Next Issue
Volume 3, March
Previous Issue
Volume 3, September

Table of Contents

Vet. Sci., Volume 3, Issue 4 (December 2016) – 11 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle
Using Bronson Equation to Accurately Predict the Dog Brain Weight Based on Body Weight Parameter
Vet. Sci. 2016, 3(4), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci3040036 - 04 Dec 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1939
Abstract
The study used 69 brains (n = 69) from adult dog cadavers, divided by their skull type into three groups, brachi (B), dolicho (D) and mesaticephalic (M) (n = 23 each), and aimed: (1) to determine whether the Bronson equation may [...] Read more.
The study used 69 brains (n = 69) from adult dog cadavers, divided by their skull type into three groups, brachi (B), dolicho (D) and mesaticephalic (M) (n = 23 each), and aimed: (1) to determine whether the Bronson equation may be applied, without reservation, to estimate brain weight (BW) in brachy (B), dolicho (D), and mesaticephalic (M) dog breeds; and (2) to evaluate which breeds are more closely related to each other in an evolutionary scenario. All subjects were identified by sex, age, breed, and body weight (bw). An oscillating saw was used for a circumferential craniotomy to open the skulls; the brains were removed and weighed using a digital scale. For statistical analysis, p-values < 0.05 were considered significant. The work demonstrated a strong relationship between the observed and predicted BW by using the Bronson equation. It was possible to hypothesize that groups B and D present a greater encephalization level than M breeds, that B and D dog breeds are more closely related to each other than to M, and from the three groups, the D individuals presented the highest brain mass mean. Full article
Open AccessCommunication
Exfoliative Endometrial Cytology in Embryo Donor Cows—Comparison of Sampling Localizations for the Diagnosis of Subclinical Endometritis
Vet. Sci. 2016, 3(4), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci3040035 - 28 Nov 2016
Viewed by 1433
Abstract
Subclinical endometritis has a major effect on the reproductive performance of dairy cows and also on the success of embryo collection. Thus it is important to minimize the number of false-negative diagnoses. In order to evaluate the question of whether or not a [...] Read more.
Subclinical endometritis has a major effect on the reproductive performance of dairy cows and also on the success of embryo collection. Thus it is important to minimize the number of false-negative diagnoses. In order to evaluate the question of whether or not a single cytobrush sample is representative of the whole endometrium, 53 German Holstein embryo donor cows in the northwest of Germany were examined via the cytobrush method at three different localizations of the uterus: the uterine body about 0.5 cm cranial of the cervical canal and both uterine horns about 1.5 cm cranial of the bifurcation. Although the mean percentage of polymorphonuclear neutrophils at the three locations is not significantly different (p = 0.64), the individual variations lead to the conclusion that more than one sample of the endometrium should be taken into account when diagnosing subclinical endometritis in embryo donor cows. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Fluorescent Protein Expressing Rickettsia buchneri and Rickettsia peacockii for Tracking Symbiont-Tick Cell Interactions
Vet. Sci. 2016, 3(4), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci3040034 - 17 Nov 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2321
Abstract
Rickettsiae of indeterminate pathogenicity are widely associated with ticks. The presence of these endosymbionts can confound a One Health approach to combatting tick-borne diseases. Genomic analyses of symbiotic rickettsiae have revealed that they harbor mutations in gene coding for proteins involved in rickettsial [...] Read more.
Rickettsiae of indeterminate pathogenicity are widely associated with ticks. The presence of these endosymbionts can confound a One Health approach to combatting tick-borne diseases. Genomic analyses of symbiotic rickettsiae have revealed that they harbor mutations in gene coding for proteins involved in rickettsial pathogenicity and motility. We have isolated and characterized two rickettsial symbionts—Rickettsia peacockii and R. buchneri—both from ticks using tick cell cultures. To better track these enigmatic rickettsiae in ticks and at the tick-mammal interface we transformed the rickettsiae to express fluorescent proteins using shuttle vectors based on rickettsial plasmids or a transposition system driving insertional mutagenesis. Fluorescent protein expressing R. buchneri and R. peacockii will enable us to elucidate their interactions with tick and mammalian cells, and track their location and movement within individual cells, vector ticks, and host animals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Comparative Studies in Tick-Borne Diseases in Animals and Humans)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessComment
Regarding Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever in the Americas; Some Historical Aspects of a Forgotten Disease in Colombia
Vet. Sci. 2016, 3(4), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci3040033 - 04 Nov 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1204
Abstract
In the first decades of the 20th century, scientific papers were published suggesting the presence of Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever in Colombia. As a contribution, we present some historical aspects referring to this topic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Comparative Studies in Tick-Borne Diseases in Animals and Humans)
Open AccessReview
The Use of Recombinant Feline Interferon Omega Therapy as an Immune-Modulator in Cats Naturally Infected with Feline Immunodeficiency Virus: New Perspectives
Vet. Sci. 2016, 3(4), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci3040032 - 27 Oct 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2626
Abstract
Type I interferons (IFNs) are well-known cytokines that, among their main functions, are key components of the host immune response against viral infections. Due to its immune modulation properties, they are commonly used in the therapeutic approach of various retroviral infections, namely human [...] Read more.
