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Safety, Volume 4, Issue 3 (September 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The theory of ironic processes proposes that in cognitively demanding situations avoidant [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Study of Industrial Grade Thermal Insulation as Passive Fire Protection up to 1200 °C
Received: 17 August 2018 / Revised: 13 September 2018 / Accepted: 18 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
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Abstract
It has recently been demonstrated that 50 mm thick industrial grade thermal insulation may serve as passive fire protection of jet fire exposed thick walled steel distillation columns. The present study investigates the performance of thermal insulation in conjunction to 3 mm, 6
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It has recently been demonstrated that 50 mm thick industrial grade thermal insulation may serve as passive fire protection of jet fire exposed thick walled steel distillation columns. The present study investigates the performance of thermal insulation in conjunction to 3 mm, 6 mm, 12 mm and 16 mm steel walls, i.e., where the wall represents less heat sink, when exposed to 350 kW/m2 heat load. Regardless of the tested steel plate thicknesses, about 10 min passed before a nearly linear steel temperature increase versus time was observed. Thereafter, the thinnest plates systematically showed a faster temperature increase than the thickest plates confirming the wall heat sink effect. To study thermal insulation sintering, 50 mm thermal insulation cubes were heat treated (30 min holding time) at temperatures up to 1100 °C. No clear sign of melting was observed, but sintering resulted in 25% shrinkage at 1100 °C. Thermogravimetric analysis to 1300 °C revealed mass loss peaks due to anti-dusting material at 250 °C and Bakelite binder at 460 °C. No significant mass change occurred above 1000 °C. Differential scanning calorimetry to 1300 °C revealed endothermic processes related to the anti-dusting material and Bakelite mass losses, as well as a conspicuous endothermic peak at 1220 °C. This peak is most likely due to melting. The endothermic processes involved when heating the thermal insulation may to a large part explain the 10 min delay in steel plate temperature increase during fire testing. Overall, the tested thermal insulation performed surprisingly well also for protecting the thin steel plates. Full article
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Open AccessReview Driving among Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Received: 16 July 2018 / Revised: 31 August 2018 / Accepted: 12 September 2018 / Published: 17 September 2018
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Abstract
Over the past several decades there has been a surge of research on the contextual, biological, and psychological factors associated with transportation safety in adolescence. However, we know much less about the factors contributing to transportation safety among adolescents who do not follow
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Over the past several decades there has been a surge of research on the contextual, biological, and psychological factors associated with transportation safety in adolescence. However, we know much less about the factors contributing to transportation safety among adolescents who do not follow a typical developmental trajectory. Adolescents with developmental disabilities (DD) such as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have a wide range of behavioral and psychological deficits that may make the complex task of driving even more challenging. Because these adolescents often retain characteristic symptoms of their disorder into adulthood, it may impede their ability to achieve important milestones during the developmental transition from adolescent to adult. As the motivating force behind autonomous living and employment, the capacity for independent transportation is paramount to an adolescent’s overall success. This critical review will draw from the current body of literature on adolescent drivers with developmental disabilities to determine (1) areas of impairment; (2) safety risk factors; and (3) effective interventions for improving driving safety in this vulnerable population of adolescent drivers between the ages of 15–22. This review will also identify important unanswered research questions, and summarize the current state of the literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Traffic Safety and Driver Behaviour)
Open AccessArticle On Linking of Task Analysis in the HRA Procedure: The Case of HRA in Offshore Drilling Activities
Received: 6 July 2018 / Revised: 4 September 2018 / Accepted: 4 September 2018 / Published: 11 September 2018
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Abstract
Human reliability analysis (HRA) has become an increasingly important element in many industries for the purpose of risk management and major accident prevention; for example, recently to perform and maintain probabilistic risk assessments of offshore drilling activities, where human reliability plays a vital
