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Safety, Volume 4, Issue 2 (June 2018)

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Lessons Learned from Implementing a Programme of Home Modifications to Prevent Falls amongst the General Population
Received: 15 May 2018 / Revised: 8 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
Home fall injuries amongst the general population are common and costly. In the Home Injury Prevention Intervention (HIPI) trial, we showed that 26% of medically treated home fall injuries could be prevented by a package of home modifications undertaken by qualified builders. This
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Home fall injuries amongst the general population are common and costly. In the Home Injury Prevention Intervention (HIPI) trial, we showed that 26% of medically treated home fall injuries could be prevented by a package of home modifications undertaken by qualified builders. This paper describes how we addressed unexpected safety issues associated with the implementation of the programme. Following the intervention, we ensured that participants could contact the builders. We monitored any problems or issues over a two-year period. We also held public meetings to explain the results of the study and record participants’ comments about the trial. Generally, people were satisfied with the modifications. However, there were clear safety issues with particular modifications and we revisited homes to address these. These findings highlight the need to allocate some resources for monitoring and remediation work to follow up interventions, and also a need for some regulation of the quality of safety products. Full article
Open AccessArticle A National Pragmatic Safety Limit for Nuclear Weapon Quantities
Received: 15 February 2018 / Revised: 4 May 2018 / Accepted: 6 June 2018 / Published: 14 June 2018
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Abstract
This study determines the nuclear pragmatic limit where the direct physical negative consequences of nuclear weapons use are counter to national interests, by assuming all unknowns are conservatively optimistic. The only effect considered is nuclear winter (“nuclear autumn” in the low weapons limits)
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This study determines the nuclear pragmatic limit where the direct physical negative consequences of nuclear weapons use are counter to national interests, by assuming all unknowns are conservatively optimistic. The only effect considered is nuclear winter (“nuclear autumn” in the low weapons limits) and the resultant effects on the aggressor nation. First, the ability of low nuclear weapon limits is probed for maintaining deterrence in the worst-case scenario of attacking the most-populous nation. Second, the ability of aggressor nations to feed themselves is assessed without trade and industry resultant from a nuclear attack causing “nuclear autumn” (10% global agricultural shortfall). Third, the best-case wealthy aggressor nation with abundant arable land is analyzed for starvation and economic impacts given 7000, 1000, and 100 nuclear weapons scenarios. The results found that 100 nuclear warheads is adequate for nuclear deterrence in the worst case scenario, while using more than 100 nuclear weapons by any aggressor nation (including the best positioned strategically to handle the unintended consequences) even with optimistic assumptions (including no retaliation) would cause unacceptable damage to their own society. Thus, 100 nuclear warheads is the pragmatic limit and use of government funds to maintain more than 100 nuclear weapons does not appear to be rational. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Why Do Workers Take Safety Risks?—A Conceptual Model for the Motivation Underpinning Perverse Agency
Received: 8 May 2018 / Revised: 5 June 2018 / Accepted: 8 June 2018 / Published: 11 June 2018
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Abstract
Exposure to chronic harm is difficult to manage and prevent in industry. There is a need to better understand the state of mind when workers disregard safety processes and expose themselves to this type of risk. This paper develops a theoretical model of
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Exposure to chronic harm is difficult to manage and prevent in industry. There is a need to better understand the state of mind when workers disregard safety processes and expose themselves to this type of risk. This paper develops a theoretical model of the reason why workers voluntarily expose themselves to occupational health and safety (OHS) hazards. This Risk, Agency, and Safety & Health (RASH) model proposes that people willingly expose themselves to chronic injuries via a series of risk-taking processes. This causal chain starts with personal motivation and over-alignment with organisational purpose (including impression management). Ideally, that motivation would be moderated by an ability to predict future harm consequences from the task at hand, but that mechanism is weak because it is difficult to predict cause and effect, the consequences are too far in the future, and the opportunities for vicarious learning are few. The motivation then causes misdirected creativity, hence the development of personally novel ways of solving the problem, albeit with greater risk of harm. Perverse agency then sustains actions that exposure the person to harm. Original contributions are the provision of a detailed explanation for risk-taking, and the integration of multiple well-established psychological constructs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Ultralight Accidents in the US, UK, and Portugal
Received: 7 March 2018 / Revised: 28 May 2018 / Accepted: 31 May 2018 / Published: 3 June 2018
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Abstract
Ultralight accidents are reported to be more severe compared to those in other categories of sports aviation. In the absence of denominator data in the United States (US) but addressing a continuing concern in general aviation safety, this study gives a comparison between