Type I interferons (IFNs) are well-known cytokines that, among their main functions, are key components of the host immune response against viral infections. Due to its immune modulation properties, they are commonly used in the therapeutic approach of various retroviral infections, namely human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). In HIV infection, it has been shown that IFN therapy limits early viral replication, particularly useful on post-exposure prophylaxis. In veterinary medicine, recombinant feline interferon omega (rFeIFN-ω) was the first interferon licensed for use in cats. Several studies have recently shown that this compound seems to stimulate the innate immunity, decreasing clinical signs and co-infections in naturally FIV-infected cats. More than summarizing the main conclusions about rFeIFN-ω in cats, this review emphasizes the immune-modulation properties of IFN therapy, opening new perspectives for its use in retroviral infections. Either in FIV-infected cats or in HIV individuals, type I IFNs seem to induce an innate immune-modulation and should not be overlooked as a therapeutic option in retroviral infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Comparative Studies on HIV and FIV in Animals and Humans)
Open AccessReview
Intestinal Organoids—Current and Future Applications
Vet. Sci. 2016, 3(4), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci3040031 - 21 Oct 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3189
Abstract
Recent technical advances in the stem cell field have enabled the in vitro generation of complex structures resembling whole organs termed organoids. Most of these approaches employ culture systems that allow stem cell-derived or tissue progenitor cells to self-organize into three-dimensional (3D)-structures. Since [...] Read more.
Recent technical advances in the stem cell field have enabled the in vitro generation of complex structures resembling whole organs termed organoids. Most of these approaches employ culture systems that allow stem cell-derived or tissue progenitor cells to self-organize into three-dimensional (3D)-structures. Since organoids can be grown from different species (human, mouse, cat, dog), organs (intestine, kidney, brain, liver), and from patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells, they create significant prospects for modelling development and diseases, for toxicology and drug discovery studies, and in the field of regenerative medicine. Here, we report on intestinal stem cells, organoid culture, organoid disease modeling, transplantation, specifically covering the current and future uses of this exciting new insight model to the field of veterinary medicine. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
An Assessment of Epidemiology Capacity in a One Health Team at the Provincial Level in Thailand
Vet. Sci. 2016, 3(4), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci3040030 - 17 Oct 2016
Viewed by 1601
Abstract
A multi-sectoral core epidemiology capacity assessment was conducted in provinces that implemented One Health services in order to assess the efficacy of a One Health approach in Thailand. In order to conduct the assessment, four provinces were randomly selected as a study group [...] Read more.
A multi-sectoral core epidemiology capacity assessment was conducted in provinces that implemented One Health services in order to assess the efficacy of a One Health approach in Thailand. In order to conduct the assessment, four provinces were randomly selected as a study group from a total of 19 Thai provinces that are currently using a One Health approach. As a control group, four additional provinces that never implemented a One Health approach were also sampled. The provincial officers were interviewed on the epidemiologic capacity of their respective provinces. The average score of epidemiologic capacity in the provinces implementing the One Health approach was 66.45%, while the provinces that did not implement this approach earned a score of 54.61%. The epidemiologic capacity of surveillance systems in provinces that utilized the One Health approach earned higher scores in comparison to provinces that did not implement the approach (75.00% vs. 53.13%, p-value 0.13). Although none of the capacity evaluations showed significant differences between the two groups, we found evidence that provinces implementing the One Health approach gained higher scores in both surveillance and outbreak investigation capacities. This may be explained by more efficient capacity when using a One Health approach, specifically in preventing, protecting, and responding to threats in local communities. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCommunication
Characterization of Haptoglobin Isotype in Milk of Mastitis-Affected Cows
Vet. Sci. 2016, 3(4), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci3040029 - 13 Oct 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1457
Abstract
Haptoglobin is a major acute phase protein in bovines and reportedly increases in serum and milk whey during mastitis, highlighting its potential as a diagnostic biomarker. Since haptoglobin is known to undergo tissue specific glycosylation resulting in different isoforms, this study was undertaken [...] Read more.
