on the theory of planned behavior. During the pre-test, 445 students filled in the questionnaire, while 253 students filled in the questionnaire during the post-test. Of these, 175 questionnaires could be matched. The results indicate that the students already had quite a supportive view of road safety at pre-test, with female students showing a more supportive view of road safety than male students. The DUI workshop had a positive effect on most socio-cognitive variables (attitude, subjective norm-friends, and intention) of female students in general education, while the traffic risks workshop only affected perceived behavioral control of female students. In terms of appreciation, students had a significantly higher appreciation of the DUI workshop compared to the traffic risks workshop. During the focus groups, students gave recommendations to improve the program. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Work Accidents Correlation Analysis for Construction Projects in Northern Greece 2003–2007: A Retrospective Study
Safety 2019, 5(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5020033 - 27 May 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4345
Abstract
Construction project related accidents are critical events and it is imperative that they are analyzed in order to understand and identify their root causes. Therefore, the present study analyzes work accidents on construction projects in northern Greece. The methodological approach firstly includes the [...] Read more.
Construction project related accidents are critical events and it is imperative that they are analyzed in order to understand and identify their root causes. Therefore, the present study analyzes work accidents on construction projects in northern Greece. The methodological approach firstly includes the collection of accident related data from the “Greek Work Inspection Organization”, which is followed by a descriptive analysis and corresponding codification of available data. The next step includes the creation of an appropriate database in SPSS to accommodate all relevant data and subsequent correlation analysis that aims to identify potential trends and tendencies within the accidents’ sample. The findings highlight the most frequent occurrences regarding construction work related accidents and at the same time identify correlations among the various parameters associated with them. The majority of accidents include inexperienced personnel and workers in the age range of 24–44 years old. Moreover, most accidents occur during the summer and are not fatal. Falls are by far the dominant type of accident, and as a consequence, fractures are the most frequently occurring type of injury. Finally, most accidents occur in the morning, with injuries focusing on the lower parts of the body, and in the presence of general use equipment. The current paper also identified associations among various accident characteristics. These findings could help towards reducing the number and severity of work-related accidents. Improved construction site organization, accompanied by the dedication of management towards health and safety and more frequent inspections, could decrease the number and severity of accidents. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Study Regarding the Improvement of Bottling Process for Spring Waters, through the Implementation of the Occupational Health and Food Safety Requirements
Safety 2019, 5(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5020032 - 22 May 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3613
Abstract
The design, development and deployment, alongside with preventive maintenance of equipment helps with controlling safety issues in water bottling processes. However, these aspects are not-enough to prevent accidents; they must be closely related to the implementation of quality, occupational health and safety, and [...] Read more.
The design, development and deployment, alongside with preventive maintenance of equipment helps with controlling safety issues in water bottling processes. However, these aspects are not-enough to prevent accidents; they must be closely related to the implementation of quality, occupational health and safety, and food security standards. The approach presented in this paper was to show a summary of the assessment of the risks of injury and professional illness for all within the organization according to the ISO 45001:2018 standard. Also, a statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the occurrence of defects in different equipment in the technological process. The paper highlights the safety parameters of the spring water “Roua Apusenilor” namely the: organoleptic, physic-chemical and microbiological ones, according to the European legislation. A hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) generic model was developed for this process. In this case study, the analysis and assessment of hazards that may occur during processing was implemented for still water bottling stages, as was an identification of the critical control points, which include filtration and ozone water treatment. The HACCP principles, included in the ISO 22000:2018 standard, were applied in order to improve the food safety and security, to reduce the risks resulting from the consumption of “Roua Apusenilor” spring water and, also, for increasing customer confidence. The obtained results significantly relied upon the situation found in the industrial company used as a benchmark for the research. The analysis revealed that, considered safety standards OHSAS (ISO 45001) and HACCP (ISO 22000) share the same goal of safety production for safe food products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Development of Safety Production Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Alcohol Misuse Among Young Adults in Northern Italy
Safety 2019, 5(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5020031 - 21 May 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3532 | Retraction
Abstract
Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of heavy episodic drinking (HED), consumption patterns, protective and risk behaviours and motivations in a sample of young Italians with recent alcohol use. Design: Cross-sectional study. The target population was young people (18–29 years) living in the metropolitan [...] Read more.
Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of heavy episodic drinking (HED), consumption patterns, protective and risk behaviours and motivations in a sample of young Italians with recent alcohol use. Design: Cross-sectional study. The target population was young people (18–29 years) living in the metropolitan area of Bologna (Northern Italy). A mixed study design with quantitative and qualitative instruments was used. Findings: Four focus groups were held; 500 young people were interviewed. The results show ample alcohol misuse among youths and highlight a process of normalization of excess-oriented practices. Following single episodes of HED, almost all the interviewees experienced health problems or negative consequences in the fields of relations and social commitments. A particular group of habitual alcohol drinkers (frequent and repeated misuse) were identified with a high likelihood of encountering problematic situations and stated that their motivation for their last episode of HED was boredom and the search for psychoactive effects. From the current focus, it can be seen that those who take large quantities of alcoholic beverages do so to reach a state of inebriation. Young adults seem to be well-informed as to the psychoactive properties of alcoholic beverages and are aware of the related risks. Originality/value: A gradual loss of traditional references in the alcohol culture emerges among Italian youths. Future studies targeted at the cultural aspects of alcohol misuse are needed. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Role of Emotional Intelligence Factors in Workers’ Occupational Health and Safety Performance—A Case Study of the Petroleum Industry
Safety 2019, 5(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5020030 - 17 May 2019
Viewed by 4915
Abstract
Introduction: Despite improvements in occupational health and safety due to technological advancements and the adoption of management systems, accidents continue to occur in the oil and gas (O&G) industry. These accidents are often linked to human factors. The emotional intelligence (EI) of workers, [...] Read more.
Introduction: Despite improvements in occupational health and safety due to technological advancements and the adoption of management systems, accidents continue to occur in the oil and gas (O&G) industry. These accidents are often linked to human factors. The emotional intelligence (EI) of workers, however, has the potential to influence some of the human factors that predispose to accidents. Methods: In this study, we investigated how the EI factors of workers influence their health and safety performance in the work place. A total of 124 O&G industry workers completed a web-based questionnaire. Five and 14 key success factors of EI and effective occupational health and safety management systems were respectively identified through a systematic evaluation of the literature. Results: EI success factors of ‘being able to rule one’s own emotions to facilitate thinking’, ‘being able to deal with the emotions of others’ and ‘being able to discuss one’s own emotions accurately’ were found to have a relationship with health and safety performance of workers. Conclusion: The findings demonstrated that certain success factors of EI are vital for improving the health and safety performance of workers and that the development of these competencies should be part of the workers’ professional development. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Rare Event Modelling Approach to Assess Injury Severity Risk of Vulnerable Road Users
Safety 2019, 5(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5020029 - 07 May 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3750
Abstract
Vulnerable road users (VRUs) represent a large portion of fatalities and injuries occurring on European Union roads. It is therefore important to address the safety of VRUs, particularly in urban areas, by identifying which factors may affect the injury severity level that can [...] Read more.
Vulnerable road users (VRUs) represent a large portion of fatalities and injuries occurring on European Union roads. It is therefore important to address the safety of VRUs, particularly in urban areas, by identifying which factors may affect the injury severity level that can be used to develop countermeasures. This paper aims to identify the risk factors that affect the severity of a VRU injured when involved in a motor vehicle crash. For that purpose, a comparative evaluation of two machine learning classifiers—decision tree and logistic regression—considering three different resampling techniques (under-, over- and synthetic oversampling) is presented, comparing both imbalanced and balanced datasets. Crash data records were analyzed involving VRUs from three different cities in Portugal and six years (2012–2017). The main conclusion that can be drawn from this study is that oversampling techniques improve the ability of the classifiers to identify risk factors. On the one hand, this analysis revealed that road markings, road conditions and luminosity affect the injury severity of a pedestrian. On the other hand, age group and temporal variables (month, weekday and time period) showed to be relevant to predict the severity of a cyclist injury when involved in a crash. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Research on the Effects of the High Temperature and Humidity Environment on Human Comfort in Coal Mine Emergency Refuge System
Safety 2019, 5(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5020028 - 07 May 2019
Viewed by 3638
Abstract
A high temperature and humidity environment can be easily formed in a confined refuge system, which has a significant effect on the safety of refugees. Human survival experiments in a closed simulation chamber were carried out under high temperature and humidity conditions (the [...] Read more.