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Ultralight accidents are reported to be more severe compared to those in other categories of sports aviation. In the absence of denominator data in the United States (US) but addressing a continuing concern in general aviation safety, this study gives a comparison between ultralight accidents in the US, the United Kingdom (UK) and Portugal. For the period 2000–2010, 35 accidents occurred in Portugal, 252 in the UK and 20 in the US. They were compared for their proportionate number of fatal accidents, their main causes, and the characteristics of the pilots. The UK showed a significantly smaller proportionate number of fatal accidents compared to that of the US and Portugal. The proportionate number of destroyed aircraft was significantly higher in Portugal than in the US, with the UK showing an even smaller percentage. The general profile of the pilots did not differ notably, but the types of causes were more often attributed to pilot error or piloting technique in Portugal compared to the other two countries. While the proportionate number of fatalities is a strong indicator of the differences between the three countries, the varying reporting traditions and regulations preclude a direct comparison. Nevertheless, based on these data, the concern for ultralight safety in the US has not diminished since previous studies. Although the concerns are similar to those raised for Portugal, US ultralight safety may benefit from practices in the UK. Full article
Open AccessArticle Developing a Highway Rail Grade Crossing Accident Probability Prediction Model: A North Dakota Case Study
Received: 23 February 2018 / Revised: 30 April 2018 / Accepted: 17 May 2018 / Published: 18 May 2018
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Abstract
Safety at highway rail grade crossings (HRCs) continues to be a serious concern despite improved safety practices. Accident frequencies remain high despite increasing emphasis on HRCs safety. Consequently, there is a need to re-examine both the design practices and the safety evaluation methods
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Safety at highway rail grade crossings (HRCs) continues to be a serious concern despite improved safety practices. Accident frequencies remain high despite increasing emphasis on HRCs safety. Consequently, there is a need to re-examine both the design practices and the safety evaluation methods at HRCs. Previous studies developed accident prediction models by incorporating highway, crossing inventory, rail, and vehicle traffic characteristics, but none of these factors considered population in the vicinity of HRCs. This study developed a binary logit regression model to predict accident likelihood at HRCs by incorporating various contributory factors in addition to population (based on census blocks 2010) within five miles of crossings. Previous North Dakota accident data from 2000 to 2016 was analyzed and used in the model development. The model results show that the number of daily trains, the maximum typical train speed, the number of through railroad tracks, and the number of highway/traffic lanes all affect accident likelihood. The presence of pavement markings in the form of stop lines helps reduce accident probability, while populations within five miles of HRCs have a positive relationship with crash likelihood. This study will help transportation agencies improve HRC safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design for Transport Safety)
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Open AccessArticle Designing and Developing an Effective Safety Program for a Student Project Team
Received: 24 August 2017 / Revised: 19 April 2018 / Accepted: 2 May 2018 / Published: 9 May 2018
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Abstract
In the workplace, safety must be the first priority of all employers and employees alike. In order to maintain the safety and well-being of their employees, employers must demonstrate due diligence and provide the appropriate safety training to familiarize employees with the hazards
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In the workplace, safety must be the first priority of all employers and employees alike. In order to maintain the safety and well-being of their employees, employers must demonstrate due diligence and provide the appropriate safety training to familiarize employees with the hazards within the workplace. Although, a student “project team” is not a business, the work done by students for their respective teams is synonymous with the work done in a place of business and thus requires that similar safety precautions and training be administered to students by their team leads and faculty advisors. They take on the role of supervisors within the team dynamic. Student teams often utilize the guidelines and policies that their universities or colleges have developed in order to build a set of standard operating procedures and safety training modules. These guidelines aid in providing a base for training for the team, however, they are no substitute for training specific to the safety risks associated with the work the team is doing. In order to comply with these requirements, a full analysis of the workplace is required to be completed. A variety of safety analysis techniques need to be applied to define the hazards within the workplace and institute appropriate measures to mitigate them. In this work, a process is developed for establishing a safety training program for a student project team, utilizing systems safety management techniques and the aspect of gamification to produce incentives for students to continue developing their skills. Although, systems safety management is typically applied to the design of active safety components or systems, the techniques for identifying and mitigating hazards can be applied in the same fashion to the workplace. They allow one to analyze their workplace and determine the hazards their employees might encounter, assign appropriate hazard ratings and segregate each respective hazard by their risks. In so doing, safety level assignment can be completed to ensure team members are trained to be able to work on the systems associated with a given risk level. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Pedestrian Injury Severity Analysis in Motor Vehicle Crashes in Ohio
