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J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis., Volume 6, Issue 1 (March 2019)

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Open AccessArticle
Association of Adiposity Indices with Hypertension in Middle-Aged and Elderly Thai Population: National Health Examination Survey 2009 (NHES-IV)
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2019, 6(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd6010013
Received: 27 December 2018 / Revised: 19 February 2019 / Accepted: 8 March 2019 / Published: 13 March 2019
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Abstract
Obesity in terms of excess fat mass is associated with increased morbidity, disability and mortality due to obesity-related disorders, including hypertension. Many hypertensive individuals are overweight and often receive their advice to lose weight related to body-fat, in order to lower their blood [...] Read more.
Obesity in terms of excess fat mass is associated with increased morbidity, disability and mortality due to obesity-related disorders, including hypertension. Many hypertensive individuals are overweight and often receive their advice to lose weight related to body-fat, in order to lower their blood pressure. However, it is still unclear whether there is a strong association of adipose tissue measured by adiposity indicators with hypertension in the Thai population. Various adiposity indices have been published to distinguish the distribution of body fat with disparate properties. This study examined nine adiposity markers and their association with hypertension in 15,842 Thai adults ≥35 years old. Data were obtained from the nationwide Thai National Health Examination Survey 2009. Accuracy performance and associations of indexes with hypertension were analyzed by Area Under Curve (AUC) and logistic regression analyses. Regardless of gender, the best methods to distinguish performance were waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) [AUC: 0.640 (0.631–0.649)], followed by lipid accumulation product (LAP) [AUC: 0.636 (0.627–0.645)], waist circumference (WC) [AUC: 0.633 (0.624–0.641)], and Conicity index (C-Index) [AUC: 0.630 (0.621–0.639)]. Linear regression analysis exhibited the independent association of the top four indices, WC, WHtR, C-Index, and LAP with higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Those indices’ quartiles were graded in a dose-response manner which significantly increased at the higher quartiles. The indicator’s cutoff point carried the odds ratio of presence hypertension in the range of 1.7 to 2.5 (p < 0.001). Among the nine obesity indices, WHtR (cutoff >0.52) in both genders was the simplest and most practical measurement for adiposity in association with hypertension in middle-aged and elderly Thais. Full article
Open AccessReview
Functional Morphology of the Cardiac Jelly in the Tubular Heart of Vertebrate Embryos
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2019, 6(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd6010012
Received: 29 January 2019 / Revised: 15 February 2019 / Accepted: 21 February 2019 / Published: 27 February 2019
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Abstract
The early embryonic heart is a multi-layered tube consisting of (1) an outer myocardial tube; (2) an inner endocardial tube; and (3) an extracellular matrix layer interposed between the myocardium and endocardium, called “cardiac jelly” (CJ). During the past decades, research on CJ [...] Read more.
The early embryonic heart is a multi-layered tube consisting of (1) an outer myocardial tube; (2) an inner endocardial tube; and (3) an extracellular matrix layer interposed between the myocardium and endocardium, called “cardiac jelly” (CJ). During the past decades, research on CJ has mainly focused on its molecular and cellular biological aspects. This review focuses on the morphological and biomechanical aspects of CJ. Special attention is given to (1) the spatial distribution and fiber architecture of CJ; (2) the morphological dynamics of CJ during the cardiac cycle; and (3) the removal/remodeling of CJ during advanced heart looping stages, which leads to the formation of ventricular trabeculations and endocardial cushions. CJ acts as a hydraulic skeleton, displaying striking structural and functional similarities with the mesoglea of jellyfish. CJ not only represents a filler substance, facilitating end-systolic occlusion of the embryonic heart lumen. Its elastic components antagonize the systolic deformations of the heart wall and thereby power the refilling phase of the ventricular tube. Non-uniform spatial distribution of CJ generates non-circular cross sections of the opened endocardial tube (initially elliptic, later deltoid), which seem to be advantageous for valveless pumping. Endocardial cushions/ridges are cellularized remnants of non-removed CJ. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
4-D Computational Modeling of Cardiac Outflow Tract Hemodynamics over Looping Developmental Stages in Chicken Embryos
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2019, 6(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd6010011
Received: 13 December 2018 / Revised: 8 February 2019 / Accepted: 21 February 2019 / Published: 27 February 2019
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Abstract
Cardiogenesis is interdependent with blood flow within the embryonic system. Recently, a number of studies have begun to elucidate the effects of hemodynamic forces acting upon and within cells as the cardiovascular system begins to develop. Changes in flow are picked up by [...] Read more.