A high temperature and humidity environment can be easily formed in a confined refuge system, which has a significant effect on the safety of refugees. Human survival experiments in a closed simulation chamber were carried out under high temperature and humidity conditions (the temperature was above 27 °C and the relative humidity was above 70%). The asymmetrical five-grade scale method was used first, and human comfort voting data were collected from 35 groups under different temperature and humidity conditions. A non-linear trend of the effects of different temperature and humidity conditions on human comfort was obtained through analysis, and the boundary curves for different human comfort conditions in a closed refuge chamber were determined. At the same time, a function prediction model of the apparent temperature was established, which had instructive meaning for the study and design of the environment controls and life support system in a closed rescue space for different fields. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Adolescents’ Mobile Phone Use While Crossing the Road
Safety 2019, 5(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5020027 - 01 May 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4102
Abstract
Phones and other portable technology can be a distraction for pedestrians, affecting their ability to cross a road safely. This study focused on adolescents and investigated whether using a phone distracts attention while crossing the road. A field observation outside a secondary school [...] Read more.
Phones and other portable technology can be a distraction for pedestrians, affecting their ability to cross a road safely. This study focused on adolescents and investigated whether using a phone distracts attention while crossing the road. A field observation outside a secondary school in the north of England was carried out over a four-week period in 2018 with permission from the school. Observations included recording what accessories the pedestrian was carrying (phone, headphones or another electronic device) and their associated action (whether they were holding the device, speaking into a phone, looking at it, holding it to their ear or interacting with it manually). We observed whether the pedestrian looked (or failed to look) left and right before crossing the road, whether they crossed when the pedestrian light was on green or red, and whether they crossed within the cross-walk. We found that 31.37% of road crossings were made by adolescents with a phone or other device. They looked left and right before crossing less frequently when they had an electronic device with them, when looking at the screen and when texting or swiping. In conclusion, the safety of adolescent pedestrians is affected by mobile phones and music players. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Identifying Safety Training Resource Needs in the Cattle Feeding Industry in the Midwestern United States
Safety 2019, 5(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5020026 - 30 Apr 2019
Viewed by 4002
Abstract
Cattle feedyards are a high-risk environment. They are characterized by high rates of occupational injuries and illnesses. As such, there is a clear need to address the health and safety of cattle feedyard workers. Therefore, the purpose of this cross-sectional study was to [...] Read more.
Cattle feedyards are a high-risk environment. They are characterized by high rates of occupational injuries and illnesses. As such, there is a clear need to address the health and safety of cattle feedyard workers. Therefore, the purpose of this cross-sectional study was to explore safety training practices and preferences in the cattle feeding industry. A survey of feedyard managers, feedyard safety trainers, and feedyard operators was conducted (n = 28). We found that only half of respondents had dedicated safety personnel; however, there was interest in a safety training program, conducted through short hands-on and in-person methods with materials available in English and Spanish. The majority of participants were also interested in a feedyard safety certification program. Participants reaffirmed the importance of partnering with industry and other stakeholders when conducting these types of programs. The results of this Phase 1-type translational research study will be used to guide the development of feedyard safety trainings and a corresponding recognition program for feedyards and feedyard workers as part of the “Improving Safety and Health of Cattle Feedyard Workers” project. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Safety and Health)
Open AccessArticle
Lockout and Tagout in a Manufacturing Setting from a Situation Awareness Perspective
Safety 2019, 5(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5020025 - 29 Apr 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3762
Abstract
Applying lockouts during maintenance is intended to avoid accidental energy release, whereas tagging them out keeps employees aware of what is going on with the machine. In spite of regulations, serious accidents continue to occur due to lapses during lockout and tagout (LOTO) [...] Read more.
