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Safety 2018, 4(2), 12;

Simulation of Tunnel Fire for Evacuation Safety Assessment

Department of Mechanical System Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya-shi, Aichi 464-8603, Japan
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kagoshima University, 1-21-40, Korimoto, Kagoshima-shi, Kagoshima 890-065, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 October 2017 / Revised: 20 February 2018 / Accepted: 15 March 2018 / Published: 26 March 2018
PDF [5575 KB, uploaded 21 January 2019]


When a fire breaks out in a tunnel, smoke diffuses widely in the direction of the ventilation airflow. As a result, the evacuation environment may not be sufficiently safe during a fire incident. When ventilation equipment in a tunnel is changed, the safety and economic efficiency of the new ventilation equipment must be evaluated in advance. However, it is dangerous and not financially feasible to undertake the verification of new ventilation equipment by performing a demonstration experiment owing to its cost and versatility. It is therefore useful for predicting an evacuation situation in which a fire breaks out in a tunnel by performing a numerical simulation and examining the evacuation safety of the tunnel. In this study, a tunnel fire was reproduced using the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) fire simulation software. Moreover, an evacuation was simulated using the real-coded cellular automaton (RCA) method and the effects of the wind velocity and the number of evacuees in the tunnel on the evacuation time were examined. View Full-Text
Keywords: tunnel fire; evacuation; smoke management; numerical simulation tunnel fire; evacuation; smoke management; numerical simulation

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Yamamoto, K.; Sawaguchi, Y.; Nishiki, S. Simulation of Tunnel Fire for Evacuation Safety Assessment. Safety 2018, 4, 12.

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