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Human reliability analysis (HRA) has become an increasingly important element in many industries for the purpose of risk management and major accident prevention; for example, recently to perform and maintain probabilistic risk assessments of offshore drilling activities, where human reliability plays a vital role. HRA experience studies, however, continue to warn about potential serious quality assurance issues associated with HRA methods, such as too much variability in comparable analysis results between analysts. A literature review highlights that this lack of HRA consistency can be traced in part to the HRA procedure and a lack of explicit application of task analysis relevant to a wide set of activity task requirements. As such, the need for early identification of and consistent focus on important human performance factors among analysts may suffer, and consequently, so does the ability to achieve continuous enhancements of the safety level related to offshore drilling activities. In this article, we propose a method that clarifies a drilling HRA procedure. More precisely, this article presents a novel method for the explicit integration of a generic task analysis framework into the probabilistic basis of a drilling HRA method. The method is developed and demonstrated under specific considerations of multidisciplinary task and well safety analysis, using well accident data, an HRA causal model, and principles of barrier management in offshore regulations to secure an acceptable risk level in the activities from its application. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Injury Threshold of Oral Contact with Hot Foods and Method for Its Sensory Evaluation
Received: 9 August 2018 / Revised: 4 September 2018 / Accepted: 5 September 2018 / Published: 6 September 2018
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Abstract
Epidemiological studies indicate an increased risk of esophageal cancer from the consumption of very hot foods and beverages. The contact time and the contact temperature are decisive for the risk of injury. However, measuring the contact temperature is not easy in practice. In
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Epidemiological studies indicate an increased risk of esophageal cancer from the consumption of very hot foods and beverages. The contact time and the contact temperature are decisive for the risk of injury. However, measuring the contact temperature is not easy in practice. In the present study, a numerical simulation based on the solution of the heat conduction equation was initially used to investigate whether and for what period of time a constant contact temperature is to be expected under oral conditions. For small food samples (e.g., cooked potatoes) in contact with the tongue, the simulation results in constant contact temperatures of up to 10 s before cooling depending on thickness. Hot beverages, which spread as a thin film and thereby increase their surface area, can therefore be consumed at higher temperatures than solid foods. Furthermore, orientating measurements with a “measuring spoon” determined the contact temperature of 46.5 °C considered to be just comfortable for any period >10 s and about 48 °C for periods of less than 10 s The course of the contact temperatures determined in the experiment over time allows the corresponding threshold values of consumption temperatures for various hot foods to be calculated. In view of the fact that the contact temperature is obviously the determining factor for the risk of injury from burns in the oral cavity in addition to the contact time, it makes sense to reference threshold values to the contact temperature rather than to the surface or consumption temperature of a food product, which is current customary practice. If this contact temperature is defined as a threshold value, the surface or consumption temperature for any other food can be calculated. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Preliminary Analysis of Immigrant Cattle Feedyard Worker Perspectives on Job-Related Safety Training
Received: 30 July 2018 / Revised: 28 August 2018 / Accepted: 29 August 2018 / Published: 2 September 2018
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Abstract
Immigrants comprise a large percentage of the agricultural labor force in the United States. They are a vulnerable worker population and often have fewer occupational and social protections. Latino immigrant cattle feedyard workers (N = 68; 59 men; mean age = 38.7
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Immigrants comprise a large percentage of the agricultural labor force in the United States. They are a vulnerable worker population and often have fewer occupational and social protections. Latino immigrant cattle feedyard workers (N = 68; 59 men; mean age = 38.7 years) in the central Midwest reported on their perceptions and preferences for job-related safety training and practices. Preliminary findings indicate that approximately 40% of workers reported that they had not received any health or safety training from their current employer, and only about 13% had ever participated in any Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) safety training program. In-person training, videos, or shadowing another worker were the most frequent methods of safety training reported by those who had received training. More than 90% were interested in receiving more information about health and safety related to their job. Workers preferred that safety information be provided through in-person training at the job site, videos (particularly those accessible through media sources such as YouTube), and written materials. Specific topics that workers were interested in obtaining more information about included zoonoses, low-stress cattle handling, injury prevention, hazard and injury reporting, chemical and equipment safety, and teamwork. Furthermore, a majority of participants preferred to receive information in Spanish. Results may help guide the development of future materials and training strategies to better suit the needs of the growing immigrant workforce in production agriculture. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Decision Framework for Managing the Risk of Terrorist Threats at Rail Stations Interconnected with Airports