Applying lockouts during maintenance is intended to avoid accidental energy release, whereas tagging them out keeps employees aware of what is going on with the machine. In spite of regulations, serious accidents continue to occur due to lapses during lockout and tagout (LOTO) applications. Few studies have examined LOTO effectiveness from a user perspective. This article studies LOTO processes at a manufacturing organization from a situation awareness (SA) perspective. Technicians and machine operators were interviewed, a focus group discussion was conducted, and operators were observed. Qualitative content analysis revealed perceptual, comprehension and projection challenges associated with different phases of LOTO applications. The findings can help lockout/tagout device manufacturers and organizations that apply LOTO to achieve maximum protection. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Risk Analysis and Safer Layout Design Solutions for Bicycles in Four-Leg Urban Intersections
Safety 2019, 5(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5020024 - 27 Apr 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3678
Abstract
The road safety of vulnerable users is a current issue; in densely populated areas, the use of alternative and light mobility vehicles is growing in popularity, and their users conflict with vehicles having larger dimensions and masses. This study focuses on the risk [...] Read more.
The road safety of vulnerable users is a current issue; in densely populated areas, the use of alternative and light mobility vehicles is growing in popularity, and their users conflict with vehicles having larger dimensions and masses. This study focuses on the risk analysis of collision between bicyclists and motorized vehicles in urban intersections. Twenty-five urban four-leg intersections, with and without bike paths, were considered in order to identify the conflict points, calculate their hazardousness, and assess the risk of collision using a probabilistic approach. Traffic light setup, yield line retraction, design of areas, and counter-clockwise circulation reserved for bicyclists are the geometrical and functional approaches proposed to mitigate the risk of collision. Two risk-based approaches proposed by the authors were implemented—the first examines all identified conflict points, while the second assesses the risk condition of the overall intersection. The obtained results show that the number of conflict points varied between 32 and 112 and the risk of collision varied between 4.57 × 10−2 and 2.46 × 10−1. The proposed assessment allowed us to make an objective comparison between the possible layouts for various traffic mixes and design conditions, and to identify the most effective solutions. Significant differences in terms of risk were found. Each mitigation strategy should be motivated by a reasoned decision considering the different needs of all road users, traffic demand, and geometrical and functional constraints. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Active Surveillance of Musculoskeletal Disorder Symptoms in the Development of Safety Interventions for Professional Loggers
Safety 2019, 5(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5020023 - 25 Apr 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3643
Abstract
Logging is one of the most dangerous occupations in the world. Logging tasks, whether they consist of operating a chainsaw, operating a mechanized harvester, or driving logging trucks, have an influence on the types of hazards and injuries among professional loggers. Using the [...] Read more.
Logging is one of the most dangerous occupations in the world. Logging tasks, whether they consist of operating a chainsaw, operating a mechanized harvester, or driving logging trucks, have an influence on the types of hazards and injuries among professional loggers. Using the Standardized Nordic Questionnaire, we investigated the 12-month period prevalence of musculoskeletal disorder symptoms (MSS) among professional loggers in the mountainous region of Montana. We also differentiated the prevalence of MSS based on logging system-type accounting for demographic and workplace covariates. Based on data from 743 professional loggers in Montana, loggers using conventional felling practices with chainsaws were more than twice as likely to report MSS (Odds Ratio (OR): 2.24 (1.07–4.69)) than those using mechanized logging equipment. In addition, increased MSS scores were associated with conventional harvesting systems, increased years of experience, and increased BMI. The active surveillance of MSS among professional loggers in Montana resulted in recommendations for safety interventions. The safety interventions included a greater mechanization of logging tasks and early career training on the heavy equipment used in logging operations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Safety and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Enforcement of Off-Road Vehicle Laws in Iowa
Safety 2019, 5(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5020022 - 23 Apr 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3536
Abstract
Safety laws are among the most successful means of reducing injuries, but their effectiveness is strongly influenced by the level of enforcement. To characterize enforcement of off-road vehicle (ORV) laws statewide, analyses of citations were performed using Iowa Court Information System data. From [...] Read more.
