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Safety, Volume 5, Issue 2 (June 2019)

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Open AccessArticle
Study Regarding the Improvement of Bottling Process for Spring Waters, through the Implementation of the Occupational Health and Food Safety Requirements
Received: 30 December 2018 / Revised: 25 April 2019 / Accepted: 6 May 2019 / Published: 22 May 2019
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Abstract
The design, development and deployment, alongside with preventive maintenance of equipment helps with controlling safety issues in water bottling processes. However, these aspects are not-enough to prevent accidents; they must be closely related to the implementation of quality, occupational health and safety, and [...] Read more.
The design, development and deployment, alongside with preventive maintenance of equipment helps with controlling safety issues in water bottling processes. However, these aspects are not-enough to prevent accidents; they must be closely related to the implementation of quality, occupational health and safety, and food security standards. The approach presented in this paper was to show a summary of the assessment of the risks of injury and professional illness for all within the organization according to the ISO 45001:2018 standard. Also, a statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the occurrence of defects in different equipment in the technological process. The paper highlights the safety parameters of the spring water “Roua Apusenilor” namely the: organoleptic, physic-chemical and microbiological ones, according to the European legislation. A hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) generic model was developed for this process. In this case study, the analysis and assessment of hazards that may occur during processing was implemented for still water bottling stages, as was an identification of the critical control points, which include filtration and ozone water treatment. The HACCP principles, included in the ISO 22000:2018 standard, were applied in order to improve the food safety and security, to reduce the risks resulting from the consumption of “Roua Apusenilor” spring water and, also, for increasing customer confidence. The obtained results significantly relied upon the situation found in the industrial company used as a benchmark for the research. The analysis revealed that, considered safety standards OHSAS (ISO 45001) and HACCP (ISO 22000) share the same goal of safety production for safe food products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Development of Safety Production Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Alcohol Misuse Among Young Adults in Northern Italy
Received: 21 March 2019 / Revised: 10 May 2019 / Accepted: 15 May 2019 / Published: 21 May 2019
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Abstract
Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of heavy episodic drinking (HED), consumption patterns, protective and risk behaviours and motivations in a sample of young Italians with recent alcohol use. Design: Cross-sectional study. The target population was young people (18–29 years) living in the [...] Read more.
Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of heavy episodic drinking (HED), consumption patterns, protective and risk behaviours and motivations in a sample of young Italians with recent alcohol use. Design: Cross-sectional study. The target population was young people (18–29 years) living in the metropolitan area of Bologna (Northern Italy). A mixed study design with quantitative and qualitative instruments was used. Findings: Four focus groups were held; 500 young people were interviewed. The results show ample alcohol misuse among youths and highlight a process of normalization of excess-oriented practices. Following single episodes of HED, almost all the interviewees experienced health problems or negative consequences in the fields of relations and social commitments. A particular group of habitual alcohol drinkers (frequent and repeated misuse) were identified with a high likelihood of encountering problematic situations and stated that their motivation for their last episode of HED was boredom and the search for psychoactive effects. From the current focus, it can be seen that those who take large quantities of alcoholic beverages do so to reach a state of inebriation. Young adults seem to be well-informed as to the psychoactive properties of alcoholic beverages and are aware of the related risks. Originality/value: A gradual loss of traditional references in the alcohol culture emerges among Italian youths. Future studies targeted at the cultural aspects of alcohol misuse are needed. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Role of Emotional Intelligence Factors in Workers’ Occupational Health and Safety Performance—A Case Study of the Petroleum Industry
Received: 12 April 2019 / Revised: 9 May 2019 / Accepted: 10 May 2019 / Published: 17 May 2019
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Abstract
Introduction: Despite improvements in occupational health and safety due to technological advancements and the adoption of management systems, accidents continue to occur in the oil and gas (O&G) industry. These accidents are often linked to human factors. The emotional intelligence (EI) of workers, [...] Read more.