Received: 18 June 2018 / Revised: 25 August 2018 / Accepted: 28 August 2018 / Published: 1 September 2018
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Abstract
This paper highlights a risk-based decision-making framework on a basis of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). Its aim is to enable stakeholders of transport infrastructures to systematically and effectively allocate their limited resources and consequently improve resilience when facing the potential risk of a
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This paper highlights a risk-based decision-making framework on a basis of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). Its aim is to enable stakeholders of transport infrastructures to systematically and effectively allocate their limited resources and consequently improve resilience when facing the potential risk of a terrorist attack. The potential risk of a terrorist attack affects the inter-operation of transportation infrastructures including airports and rail stations, the regional economy, and imposes additional costs of security or any countermeasures. This novel framework is thus established in order to model the security system, to consider a multitude of threat scenarios, and to assess the decisions and choices taken by the aggressors during various stages of their attack. The framework has capability to identify the state of partial neutralization, which reveals the losses incurred when the terrorist could not reach the primary target. In this study, an underground railway station interconnected to an international airport has been used as a case study to demonstrate the effectiveness of this novel framework. By the rigorous assessment of potential losses during a variety of threat scenarios, four countermeasures that could minimise losses are proposed: screening of passengers by observation techniques (SPOT), a surveillance system, increase of the cargo screening rate, and blast-resistant cargo containers. The cost and efficiency assessment is employed to determine the most suitable countermeasures when the value of the security measures equal their cost. Note that ongoing research is still needed to establish better countermeasures since there is no end to the creativity of terrorists. The new technology, such as wireless sensors, will play an important role in the security system in the future. In particular, this study will help insurance and rail industries to model and manage risk profiles at critical infrastructure. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Using Community Detection Analysis to Elucidate Caregivers’ Mental Models of Pediatric Concussion Symptoms
Received: 6 July 2018 / Revised: 13 August 2018 / Accepted: 16 August 2018 / Published: 21 August 2018
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Abstract
Due to a culture of resistance around concussion reporting, novel methods are needed to reveal implicit beliefs that could affect symptom reporting. The goal of this study was to elucidate caregivers’ mental models of pediatric concussion symptoms using an exploratory community detection analysis
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Due to a culture of resistance around concussion reporting, novel methods are needed to reveal implicit beliefs that could affect symptom reporting. The goal of this study was to elucidate caregivers’ mental models of pediatric concussion symptoms using an exploratory community detection analysis (CDA). Caregivers (n = 76) of adolescents 10–15 years old participated in a survey that assessed their intentions of seeking medical treatment for 12 injury symptoms following their child’s involvement in three hypothetical injury scenarios. We used a series of analyses of variance (ANOVAs) to compare injury symptoms across these scenarios and CDA to determine if caregivers implicitly group symptoms together. We then used logistic regressions to further explore associations between the CDA-identified symptom indices and known factors of injury risk. There were no differences in the likelihood to seek treatment for symptoms across injury scenarios; however, the CDA revealed distinct symptom clusters that were characterized by the degree of risk for non-treatment and symptom type. We observed associations between injury risk factors and intentions of seeking medical treatment for the higher-risk indices. Results indicate that caregivers’ mental models of concussion symptoms are nuanced, not monolithic. Therefore, it is inaccurate to measure intentions to seek treatment for concussion without taking these nuances into consideration. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Procedure Negligence in Coastal Cargo: What Can Be Done to Reduce the Gap between Formal and Informal Aspects of Safety?