Cardiogenesis is interdependent with blood flow within the embryonic system. Recently, a number of studies have begun to elucidate the effects of hemodynamic forces acting upon and within cells as the cardiovascular system begins to develop. Changes in flow are picked up by mechanosensors in endocardial cells exposed to wall shear stress (the tangential force exerted by blood flow) and by myocardial and mesenchymal cells exposed to cyclic strain (deformation). Mechanosensors stimulate a variety of mechanotransduction pathways which elicit functional cellular responses in order to coordinate the structural development of the heart and cardiovascular system. The looping stages of heart development are critical to normal cardiac morphogenesis and have previously been shown to be extremely sensitive to experimental perturbations in flow, with transient exposure to altered flow dynamics causing severe late stage cardiac defects in animal models. This paper seeks to expand on past research and to begin establishing a detailed baseline for normal hemodynamic conditions in the chick outflow tract during these critical looping stages. Specifically, we will use 4-D (3-D over time) optical coherence tomography to create in vivo geometries for computational fluid dynamics simulations of the cardiac cycle, enabling us to study in great detail 4-D velocity patterns and heterogeneous wall shear stress distributions on the outflow tract endocardium. This information will be useful in determining the normal variation of hemodynamic patterns as well as in mapping hemodynamics to developmental processes such as morphological changes and signaling events during and after the looping stages examined here. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome: A New Paradigm for an Old Disease?
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2019, 6(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd6010010
Received: 24 January 2019 / Revised: 12 February 2019 / Accepted: 19 February 2019 / Published: 23 February 2019
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Abstract
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome occurs in up to 3% of all infants born with congenital heart disease and is a leading cause of death in this population. Although there is strong evidence for a genetic component, a specific genetic cause is only known [...] Read more.
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome occurs in up to 3% of all infants born with congenital heart disease and is a leading cause of death in this population. Although there is strong evidence for a genetic component, a specific genetic cause is only known in a small subset of patients, consistent with a multifactorial etiology for the syndrome. There is controversy surrounding the mechanisms underlying the syndrome, which is likely due, in part, to the phenotypic variability of the disease. The most commonly held view is that the “decreased” growth of the left ventricle is due to a decreased flow during a critical period of ventricular development. Research has also been hindered by what has been, up until now, a lack of genetically engineered animal models that faithfully reproduce the human disease. There is a growing body of evidence, nonetheless, indicating that the hypoplasia of the left ventricle is due to a primary defect in ventricular development. In this review, we discuss the evidence demonstrating that, at least for a subset of cases, the chamber hypoplasia is the consequence of hyperplasia of the contained cardiomyocytes. In this regard, hypoplastic left heart syndrome could be viewed as a neonatal form of cardiomyopathy. We also discuss the role of the endocardium in the development of the ventricular hypoplasia, which may provide a mechanistic basis for how impaired flow to the developing ventricle leads to the anatomical changes seen in the syndrome. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Fate of the Outflow Tract Septal Complex in Relation to the Classification of Ventricular Septal Defects
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2019, 6(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd6010009
Received: 7 January 2019 / Accepted: 20 February 2019 / Published: 21 February 2019
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Abstract
It is now established that the entity often described as an “aortopulmonary septal complex” is better considered as an “outflow tract septal complex”. This change is crucial for appropriate understanding of not only malformations of the outflow tract, but also ventricular septal defects. [...] Read more.
It is now established that the entity often described as an “aortopulmonary septal complex” is better considered as an “outflow tract septal complex”. This change is crucial for appropriate understanding of not only malformations of the outflow tract, but also ventricular septal defects. Thus, the embryonic outflow tract, as it develops, is separated into its two components by fusion of a protrusion from the dorsal wall of the aortic sac with the distal end of the outflow cushions. The key point with regard to morphogenesis is that, with ongoing development, these structures lose their septal integrity, although they can still be identified as septal structures when the ventricular septum itself is deficient. In the normal postnatal heart, however, the aortic and pulmonary components have their own walls throughout the length of the outflow tracts. All of this is of clinical significance, since some current concepts of categorisation of the ventricular septal defects are based on the existence in the normal heart of a “conal septum”, along with a “septum of the atrioventricular canal”. In this review, we show how analysis of postnatal hearts reveals the definitive ventricular septum to possess only muscular and fibrous components in the absence of either discrete outflow or inlet components. We also show that this information regarding development, in turn, is of major significance in determining whether categorisation of ventricular septal defects is best approached, in the first instance, on the basis of the borders of the defects or the fashion in which they open to the right ventricle. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Targeted Gene Delivery through the Respiratory System: Rationale for Intratracheal Gene Transfer
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2019, 6(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd6010008
Received: 19 December 2018 / Revised: 11 February 2019 / Accepted: 13 February 2019 / Published: 15 February 2019
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Abstract
Advances in DNA- and RNA-based technologies have made gene therapy suitable for many lung diseases, especially those that are hereditary. The main objective of gene therapy is to deliver an adequate amount of gene construct to the intended target cell, achieve stable transduction [...] Read more.