Introduction: Despite improvements in occupational health and safety due to technological advancements and the adoption of management systems, accidents continue to occur in the oil and gas (O&G) industry. These accidents are often linked to human factors. The emotional intelligence (EI) of workers, however, has the potential to influence some of the human factors that predispose to accidents. Methods: In this study, we investigated how the EI factors of workers influence their health and safety performance in the work place. A total of 124 O&G industry workers completed a web-based questionnaire. Five and 14 key success factors of EI and effective occupational health and safety management systems were respectively identified through a systematic evaluation of the literature. Results: EI success factors of ‘being able to rule one’s own emotions to facilitate thinking’, ‘being able to deal with the emotions of others’ and ‘being able to discuss one’s own emotions accurately’ were found to have a relationship with health and safety performance of workers. Conclusion: The findings demonstrated that certain success factors of EI are vital for improving the health and safety performance of workers and that the development of these competencies should be part of the workers’ professional development. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Rare Event Modelling Approach to Assess Injury Severity Risk of Vulnerable Road Users
Received: 12 March 2019 / Revised: 1 May 2019 / Accepted: 5 May 2019 / Published: 7 May 2019
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Abstract
Vulnerable road users (VRUs) represent a large portion of fatalities and injuries occurring on European Union roads. It is therefore important to address the safety of VRUs, particularly in urban areas, by identifying which factors may affect the injury severity level that can [...] Read more.
Vulnerable road users (VRUs) represent a large portion of fatalities and injuries occurring on European Union roads. It is therefore important to address the safety of VRUs, particularly in urban areas, by identifying which factors may affect the injury severity level that can be used to develop countermeasures. This paper aims to identify the risk factors that affect the severity of a VRU injured when involved in a motor vehicle crash. For that purpose, a comparative evaluation of two machine learning classifiers—decision tree and logistic regression—considering three different resampling techniques (under-, over- and synthetic oversampling) is presented, comparing both imbalanced and balanced datasets. Crash data records were analyzed involving VRUs from three different cities in Portugal and six years (2012–2017). The main conclusion that can be drawn from this study is that oversampling techniques improve the ability of the classifiers to identify risk factors. On the one hand, this analysis revealed that road markings, road conditions and luminosity affect the injury severity of a pedestrian. On the other hand, age group and temporal variables (month, weekday and time period) showed to be relevant to predict the severity of a cyclist injury when involved in a crash. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Research on the Effects of the High Temperature and Humidity Environment on Human Comfort in Coal Mine Emergency Refuge System
Received: 7 March 2019 / Revised: 20 April 2019 / Accepted: 23 April 2019 / Published: 7 May 2019
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Abstract
A high temperature and humidity environment can be easily formed in a confined refuge system, which has a significant effect on the safety of refugees. Human survival experiments in a closed simulation chamber were carried out under high temperature and humidity conditions (the [...] Read more.
A high temperature and humidity environment can be easily formed in a confined refuge system, which has a significant effect on the safety of refugees. Human survival experiments in a closed simulation chamber were carried out under high temperature and humidity conditions (the temperature was above 27 °C and the relative humidity was above 70%). The asymmetrical five-grade scale method was used first, and human comfort voting data were collected from 35 groups under different temperature and humidity conditions. A non-linear trend of the effects of different temperature and humidity conditions on human comfort was obtained through analysis, and the boundary curves for different human comfort conditions in a closed refuge chamber were determined. At the same time, a function prediction model of the apparent temperature was established, which had instructive meaning for the study and design of the environment controls and life support system in a closed rescue space for different fields. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Adolescents’ Mobile Phone Use While Crossing the Road
Received: 18 March 2019 / Revised: 17 April 2019 / Accepted: 23 April 2019 / Published: 1 May 2019
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Abstract
Phones and other portable technology can be a distraction for pedestrians, affecting their ability to cross a road safely. This study focused on adolescents and investigated whether using a phone distracts attention while crossing the road. A field observation outside a secondary school [...] Read more.
Phones and other portable technology can be a distraction for pedestrians, affecting their ability to cross a road safely. This study focused on adolescents and investigated whether using a phone distracts attention while crossing the road. A field observation outside a secondary school in the north of England was carried out over a four-week period in 2018 with permission from the school. Observations included recording what accessories the pedestrian was carrying (phone, headphones or another electronic device) and their associated action (whether they were holding the device, speaking into a phone, looking at it, holding it to their ear or interacting with it manually). We observed whether the pedestrian looked (or failed to look) left and right before crossing the road, whether they crossed when the pedestrian light was on green or red, and whether they crossed within the cross-walk. We found that 31.37% of road crossings were made by adolescents with a phone or other device. They looked left and right before crossing less frequently when they had an electronic device with them, when looking at the screen and when texting or swiping. In conclusion, the safety of adolescent pedestrians is affected by mobile phones and music players. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Identifying Safety Training Resource Needs in the Cattle Feeding Industry in the Midwestern United States
Received: 31 March 2019 / Revised: 23 April 2019 / Accepted: 30 April 2019 / Published: 30 April 2019
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Abstract
Cattle feedyards are a high-risk environment. They are characterized by high rates of occupational injuries and illnesses. As such, there is a clear need to address the health and safety of cattle feedyard workers. Therefore, the purpose of this cross-sectional study was to [...] Read more.