Received: 7 July 2018 / Revised: 7 August 2018 / Accepted: 8 August 2018 / Published: 14 August 2018
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Abstract
Previous studies from the coastal cargo sector report of a considerable gap between formal and informal aspects of safety. Several maritime accident investigations point to this gap as an important contributory cause, indicating that risk increases when informal practices ignore or violate formal
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Previous studies from the coastal cargo sector report of a considerable gap between formal and informal aspects of safety. Several maritime accident investigations point to this gap as an important contributory cause, indicating that risk increases when informal practices ignore or violate formal procedures. The main aims of this paper are therefore to examine the factors influencing procedure negligence in the coastal cargo sector, and to discuss how to reduce the gap between formal and informal aspects of safety. The study is based on quantitative survey results of 180 crewmembers and qualitative research interviews with 10 leading officers on cargo vessels sailing along the coast of Norway. Survey results indicate that procedure negligence is related to work pressure and demanding working conditions. It is also related to outcome measures like personal injuries and perceptions of risk and safety. A positive organizational safety culture is experienced by respondents reporting of less procedure negligence. Interview results indicate, for example, that formal procedures are ignored or violated because of issues like efficiency demands and low-quality procedures, and that procedures more often are followed when they are perceived as useful and timely. In this article, it is thus suggested that a positive safety culture includes an alignment of formal and informal aspects of safety, which requires time to comply with practical procedures. Interviewees suggest that appropriate procedures are: (1) developed by the users, (2) continuously improved, (3) simplified, and (4) supervised by local expertise instead of general experts. Full article
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Open AccessReview Gulf of Mexico Seafood Harvesters: Part 3. Potential Occupational Risk Reduction Measures
Received: 1 May 2018 / Revised: 18 July 2018 / Accepted: 23 July 2018 / Published: 2 August 2018
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Abstract
1. Background: Fishers face many occupational hazards that include a high risk of fatal and nonfatal injuries and a variety of adverse health effects. Our purpose is to provide an overview of potential countermeasures for the control of hazards that threaten the health
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1. Background: Fishers face many occupational hazards that include a high risk of fatal and nonfatal injuries and a variety of adverse health effects. Our purpose is to provide an overview of potential countermeasures for the control of hazards that threaten the health and safety of Gulf of Mexico (GoM) fish harvesters. 2. Method: Search terms were used to identify relevant literature; two previous reviews regarding injuries and health risk factors also inform this review. 3. Results: Countermeasures against these hazards include winch guards, lifting devices, job redesign, non-slip decks and vessel stability controls as well as using personal flotation devices, wearing gloves and high-friction footwear, increasing sleep time and using vessel motion to assist lifting. Knowledge about secondary prevention (such as rescue, first aid and making mayday calls) is also important. Learning through experience is a crucial factor that incorporates other fishers’ experiences with innovations. Fatigue and lack of sleep contribute to vessel disasters and injury-related errors. 4. Conclusions: The prevention of injuries and diseases among GoM fishers depends on a combination of focusing on work-processes, instilling a broader safety culture, engineering controls, identifying and sharing fisher innovations, promoting fall overboard prevention and protection and providing culture-based incentives, training and narrative outreach. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Contribution to Empirical Revitalization of the Samfunnssikkerhet Concept
Received: 4 May 2018 / Revised: 18 July 2018 / Accepted: 23 July 2018 / Published: 1 August 2018
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Abstract
Current research of the Norwegian samfunnssikkerhet concept appears to be lacking, with few scientific publications advancing the understanding of the concept. This weakness is addressed through the paper’s empirical exploration of challenges in the work on samfunnssikkerhet (Paper aim #1), where the resulting