Received: 3 April 2018 / Revised: 26 April 2018 / Accepted: 28 April 2018 / Published: 7 May 2018
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Abstract
According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 116 pedestrians were killed in motor vehicle crashes in Ohio in 2015. However, no study to date has analyzed crashes in Ohio in order to explore the factors contributing to the pedestrian injury severity resulting
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According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 116 pedestrians were killed in motor vehicle crashes in Ohio in 2015. However, no study to date has analyzed crashes in Ohio in order to explore the factors contributing to the pedestrian injury severity resulting from motor vehicle crashes. This study fills this gap by investigating the crashes involving pedestrians exclusively in Ohio. This study uses the crash data from the Highway Safety Information System, from 2009 to 2013. The explanatory factors include the pedestrian, driver, vehicle, crash, and roadway characteristics. Both fixed- and random-parameters ordered probit models of injury severity (where possible outcomes are major, minor, and possible/no injury) were estimated. The model results indicate that older pedestrian (65 and over), younger driver (less than 24), driving under influence (DUI), struck by truck, dark-unlighted roadways, six-lane roadways, and speed limits of 40 mph and 50 mph were all factors associated with more severe injuries to the pedestrians. Conversely, older driver (65 and over), passenger car, crash occurring in urban locations, daytime traffic off-peak (10 a.m. to 3:59 p.m.), weekdays, and daylight condition were all factors associated with less severe injuries. This study provides specific safety recommendations so that effective countermeasures can be developed and implemented by policy makers, which in turn will improve overall highway safety. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Framework Based on a Systems Approach to Developing Safety Indicators in Fish Farming
Received: 7 February 2018 / Revised: 11 April 2018 / Accepted: 13 April 2018 / Published: 2 May 2018
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Abstract
The fish farming industry is one of the industries in Norway with the highest occupational fatality and injury rate. Despite the serious health, safety, and environmental issues in the industry, little is done to measure changes in safety over time beyond the traditional
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The fish farming industry is one of the industries in Norway with the highest occupational fatality and injury rate. Despite the serious health, safety, and environmental issues in the industry, little is done to measure changes in safety over time beyond the traditional Lost Time Injury (LTI) registrations. In this article the objective is twofold; (i) to propose a framework for developing safety indicators based on Systems-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA), and (ii) to apply the framework to find indicators relevant for hazards in operations where subcontractors participate. STPA uses a hierarchical portrayal of the system in focus, in contrast to sequential models, and views safety as a control problem. It is believed that a systemic approach to indicator development better captures the complex safety challenges in aquaculture. Thirteen indicators are identified within areas such as maintenance, training, and planning. The indicators identified may function as a basis for decisions and actions that must be undertaken to ensure safe operations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a Gaze-Based Training Intervention on Latent Hazard Anticipation Skills for Young Drivers: A Driving Simulator Study
Received: 9 October 2017 / Revised: 20 March 2018 / Accepted: 8 April 2018 / Published: 23 April 2018
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Abstract
A PC-based training program (Road Awareness and Perception Training or RAPT; Pradhan et al., 2009), proven effective for improving young novice drivers’ hazard anticipation skills, did not fully maximize the hazard anticipation performance of young drivers despite the use of similar anticipation scenarios
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A PC-based training program (Road Awareness and Perception Training or RAPT; Pradhan et al., 2009), proven effective for improving young novice drivers’ hazard anticipation skills, did not fully maximize the hazard anticipation performance of young drivers despite the use of similar anticipation scenarios in both, the training and the evaluation drives. The current driving simulator experiment examined the additive effects of expert eye movement videos following RAPT training on young drivers’ hazard anticipation performance compared to video-only and RAPT-only conditions. The study employed a between-subject design in which 36 young participants (aged 18–21) were equally and randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions, were outfitted with an eye tracker and drove four unique scenarios on a driving simulator to evaluate the effect of treatment on their anticipation skills. The results indicate that the young participants that viewed the videos of expert eye movements following the completion of RAPT showed significant improvements in their hazard anticipation ability (85%) on the subsequent experimental evaluation drives compared to those young drivers who were only exposed to either the RAPT training (61%) or the Video (43%). The results further imply that videos of expert eye movements shown immediately after RAPT training may improve the drivers’ anticipation skills by helping them map and integrate the spatial and tactical knowledge gained in a training program within dynamic driving environments involving latent hazards. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Weibull Approach for Enabling Safety-Oriented Decision-Making for Electronic Railway Signaling Systems