Cattle feedyards are a high-risk environment. They are characterized by high rates of occupational injuries and illnesses. As such, there is a clear need to address the health and safety of cattle feedyard workers. Therefore, the purpose of this cross-sectional study was to explore safety training practices and preferences in the cattle feeding industry. A survey of feedyard managers, feedyard safety trainers, and feedyard operators was conducted (n = 28). We found that only half of respondents had dedicated safety personnel; however, there was interest in a safety training program, conducted through short hands-on and in-person methods with materials available in English and Spanish. The majority of participants were also interested in a feedyard safety certification program. Participants reaffirmed the importance of partnering with industry and other stakeholders when conducting these types of programs. The results of this Phase 1-type translational research study will be used to guide the development of feedyard safety trainings and a corresponding recognition program for feedyards and feedyard workers as part of the “Improving Safety and Health of Cattle Feedyard Workers” project. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Safety and Health)
Open AccessArticle
Lockout and Tagout in a Manufacturing Setting from a Situation Awareness Perspective
Received: 1 April 2019 / Revised: 19 April 2019 / Accepted: 25 April 2019 / Published: 29 April 2019
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Abstract
Applying lockouts during maintenance is intended to avoid accidental energy release, whereas tagging them out keeps employees aware of what is going on with the machine. In spite of regulations, serious accidents continue to occur due to lapses during lockout and tagout (LOTO) [...] Read more.
Applying lockouts during maintenance is intended to avoid accidental energy release, whereas tagging them out keeps employees aware of what is going on with the machine. In spite of regulations, serious accidents continue to occur due to lapses during lockout and tagout (LOTO) applications. Few studies have examined LOTO effectiveness from a user perspective. This article studies LOTO processes at a manufacturing organization from a situation awareness (SA) perspective. Technicians and machine operators were interviewed, a focus group discussion was conducted, and operators were observed. Qualitative content analysis revealed perceptual, comprehension and projection challenges associated with different phases of LOTO applications. The findings can help lockout/tagout device manufacturers and organizations that apply LOTO to achieve maximum protection. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Risk Analysis and Safer Layout Design Solutions for Bicycles in Four-Leg Urban Intersections
Received: 28 December 2018 / Revised: 11 April 2019 / Accepted: 25 April 2019 / Published: 27 April 2019
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Abstract
The road safety of vulnerable users is a current issue; in densely populated areas, the use of alternative and light mobility vehicles is growing in popularity, and their users conflict with vehicles having larger dimensions and masses. This study focuses on the risk [...] Read more.
The road safety of vulnerable users is a current issue; in densely populated areas, the use of alternative and light mobility vehicles is growing in popularity, and their users conflict with vehicles having larger dimensions and masses. This study focuses on the risk analysis of collision between bicyclists and motorized vehicles in urban intersections. Twenty-five urban four-leg intersections, with and without bike paths, were considered in order to identify the conflict points, calculate their hazardousness, and assess the risk of collision using a probabilistic approach. Traffic light setup, yield line retraction, design of areas, and counter-clockwise circulation reserved for bicyclists are the geometrical and functional approaches proposed to mitigate the risk of collision. Two risk-based approaches proposed by the authors were implemented—the first examines all identified conflict points, while the second assesses the risk condition of the overall intersection. The obtained results show that the number of conflict points varied between 32 and 112 and the risk of collision varied between 4.57 × 10−2 and 2.46 × 10−1. The proposed assessment allowed us to make an objective comparison between the possible layouts for various traffic mixes and design conditions, and to identify the most effective solutions. Significant differences in terms of risk were found. Each mitigation strategy should be motivated by a reasoned decision considering the different needs of all road users, traffic demand, and geometrical and functional constraints. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Active Surveillance of Musculoskeletal Disorder Symptoms in the Development of Safety Interventions for Professional Loggers
Received: 9 March 2019 / Revised: 11 April 2019 / Accepted: 17 April 2019 / Published: 25 April 2019
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Abstract
Logging is one of the most dangerous occupations in the world. Logging tasks, whether they consist of operating a chainsaw, operating a mechanized harvester, or driving logging trucks, have an influence on the types of hazards and injuries among professional loggers. Using the [...] Read more.