Safety laws are among the most successful means of reducing injuries, but their effectiveness is strongly influenced by the level of enforcement. To characterize enforcement of off-road vehicle (ORV) laws statewide, analyses of citations were performed using Iowa Court Information System data. From 2005–2015, 5173 individuals were charged with 5643 citations issued. Citations averaged <5/county/year, decreased dramatically over time, and varied by county when normalized to registered all-terrain vehicles (ATVs). Over 90% of operators cited were male and Caucasian. One-fifth were <18 years old. The top five violations were: operation on a highway/snowmobile trail (51%), registration/identification number not documented/displayed (19%), prohibited use in a park/preserve (5.5%), and operation with more persons than the vehicle is designed to carry (4.4%). The Department of Natural Resources issued the highest percentage of citations, followed in decreasing order by Sheriff, Police, State Patrol, and Conservation officers. Significant differences were identified when citations were compared by sex, age, race, enforcement agency, disposition (guilty vs. not guilty), and when comparing counties with or without an ORV park. These characteristics suggest limited and variable enforcement of laws statewide that may reduce their potential to prevent deaths and injuries, and that improved strategies to support ORV law enforcement are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Terrain and Off-Highway Vehicle Safety)
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Open AccessArticle
Perceptions of Chemical Safety in Laboratories
Safety 2019, 5(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5020021 - 17 Apr 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3650
Abstract
This study investigates the state of the perceptions of chemical safety in laboratories among undergraduate students of the Biomedical Engineering and Pharmaceutical and Chemical Engineering departments at the German Jordanian University in Jordan. A cross-sectional survey was conducted anonymously with a random sample [...] Read more.
This study investigates the state of the perceptions of chemical safety in laboratories among undergraduate students of the Biomedical Engineering and Pharmaceutical and Chemical Engineering departments at the German Jordanian University in Jordan. A cross-sectional survey was conducted anonymously with a random sample size of 174 students. A questionnaire of 32 questions was designed with five sections: demographic data, familiarity of chemical hazard signs, attitude towards chemical laboratory safety, safety practices, and familiarity with emergency equipment and procedure. The descriptive statistics showed that students demonstrated fair to good familiarity and understanding of chemical hazard warning signs. Most students had poor to fair attitudes towards chemical laboratory safety; but the assessment of students’ chemical laboratory safety practices revealed fair to good practices. While students safety awareness and practices, but not attitude, at this university were acceptable, safety procedures need to be implemented within a more professional safety education and coherent risk and safety climate management. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Safety Culture among Private and Professional Drivers in Norway and Greece: Examining the Influence of National Road Safety Culture
Safety 2019, 5(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5020020 - 16 Apr 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3737
Abstract
While Norway had the lowest road mortality rate in Europe in 2017, Greece had one of the worst road safety records of all EU-27 countries. The present study investigates road safety culture (RSC) as an explanation for this discrepancy by: (1) Comparing the [...] Read more.