Received: 19 April 2017 / Revised: 24 March 2018 / Accepted: 5 April 2018 / Published: 16 April 2018
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Abstract
This paper presents the advantages of using Weibull distributions, within the context of railway signaling systems, for enabling safety-oriented decision-making. Failure rates are used to statistically model the basic event of fault-tree analysis, and their value sizes the maximum allowable latency of failures
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This paper presents the advantages of using Weibull distributions, within the context of railway signaling systems, for enabling safety-oriented decision-making. Failure rates are used to statistically model the basic event of fault-tree analysis, and their value sizes the maximum allowable latency of failures to fulfill the safety target for which the system has been designed. Relying on field-return failure data, Weibull parameters have been calculated for an existing electronic signaling system and a comparison with existing predictive reliability data, based on exponential distribution, is provided. Results are discussed in order to drive considerations on the respect of quantitative targets and on the impact that a wrong hypothesis might have on the choice of a given architecture. Despite the huge amount of information gathered through the after-sales logbook used to build reliability distribution, several key elements for reliable estimation of failure rate values are still missing. This might affect the uncertainty of reliability parameters and the effort required to collect all the information. We then present how to intervene when operational failure rates present higher values compared to the theoretical approach: increasing the redundancies of the system or performing preventive maintenance tasks. Possible consequences of unjustified adoption of constant failure rate are presented. Some recommendations are also shared in order to build reliability-oriented logbooks and avoid data censoring phenomena by enhancing the functions of the electronic boards composing the system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safe Mobility of Rail Vehicles)
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Open AccessArticle Preventing Tire Blowout Accidents: A Perspective on Factors Affecting Drivers’ Intention to Adopt Tire Pressure Monitoring System
Received: 8 February 2018 / Revised: 31 March 2018 / Accepted: 5 April 2018 / Published: 9 April 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this study is to explore whether risk perception or anticipated regret is responsible for intensifying the participants’ intention to adopt a tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS) to prevent a tire-related accident, and whether the optimism bias has a moderator effect
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The aim of this study is to explore whether risk perception or anticipated regret is responsible for intensifying the participants’ intention to adopt a tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS) to prevent a tire-related accident, and whether the optimism bias has a moderator effect between risk perception/anticipated regret and intention. With 274 valid questionnaires and PLS-SEM (partial least squares structural equation modeling) analysis, the results indicate a significant positive relationship between risk perception and intention to adopt TPMS, but not between anticipated regret and intention. The moderator effect of optimism bias on risk perception and anticipated regret is not found in the model. The findings will prove useful for public service advertising campaigns by providing a basis for an understanding of the role of cognitive and emotional factors in tire-blowout accident prevention, thereby increasing the motivation for drivers in Taiwan to take advantage of the protection afforded them by using TPMS. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Establishing Training and Certification Criteria for Visual Observers of Unmanned Aircraft Systems
Received: 1 December 2017 / Revised: 11 March 2018 / Accepted: 4 April 2018 / Published: 6 April 2018
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Abstract
Safe integration of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) into airspace generally occupied by manned aircraft and other aviation stakeholders is a pressing global challenge. In the United States, efforts are being made to integrate small and large UAS into the National Airspace System (NAS).
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Safe integration of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) into airspace generally occupied by manned aircraft and other aviation stakeholders is a pressing global challenge. In the United States, efforts are being made to integrate small and large UAS into the National Airspace System (NAS). Whereas regulations for the civil operation of small UAS (25 kg and lighter) have already been adopted, those for larger unmanned systems are still being crafted. Thus, a two-part mixed methods study was conducted to examine three pivotal issues in the safe operation of large UAS: (1) What kind of visual observer skills are needed to execute safe UAS operations; (2) Should visual observers involved in UAS operations receive formal training; and (3) Should visual observers be required to pass a certification exam? In the first phase, subject matter experts identified various vigilance, trajectory estimation and communication skills that were vital to performing visual observer duties successfully and elaborated on their training regimens. In the second phase, survey participants were approximately evenly split on the need for formal classroom/online and hands-on visual observer training. Furthermore, participants generally favored visual observers having to pass a classroom/online certification exam, whereas they were against a practical (hands-on) exam. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aviation Safety)