Logging is one of the most dangerous occupations in the world. Logging tasks, whether they consist of operating a chainsaw, operating a mechanized harvester, or driving logging trucks, have an influence on the types of hazards and injuries among professional loggers. Using the Standardized Nordic Questionnaire, we investigated the 12-month period prevalence of musculoskeletal disorder symptoms (MSS) among professional loggers in the mountainous region of Montana. We also differentiated the prevalence of MSS based on logging system-type accounting for demographic and workplace covariates. Based on data from 743 professional loggers in Montana, loggers using conventional felling practices with chainsaws were more than twice as likely to report MSS (Odds Ratio (OR): 2.24 (1.07–4.69)) than those using mechanized logging equipment. In addition, increased MSS scores were associated with conventional harvesting systems, increased years of experience, and increased BMI. The active surveillance of MSS among professional loggers in Montana resulted in recommendations for safety interventions. The safety interventions included a greater mechanization of logging tasks and early career training on the heavy equipment used in logging operations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Safety and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Enforcement of Off-Road Vehicle Laws in Iowa
Received: 22 February 2019 / Revised: 28 March 2019 / Accepted: 17 April 2019 / Published: 23 April 2019
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Abstract
Safety laws are among the most successful means of reducing injuries, but their effectiveness is strongly influenced by the level of enforcement. To characterize enforcement of off-road vehicle (ORV) laws statewide, analyses of citations were performed using Iowa Court Information System data. From [...] Read more.
Safety laws are among the most successful means of reducing injuries, but their effectiveness is strongly influenced by the level of enforcement. To characterize enforcement of off-road vehicle (ORV) laws statewide, analyses of citations were performed using Iowa Court Information System data. From 2005–2015, 5173 individuals were charged with 5643 citations issued. Citations averaged <5/county/year, decreased dramatically over time, and varied by county when normalized to registered all-terrain vehicles (ATVs). Over 90% of operators cited were male and Caucasian. One-fifth were <18 years old. The top five violations were: operation on a highway/snowmobile trail (51%), registration/identification number not documented/displayed (19%), prohibited use in a park/preserve (5.5%), and operation with more persons than the vehicle is designed to carry (4.4%). The Department of Natural Resources issued the highest percentage of citations, followed in decreasing order by Sheriff, Police, State Patrol, and Conservation officers. Significant differences were identified when citations were compared by sex, age, race, enforcement agency, disposition (guilty vs. not guilty), and when comparing counties with or without an ORV park. These characteristics suggest limited and variable enforcement of laws statewide that may reduce their potential to prevent deaths and injuries, and that improved strategies to support ORV law enforcement are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Terrain and Off-Highway Vehicle Safety)
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Open AccessArticle
Perceptions of Chemical Safety in Laboratories
Received: 4 March 2019 / Revised: 10 April 2019 / Accepted: 17 April 2019 / Published: 17 April 2019
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Abstract
This study investigates the state of the perceptions of chemical safety in laboratories among undergraduate students of the Biomedical Engineering and Pharmaceutical and Chemical Engineering departments at the German Jordanian University in Jordan. A cross-sectional survey was conducted anonymously with a random sample [...] Read more.
This study investigates the state of the perceptions of chemical safety in laboratories among undergraduate students of the Biomedical Engineering and Pharmaceutical and Chemical Engineering departments at the German Jordanian University in Jordan. A cross-sectional survey was conducted anonymously with a random sample size of 174 students. A questionnaire of 32 questions was designed with five sections: demographic data, familiarity of chemical hazard signs, attitude towards chemical laboratory safety, safety practices, and familiarity with emergency equipment and procedure. The descriptive statistics showed that students demonstrated fair to good familiarity and understanding of chemical hazard warning signs. Most students had poor to fair attitudes towards chemical laboratory safety; but the assessment of students’ chemical laboratory safety practices revealed fair to good practices. While students safety awareness and practices, but not attitude, at this university were acceptable, safety procedures need to be implemented within a more professional safety education and coherent risk and safety climate management. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Safety Culture among Private and Professional Drivers in Norway and Greece: Examining the Influence of National Road Safety Culture
Received: 1 February 2019 / Revised: 28 March 2019 / Accepted: 2 April 2019 / Published: 16 April 2019
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Abstract
While Norway had the lowest road mortality rate in Europe in 2017, Greece had one of the worst road safety records of all EU-27 countries. The present study investigates road safety culture (RSC) as an explanation for this discrepancy by: (1) Comparing the [...] Read more.