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Current research of the Norwegian samfunnssikkerhet concept appears to be lacking, with few scientific publications advancing the understanding of the concept. This weakness is addressed through the paper’s empirical exploration of challenges in the work on samfunnssikkerhet (Paper aim #1), where the resulting insight informs an epistemological understanding of the concept of samfunnssikkerhet (Paper aim #2). The paper identifies four challenges in the work on samfunnssikkerhet, which suggest that samfunnssikkerhet is about mobilizing against both known and unknown threats through broad and border-crossing cooperation and about flexible methods and design approaches. It is concluded that the paper’s empirical exploration of the samfunnssikkerhet concept contributes to a clarification and overall empirical revitalization of the concept. A recommendation to safety and security researchers is to further develop the empirical understanding of the samfunnssikkerhet concept, including through validation of the challenges identified in this paper and continuous mapping of additional and future challenges. This can give the samfunnssikkerhet concept, including its relation to concepts such as resilience, risk and societal security, a clearer meaning and consequently a stronger unifying role in efforts to prevent and manage today’s dynamic threats both within and outside Norway. Full article
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Open AccessReview Gulf of Mexico Seafood Harvesters: Part 1. Occupational Injury and Fatigue Risk Factors
Received: 10 April 2018 / Revised: 18 July 2018 / Accepted: 19 July 2018 / Published: 24 July 2018
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Abstract
During 2000–2009, 116 Gulf of Mexico (GoM) fishers were killed (23% of the US total) while working in the shrimp, finfish, oyster, clam, and crab fisheries. The purpose of this literature review is to identify injury-related risk factors to better assess the frequency
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During 2000–2009, 116 Gulf of Mexico (GoM) fishers were killed (23% of the US total) while working in the shrimp, finfish, oyster, clam, and crab fisheries. The purpose of this literature review is to identify injury-related risk factors to better assess the frequency and severity of injuries experienced by fish harvesters in the GoM. Methods: The method of this study is a comprehensive narrative literature review of findings useful for the prevention of fatal and non-fatal injuries among GoM fish harvesters published since 2005. Search engine terms were used to identify relevant literature that included fatalities, injuries, fatigue, and several other terms in combination (e.g., string search with “fishing”). Results: We reviewed 48 articles; the most common cause of fish harvester deaths in the GoM is falls overboard with scant use of personal flotation devices and vessel disasters in which flooding and collision were the most lethal. The root cause of errors resulting in many disasters may have been operator fatigue, but fatigue is also an adverse health effect resulting from working conditions. Non-fatal injuries arise from multiple sources that include working with gears, slips and trips, struck-by or against objects, machine or line entanglements, and falls. Conclusion: Principal risk factors are a lack of sleep aboard fishing vessels, vessel flooding and collisions, poor weather, slips on deck, contact with gear, not wearing personal flotation devices, poor swimming ability, and fishing alone on a vessel or the deck. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Multi-Label Classification of Contributing Causal Factors in Self-Reported Safety Narratives
Received: 13 March 2018 / Revised: 21 April 2018 / Accepted: 18 July 2018 / Published: 20 July 2018
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Abstract
Three methods are demonstrated for automated classification of aviation safety narratives within an existing complex taxonomy. Utilizing latent semantic analysis trained against 4497 narratives at the sentence level, primary problem and contributing factor labels were assessed. Results from a sample of 2987 narratives
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Three methods are demonstrated for automated classification of aviation safety narratives within an existing complex taxonomy. Utilizing latent semantic analysis trained against 4497 narratives at the sentence level, primary problem and contributing factor labels were assessed. Results from a sample of 2987 narratives provided a mean unsupervised categorization precision of 0.35% and recall of 0.78% for contributing-factors within the taxonomy. Categorization of the primary problem at the sentence level resulted in a modal accuracy of 0.46%. Overall, the results suggested that the demonstrated approaches were viable in bringing additional tools and insights to safety researchers. Full article
Open AccessArticle Gendered Analysis of Fatal Crashes among Young Drivers in Alabama, USA
Received: 4 June 2018 / Revised: 4 July 2018 / Accepted: 5 July 2018 / Published: 9 July 2018
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Abstract
As part of broader research efforts to understand the factors contributing to crashes involving younger drivers, it is important to characterize the crash contributing factors of the at-fault younger drivers. This study applied latent class analysis (LCA) to identify subgroups with statistically distinct