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Open AccessArticle North American Engineering, Procurement, Fabrication and Construction Worker Safety Climate Perception Affected by Job Position
Received: 19 January 2018 / Revised: 22 March 2018 / Accepted: 28 March 2018 / Published: 4 April 2018
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Abstract
Understanding and implementing the results of Safety Climate surveys can assist in decreasing occupational injuries and illnesses. The following article presents findings of a cross-sectional study that assessed the relationship between safety climate perceptions and job position among engineering, procurement, fabrication and construction
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Understanding and implementing the results of Safety Climate surveys can assist in decreasing occupational injuries and illnesses. The following article presents findings of a cross-sectional study that assessed the relationship between safety climate perceptions and job position among engineering, procurement, fabrication and construction (EPFC) employees using a 15-item survey. Descriptive statistics (means and frequencies) and an ANACOVA (analysis of covariance) were performed on a saturated model. The study had a 62% response rate. Results indicate a statistically significant in mean safety climate scores between job position among EPFC employees when controlling for years in industry and location type (i.e., construction versus fabrication) [F (9, 603) = 5.28, p < 0.0001, adjusted R-square = 0.07]. Employee perception of safety climate differed based on the employee’s job position (i.e., laborer, foreman, etc.). Project management reported the highest safety climate scores (0.91), followed by supervisors (0.86), technical support employees and foremen (0.84) and laborers (0.81). Full article
Open AccessArticle Injuries and Fatalities in Danish Commercial Fishing Fleet in 1998–2016
Received: 11 January 2018 / Revised: 23 March 2018 / Accepted: 28 March 2018 / Published: 30 March 2018
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Abstract
Background: Fishing is a risky occupation as injuries and fatalities in fishing vessels are quite common. This paper investigates the pattern of injuries aboard fishing vessels in Denmark to get a better understanding of areas where further action is needed to reduce
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Background: Fishing is a risky occupation as injuries and fatalities in fishing vessels are quite common. This paper investigates the pattern of injuries aboard fishing vessels in Denmark to get a better understanding of areas where further action is needed to reduce the number of injuries and fatalities in Danish fishing vessels. Materials and methods: Data for this study, extracted from the Danish Fishermen’s Occupational Health Service’s database (in the period 1998–2012) and the Danish Maritime Authority’s accident report from 2013 to 2016, include 1840 injuries in Danish fisheries. Result: The results showed decreased injuries in the study period from 45 injuries and deaths per 1000 fishermen reported to the authorities to 12 injuries and deaths per 1000 fishermen in 2016: 2.1% (n = 39) of all reported injuries in the study period resulted in the death of a fisherman and the remaining injuries resulted in sick leave of more than one day; 52.5% (n = 600) of reported injuries involved fishermen who have less than one year’s experience of employment; 29% (n = 407) of injuries took place between 12:00 and 16:00, and the second largest number of injuries, 23.3% (n = 324), took place between 8:00 and 12:00. The incident rate of slip/fall injuries has decreased from 10.06 per 1000 fishermen in 1998 to 3.84 in 2016. The incidence rate of injuries caused by crushing also decreased, from 9.32 accidents per 1000 fishermen in 1998 to 2.56 in 2016. Most of the injuries, 74.5% (n = 1307), happened on the deck of the vessel. Sprain/strain was among the most common injuries (34.2%; n = 538) followed by fracture (24.8%; n = 391). Conclusion: This study indicated that the number of injuries had been gradually decreasing in Danish commercial fishing vessels in the period from 1998 to 2016. The rate of injuries had been declining due to several initiatives such as the establishment of The Danish Fishermen’s Occupational Health Services, training, safety campaigns, technological improvement and structural changes in fisheries management. However, there are still places for improvement. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Simulation of Tunnel Fire for Evacuation Safety Assessment
Received: 25 October 2017 / Revised: 20 February 2018 / Accepted: 15 March 2018 / Published: 26 March 2018
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Abstract
When a fire breaks out in a tunnel, smoke diffuses widely in the direction of the ventilation airflow. As a result, the evacuation environment may not be sufficiently safe during a fire incident. When ventilation equipment in a tunnel is changed, the safety
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When a fire breaks out in a tunnel, smoke diffuses widely in the direction of the ventilation airflow. As a result, the evacuation environment may not be sufficiently safe during a fire incident. When ventilation equipment in a tunnel is changed, the safety and economic efficiency of the new ventilation equipment must be evaluated in advance. However, it is dangerous and not financially feasible to undertake the verification of new ventilation equipment by performing a demonstration experiment owing to its cost and versatility. It is therefore useful for predicting an evacuation situation in which a fire breaks out in a tunnel by performing a numerical simulation and examining the evacuation safety of the tunnel. In this study, a tunnel fire was reproduced using the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) fire simulation software. Moreover, an evacuation was simulated using the real-coded cellular automaton (RCA) method and the effects of the wind velocity and the number of evacuees in the tunnel on the evacuation time were examined. Full article
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