Advances in DNA- and RNA-based technologies have made gene therapy suitable for many lung diseases, especially those that are hereditary. The main objective of gene therapy is to deliver an adequate amount of gene construct to the intended target cell, achieve stable transduction in target cells, and to produce a clinically therapeutic effect. This review focuses on the cellular organization in the normal lung and how gene therapy targets the specific cell types that are affected by pulmonary disorders caused by genetic mutations. Furthermore, it examines the pulmonary barriers that can compromise the absorption and transduction of viral vectors and genetic agents by the lung. Finally, it discusses the advantages and limitations of direct intra-tracheal gene delivery with different viral vectors in small and large animal models and in clinical trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardiaovascular Gene Therapy)
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Open AccessArticle
Temporal Change of Extracellular Matrix during Vein Arterialization Remodeling in Rats
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2019, 6(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd6010007
Received: 4 December 2018 / Revised: 26 January 2019 / Accepted: 30 January 2019 / Published: 2 February 2019
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Abstract
The global expression profile of the arterialized rat jugular vein was established to identify candidate genes and cellular pathways underlying the remodeling process. The arterialized jugular vein was analyzed on days 3 and 28 post-surgery and compared with the normal jugular vein and [...] Read more.
The global expression profile of the arterialized rat jugular vein was established to identify candidate genes and cellular pathways underlying the remodeling process. The arterialized jugular vein was analyzed on days 3 and 28 post-surgery and compared with the normal jugular vein and carotid artery. A gene array platform detected 9846 genes in all samples. A heatmap analysis uncovered patterns of gene expression showing that the arterialized vein underwent a partial transition from vein to artery from day 3 to 28 post-surgery. The same pattern was verified for 1845 key differentially expressed genes by performing a pairwise comparison of the jugular vein with the other groups. Interestingly, hierarchical clustering of 60 genes with altered expression on day 3 and day 28 displayed an expression pattern similar to that of the carotid artery. Enrichment analysis results and the network relationship among genes modulated during vein arterialization showed that collagen might play a role in the early remodeling process. Indeed, the total collagen content was increased, with the augmented expression of collagen I, collagen IV, and collagen V in arterialized veins. Additionally, there was an increase in the expression of versican and Thy-1 and a decrease in the expression of biglycan and β1-integrin. Overall, we provide evidence that vein arterialization remodeling is accompanied by consistent patterns of gene expression and that collagen may be an essential element underlying extracellular matrix changes that support the increased vascular wall stress of the new hemodynamic environment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Vortex Dynamics in Trabeculated Embryonic Ventricles
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2019, 6(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd6010006
Received: 17 September 2018 / Revised: 17 January 2019 / Accepted: 18 January 2019 / Published: 22 January 2019
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Abstract
Proper heart morphogenesis requires a delicate balance between hemodynamic forces, myocardial activity, morphogen gradients, and epigenetic signaling, all of which are coupled with genetic regulatory networks. Recently both in vivo and in silico studies have tried to better understand hemodynamics at varying stages [...] Read more.
Proper heart morphogenesis requires a delicate balance between hemodynamic forces, myocardial activity, morphogen gradients, and epigenetic signaling, all of which are coupled with genetic regulatory networks. Recently both in vivo and in silico studies have tried to better understand hemodynamics at varying stages of veretebrate cardiogenesis. In particular, the intracardial hemodynamics during the onset of trabeculation is notably complex—the inertial and viscous fluid forces are approximately equal at this stage and small perturbations in morphology, scale, and steadiness of the flow can lead to significant changes in bulk flow structures, shear stress distributions, and chemical morphogen gradients. The immersed boundary method was used to numerically simulate fluid flow through simplified two-dimensional and stationary trabeculated ventricles of 72, 80, and 120 h post fertilization wild type zebrafish embryos and ErbB2-inhibited embryos at seven days post fertilization. A 2D idealized trabeculated ventricular model was also used to map the bifurcations in flow structure that occur as a result of the unsteadiness of flow, trabeculae height, and fluid scale ( R e ). Vortex formation occurred in intertrabecular regions for biologically relevant parameter spaces, wherein flow velocities increased. This indicates that trabecular morphology may alter intracardial flow patterns and hence ventricular shear stresses and morphogen gradients. A potential implication of this work is that the onset of vortical (disturbed) flows can upregulate Notch1 expression in endothelial cells in vivo and hence impacts chamber morphogenesis, valvulogenesis, and the formation of the trabeculae themselves. Our results also highlight the sensitivity of cardiac flow patterns to changes in morphology and blood rheology, motivating efforts to obtain spatially and temporally resolved chamber geometries and kinematics as well as the careful measurement of the embryonic blood rheology. The results also suggest that there may be significant changes in shear signalling due to morphological and mechanical variation across individuals and species. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Emerging Roles for Immune Cells and MicroRNAs in Modulating the Response to Cardiac Injury
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2019, 6(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd6010005
Received: 15 November 2018 / Revised: 4 January 2019 / Accepted: 9 January 2019 / Published: 15 January 2019
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Abstract
Stimulating cardiomyocyte regeneration after an acute injury remains the central goal in cardiovascular regenerative biology. While adult mammals respond to cardiac damage with deposition of rigid scar tissue, adult zebrafish and salamander unleash a regenerative program that culminates in new cardiomyocyte formation, resolution [...] Read more.