While Norway had the lowest road mortality rate in Europe in 2017, Greece had one of the worst road safety records of all EU-27 countries. The present study investigates road safety culture (RSC) as an explanation for this discrepancy by: (1) Comparing the road safety behaviours among professional and private drivers in Norway and Greece, (2) Examining factors influencing road safety behaviours, focusing especially on national road safety culture, and (3) Examining the influence of road safety behaviours and other factors (e.g., demographic and work-related variables) on accident involvement. This is done by comparing survey answers of private car (N = 796) and professional drivers (heavy goods vehicles and buses) in Norway and Greece (N = 416). Results from qualitative interviews (N = 61) are also presented. We study safety behaviours hypothesized to vary according to nationality (e.g., aggressive violations), and behaviours hypothesized to vary according to the professional versus private driver dimension (e.g., seat belt use). A central objective is to examine whether the former safety behaviours are more similar among private and professional drivers within countries than among professional and private drivers across national samples, indicating common national road safety cultures among private and professional drivers in the respective countries. The results indicate that aggressive violations are more similar among private and professional drivers within the national samples, than across the national samples, while seat belt use seems to vary according to the professional versus private dimension. The results also indicate a relationship between aggressive violations and accident involvement, although other variables were more strongly correlated. Moreover, drivers’ safety behaviours were influenced by the behaviours that these groups ascribed to other drivers in their countries, indicating the existence of different national road safety cultures. The Greek RSC was characterized by more aggression and violations than the Norwegian RSC, which seemed to be characterized by a higher level of compliance and politeness. The different RSCs may perhaps shed light on the different accident records in the two countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Safety and Security)
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Open AccessArticle
A Controlled Experiment Investigating the Effects of Explanatory Manual on Adherence to Operating Procedures
Received: 20 February 2019 / Revised: 4 April 2019 / Accepted: 9 April 2019 / Published: 14 April 2019
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Abstract
Operators’ adherence to operating procedures is a crucial factor for process safety in the process industry. Instruction manuals that document Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) are commonly used both as training materials and references during operation. Traditional SOP manual design emphasized using simple step-by-step [...] Read more.
Operators’ adherence to operating procedures is a crucial factor for process safety in the process industry. Instruction manuals that document Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) are commonly used both as training materials and references during operation. Traditional SOP manual design emphasized using simple step-by-step instructions for how to do the tasks, but it often neglected the reasons why the steps and their specific orders should be closely followed. It is evident that operators sometimes choose to deviate from SOP intentionally if they do not understand the reasons and incorrectly deem the steps in the manual as slow or outdated. To help bridge the knowledge gap between SOP designers and operators, we advocate explanatory SOP manual design that adds the reasons for the steps in manual instructions. To examine the effect of explanatory manual, we conducted a controlled experiment using a hydraulic pump system that represented the wash operation in the electroplating industry. Participants’ performance and adherence to operating procedures (both Adherence to Production Order Procedures and Adherence to Wait Time) were measured and compared between the explanatory manual and the procedural manual conditions. The results showed that the explanatory manual had the benefit of increasing Adherence to Production Order Procedures, while time performance, Percent Duration within Bounds, and Adherence to Wait Time were not significantly affected. The finding supports the use of explanatory manuals because they have the potential to serve as an effective and economic way to improve operators’ adherence to operating procedures and process safety. Limitations of the laboratory setup were discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
How Much Practice Is Required to Reduce Performance Variability in a Virtual Reality Mining Simulator?
Received: 11 December 2018 / Revised: 25 March 2019 / Accepted: 1 April 2019 / Published: 13 April 2019
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Abstract
Virtual reality allows researchers to explore training scenarios that are not feasible or are potentially risky to recreate in the real world. The aim of this research was to examine whether using a tutorial session prior to using the mining simulator could adequately [...] Read more.
Virtual reality allows researchers to explore training scenarios that are not feasible or are potentially risky to recreate in the real world. The aim of this research was to examine whether using a tutorial session prior to using the mining simulator could adequately reduce the performance variability and increase the consistency of participant performance metrics. Eighteen participants were randomly assigned to a tutorial or a non-tutorial group. The tutorial group completed a five-minute tutorial that introduced them to the basics of the machine and virtual reality environment. All participants then completed five sessions in the simulator lasting five minutes each. Personality scores were recorded and participants answered questions to test their situational awareness after each session. Performance metrics such as number of collisions and perception response time were recorded by the simulator. A Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to determine at what point a significant difference in performance metrics was apparent across the five sessions. A mixed effects multilevel regression was done to evaluate the change in variability across time. There were no significant correlations between the personality questionnaire scores and the number of collisions or the perception response time. Both groups demonstrated high standard deviation scores for collisions and perception response time, but the tutorial group had decreasing variability across time. Both groups began to exhibit more consistent scores in the simulator after 10 min of use. Situational awareness questions require some refinement prior to further testing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mine Safety)
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