While Norway had the lowest road mortality rate in Europe in 2017, Greece had one of the worst road safety records of all EU-27 countries. The present study investigates road safety culture (RSC) as an explanation for this discrepancy by: (1) Comparing the road safety behaviours among professional and private drivers in Norway and Greece, (2) Examining factors influencing road safety behaviours, focusing especially on national road safety culture, and (3) Examining the influence of road safety behaviours and other factors (e.g., demographic and work-related variables) on accident involvement. This is done by comparing survey answers of private car (N = 796) and professional drivers (heavy goods vehicles and buses) in Norway and Greece (N = 416). Results from qualitative interviews (N = 61) are also presented. We study safety behaviours hypothesized to vary according to nationality (e.g., aggressive violations), and behaviours hypothesized to vary according to the professional versus private driver dimension (e.g., seat belt use). A central objective is to examine whether the former safety behaviours are more similar among private and professional drivers within countries than among professional and private drivers across national samples, indicating common national road safety cultures among private and professional drivers in the respective countries. The results indicate that aggressive violations are more similar among private and professional drivers within the national samples, than across the national samples, while seat belt use seems to vary according to the professional versus private dimension. The results also indicate a relationship between aggressive violations and accident involvement, although other variables were more strongly correlated. Moreover, drivers’ safety behaviours were influenced by the behaviours that these groups ascribed to other drivers in their countries, indicating the existence of different national road safety cultures. The Greek RSC was characterized by more aggression and violations than the Norwegian RSC, which seemed to be characterized by a higher level of compliance and politeness. The different RSCs may perhaps shed light on the different accident records in the two countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Safety and Security) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
A Controlled Experiment Investigating the Effects of Explanatory Manual on Adherence to Operating Procedures
Safety 2019, 5(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5020019 - 14 Apr 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3396
Abstract
Operators’ adherence to operating procedures is a crucial factor for process safety in the process industry. Instruction manuals that document Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) are commonly used both as training materials and references during operation. Traditional SOP manual design emphasized using simple step-by-step [...] Read more.
Operators’ adherence to operating procedures is a crucial factor for process safety in the process industry. Instruction manuals that document Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) are commonly used both as training materials and references during operation. Traditional SOP manual design emphasized using simple step-by-step instructions for how to do the tasks, but it often neglected the reasons why the steps and their specific orders should be closely followed. It is evident that operators sometimes choose to deviate from SOP intentionally if they do not understand the reasons and incorrectly deem the steps in the manual as slow or outdated. To help bridge the knowledge gap between SOP designers and operators, we advocate explanatory SOP manual design that adds the reasons for the steps in manual instructions. To examine the effect of explanatory manual, we conducted a controlled experiment using a hydraulic pump system that represented the wash operation in the electroplating industry. Participants’ performance and adherence to operating procedures (both Adherence to Production Order Procedures and Adherence to Wait Time) were measured and compared between the explanatory manual and the procedural manual conditions. The results showed that the explanatory manual had the benefit of increasing Adherence to Production Order Procedures, while time performance, Percent Duration within Bounds, and Adherence to Wait Time were not significantly affected. The finding supports the use of explanatory manuals because they have the potential to serve as an effective and economic way to improve operators’ adherence to operating procedures and process safety. Limitations of the laboratory setup were discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
How Much Practice Is Required to Reduce Performance Variability in a Virtual Reality Mining Simulator?
Safety 2019, 5(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5020018 - 13 Apr 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3401
Abstract
Virtual reality allows researchers to explore training scenarios that are not feasible or are potentially risky to recreate in the real world. The aim of this research was to examine whether using a tutorial session prior to using the mining simulator could adequately [...] Read more.
Virtual reality allows researchers to explore training scenarios that are not feasible or are potentially risky to recreate in the real world. The aim of this research was to examine whether using a tutorial session prior to using the mining simulator could adequately reduce the performance variability and increase the consistency of participant performance metrics. Eighteen participants were randomly assigned to a tutorial or a non-tutorial group. The tutorial group completed a five-minute tutorial that introduced them to the basics of the machine and virtual reality environment. All participants then completed five sessions in the simulator lasting five minutes each. Personality scores were recorded and participants answered questions to test their situational awareness after each session. Performance metrics such as number of collisions and perception response time were recorded by the simulator. A Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to determine at what point a significant difference in performance metrics was apparent across the five sessions. A mixed effects multilevel regression was done to evaluate the change in variability across time. There were no significant correlations between the personality questionnaire scores and the number of collisions or the perception response time. Both groups demonstrated high standard deviation scores for collisions and perception response time, but the tutorial group had decreasing variability across time. Both groups began to exhibit more consistent scores in the simulator after 10 min of use. Situational awareness questions require some refinement prior to further testing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mine Safety)
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