Functional Morphology of the Cardiac Jelly in the Tubular Heart of Vertebrate Embryos
AbstractThe early embryonic heart is a multi-layered tube consisting of (1) an outer myocardial tube; (2) an inner endocardial tube; and (3) an extracellular matrix layer interposed between the myocardium and endocardium, called “cardiac jelly” (CJ). During the past decades, research on CJ has mainly focused on its molecular and cellular biological aspects. This review focuses on the morphological and biomechanical aspects of CJ. Special attention is given to (1) the spatial distribution and fiber architecture of CJ; (2) the morphological dynamics of CJ during the cardiac cycle; and (3) the removal/remodeling of CJ during advanced heart looping stages, which leads to the formation of ventricular trabeculations and endocardial cushions. CJ acts as a hydraulic skeleton, displaying striking structural and functional similarities with the mesoglea of jellyfish. CJ not only represents a filler substance, facilitating end-systolic occlusion of the embryonic heart lumen. Its elastic components antagonize the systolic deformations of the heart wall and thereby power the refilling phase of the ventricular tube. Non-uniform spatial distribution of CJ generates non-circular cross sections of the opened endocardial tube (initially elliptic, later deltoid), which seem to be advantageous for valveless pumping. Endocardial cushions/ridges are cellularized remnants of non-removed CJ. View Full-Text
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Männer, J.; Yelbuz, T.M. Functional Morphology of the Cardiac Jelly in the Tubular Heart of Vertebrate Embryos. J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2019, 6, 12.
Männer J, Yelbuz TM. Functional Morphology of the Cardiac Jelly in the Tubular Heart of Vertebrate Embryos. Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease. 2019; 6(1):12.Chicago/Turabian Style
Männer, Jörg; Yelbuz, Talat M. 2019. "Functional Morphology of the Cardiac Jelly in the Tubular Heart of Vertebrate Embryos." J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 6, no. 1: 12.
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