Stimulating cardiomyocyte regeneration after an acute injury remains the central goal in cardiovascular regenerative biology. While adult mammals respond to cardiac damage with deposition of rigid scar tissue, adult zebrafish and salamander unleash a regenerative program that culminates in new cardiomyocyte formation, resolution of scar tissue, and recovery of heart function. Recent studies have shown that immune cells are key to regulating pro-inflammatory and pro-regenerative signals that shift the injury microenvironment toward regeneration. Defining the genetic regulators that control the dynamic interplay between immune cells and injured cardiac tissue is crucial to decoding the endogenous mechanism of heart regeneration. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of the extent that macrophage and regulatory T cells influence cardiomyocyte proliferation and how microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate their activity in the injured heart. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardiac Regeneration in Non-Mammalian Vertebrates)
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease in 2018
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2019, 6(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd6010004
Published: 10 January 2019
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Abstract
Rigorous peer-review is the corner-stone of high-quality academic publishing[...] Full article
Open AccessReview
Covering and Re-Covering the Heart: Development and Regeneration of the Epicardium
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2019, 6(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd6010003
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 13 December 2018 / Accepted: 19 December 2018 / Published: 24 December 2018
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Abstract
The epicardium, a mesothelial layer that envelops vertebrate hearts, has become a therapeutic target in cardiac repair strategies because of its vital role in heart development and cardiac injury response. Epicardial cells serve as a progenitor cell source and signaling center during both [...] Read more.
The epicardium, a mesothelial layer that envelops vertebrate hearts, has become a therapeutic target in cardiac repair strategies because of its vital role in heart development and cardiac injury response. Epicardial cells serve as a progenitor cell source and signaling center during both heart development and regeneration. The importance of the epicardium in cardiac repair strategies has been reemphasized by recent progress regarding its requirement for heart regeneration in zebrafish, and by the ability of patches with epicardial factors to restore cardiac function following myocardial infarction in mammals. The live surveillance of epicardial development and regeneration using zebrafish has provided new insights into this topic. In this review, we provide updated knowledge about epicardial development and regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardiac Regeneration in Non-Mammalian Vertebrates)
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Open AccessReview
Transcriptional Programs and Regeneration Enhancers Underlying Heart Regeneration
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2019, 6(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd6010002
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 10 December 2018 / Accepted: 12 December 2018 / Published: 22 December 2018
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Abstract
The heart plays the vital role of propelling blood to the entire body, which is essential to life. While maintaining heart function is critical, adult mammalian hearts poorly regenerate damaged cardiac tissue upon injury and form scar tissue instead. Unlike adult mammals, adult [...] Read more.
The heart plays the vital role of propelling blood to the entire body, which is essential to life. While maintaining heart function is critical, adult mammalian hearts poorly regenerate damaged cardiac tissue upon injury and form scar tissue instead. Unlike adult mammals, adult zebrafish can regenerate injured hearts with no sign of scarring, making zebrafish an ideal model system with which to study the molecular mechanisms underlying heart regeneration. Investigation of heart regeneration in zebrafish together with mice has revealed multiple cardiac regeneration genes that are induced by injury to facilitate heart regeneration. Altered expression of these regeneration genes in adult mammals is one of the main causes of heart regeneration failure. Previous studies have focused on the roles of these regeneration genes, yet the regulatory mechanisms by which the expression of cardiac regeneration genes is precisely controlled are largely unknown. In this review, we will discuss the importance of differential gene expression for heart regeneration, the recent discovery of cardiac injury or regeneration enhancers, and their impact on heart regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardiac Regeneration in Non-Mammalian Vertebrates)
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Open AccessReply
Reply to the Comment on: Marco Cirillo The Memory of the Heart. J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2018, 5, 55
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2019, 6(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd6010001
Received: 8 December 2018 / Accepted: 18 December 2018 / Published: 20 December 2018
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Abstract
I was disappointed by Anderson’s comment on my recent review, a comment that I think derives from a too quick reading of the article. [...] Full article
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. EISSN 2308-3425 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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