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As part of broader research efforts to understand the factors contributing to crashes involving younger drivers, it is important to characterize the crash contributing factors of the at-fault younger drivers. This study applied latent class analysis (LCA) to identify subgroups with statistically distinct patterns in the contributing factors of fatal crashes involving young male and female drivers in Alabama. Model estimation results reveal that crashes on rural roads are a serious issue in Alabama. It was also observed that a high proportion of the young driver fatal crashes occurred on weekends and closer to the driver’s place of residence. Interestingly, the proportion of crashes involving speeding increased with age for males and decreased with age for females. In general, younger female drivers (15–18 years) were more likely to be involved in speed and aggressive driving related fatal crashes than their male counterparts. Also, fatal crashes involving driving under influence (DUI) increase with age for both male and female drivers, with a significant increase for drivers between 19 and 21 years of age. These study findings suggest that specific attention should be focused towards younger drivers in rural communities and communities with lower socioeconomic opportunities. Targeted education and outreach campaigns, combined with appropriate enforcement efforts could meaningfully change the attitudes and behaviors related to road safety. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Examining Ironic Processes in Tourist Drivers: Driving on the Unfamiliar Side of the Road
Received: 11 May 2018 / Revised: 12 June 2018 / Accepted: 20 June 2018 / Published: 3 July 2018
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Abstract
Driving on the unfamiliar side of the road contributes to tourist road accidents and may deter self-driving tourists from travelling to certain countries. Experienced drivers usually drive on “autopilot” but under unfamiliar circumstances, drivers might generate instructions to avoid certain behaviour. Previous research
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Driving on the unfamiliar side of the road contributes to tourist road accidents and may deter self-driving tourists from travelling to certain countries. Experienced drivers usually drive on “autopilot” but under unfamiliar circumstances, drivers might generate instructions to avoid certain behaviour. Previous research has revealed that avoidant instructions can sometimes cause behaviour in the unintended direction (i.e., “ironic” behaviour). This study examined the effect of avoidant instructions (i.e., do not drift towards the centreline) while driving on the unfamiliar side of the road under high cognitive load. Participants (8 males, 9 females) drove on simulated roads under neutral and avoidant instructions, with or without a secondary task, in control and roadworks scenarios. Avoidant instructions did not lead to ironic behaviour (doing what one has been instructed not to do) but were associated with overcompensatory behaviour—driving further from the centreline compared to neutral instructions. Overcompensatory effects were not present when driving with a secondary task or in a roadworks scenario. The findings suggest that avoidant instructions do not lead to dangerous ironic behaviours. Further work needs to be undertaken on driving instructions given to tourists in other contexts like physiological fatigue. Full article
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Open AccessReview Gulf of Mexico Seafood Harvesters, Part 2: Occupational Health-Related Risk Factors
Received: 18 April 2018 / Revised: 6 June 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 25 June 2018
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Abstract
The purpose of this literature review, the second in a series following one on traumatic injuries and fatigue, is to identify potential health hazards to inform a study of occupational health and safety among fish harvesters in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). Fish
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The purpose of this literature review, the second in a series following one on traumatic injuries and fatigue, is to identify potential health hazards to inform a study of occupational health and safety among fish harvesters in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). Fish harvesters are potentially at a high risk of occupational illnesses in GoM fisheries. GoM fishers engage in harvesting shrimp, finfish, oysters, crabs, and clams. Method: The method is a narrative literature review. Search terms that included safety, seafood, occupational, fishing, oyster, clam, shrimp, crab, and GoM were used to identify relevant literature in combination (i.e., a string search). Results: A total of 53 manuscripts were reviewed, of which only two regarded the GoM, but 19 were from the US Atlantic Coast. Musculoskeletal disorders are widespread across the fishing sector. Other hazards include bites and stings from aquatic animals (some of which may be life-threatening), vessel engine noise, dermatoses, and other skin afflictions (including possible strep infection of wounds), solar ray-induced eye diseases, and respiratory exposures (such as to protein aerosols) that can cause asthma. Diving poses multiple breathing and other hazards. Conclusion: While fish harvesters are protected from respiratory problems when working on the well-ventilated deck and dermal hazards by wearing gloves, musculoskeletal, bite and sting, ocular, engine-related hearing loss, and skin, lip, and eye cancer hazards are potentially serious risks among GoM fish harvesters. Full article
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