Haptoglobin is a major acute phase protein in bovines and reportedly increases in serum and milk whey during mastitis, highlighting its potential as a diagnostic biomarker. Since haptoglobin is known to undergo tissue specific glycosylation resulting in different isoforms, this study was undertaken to characterize the isoforms of haptoglobin. Milk whey fraction and serum obtained from animals with or without clinical mastitis in Puducherry, India, were subjected to SDS-PAGE followed by western blot and immuno-detection of haptoglobin protein. All subunits (β, α1 and α2) of haptoglobin protein were detected in serum sample obtained from clinical cases. However, only the β-subunit was detected in milk whey fraction obtained from the respective animals. Similar results were observed with milk whey fractions from subclinical cases indicating difference in isoform of haptoglobin detected in milk whey from serum. This was further supported by RT-PCR (Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction) analysis of haptoglobin gene (Hp) confirming the tissue specific origin of haptoglobin. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Microscopic Visualisation of Zoonotic Arbovirus Replication in Tick Cell and Organ Cultures Using Semliki Forest Virus Reporter Systems
Vet. Sci. 2016, 3(4), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci3040028 - 29 Sep 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1953
Abstract
Ticks are vectors and reservoirs of many arboviruses pathogenic for humans or domestic animals; in addition, during bloodfeeding they can acquire and harbour pathogenic arboviruses normally transmitted by other arthropods such as mosquitoes. Tick cell and organ cultures provide convenient tools for propagation [...] Read more.
Ticks are vectors and reservoirs of many arboviruses pathogenic for humans or domestic animals; in addition, during bloodfeeding they can acquire and harbour pathogenic arboviruses normally transmitted by other arthropods such as mosquitoes. Tick cell and organ cultures provide convenient tools for propagation and study of arboviruses, both tick-borne and insect-borne, enabling elucidation of virus-tick cell interaction and yielding insight into the mechanisms behind vector competence and reservoir potential for different arbovirus species. The mosquito-borne zoonotic alphavirus Semliki Forest virus (SFV), which replicates well in tick cells, has been isolated from Rhipicephalus, Hyalomma, and Amblyomma spp. ticks removed from mammalian hosts in East Africa; however nothing is known about any possible role of ticks in SFV epidemiology. Here we present a light and electron microscopic study of SFV infecting cell lines and organ cultures derived from African Rhipicephalus spp. ticks. As well as demonstrating the applicability of these culture systems for studying virus-vector interactions, we provide preliminary evidence to support the hypothesis that SFV is not normally transmitted by ticks because the virus does not infect midgut cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Comparative Studies in Tick-Borne Diseases in Animals and Humans)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Deviant Behavior: Tick-Borne Pathogens and Inflammasome Signaling
Vet. Sci. 2016, 3(4), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci3040027 - 28 Sep 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1982
Abstract
In the face of an assault, host cells mount an immediate response orchestrated by innate immunity. Two of the best described innate immune signaling networks are the Toll- and the Nod-like receptor pathways. Extensive work has been done characterizing both signaling cascades with [...] Read more.
In the face of an assault, host cells mount an immediate response orchestrated by innate immunity. Two of the best described innate immune signaling networks are the Toll- and the Nod-like receptor pathways. Extensive work has been done characterizing both signaling cascades with several recent advances on the forefront of inflammasome biology. In this review, we will discuss how more commonly-studied pathogens differ from tick-transmitted microbes in the context of Nod-like receptor signaling and inflammasome formation. Because pathogens transmitted by ticks have unique characteristics, we offer the opinion that these microbes can be used to uncover novel principles of Nod-like receptor biology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Comparative Studies in Tick-Borne Diseases in Animals and Humans)
Open AccessReview
Parallelisms and Contrasts in the Diverse Ecologies of the Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi Complexes of Bacteria in the Far Western United States
Vet. Sci. 2016, 3(4), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci3040026 - 22 Sep 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2547
Abstract
Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi are two tick-borne bacteria that cause disease in people and animals. For each of these bacteria, there is a complex of closely related genospecies and/or strains that are genetically distinct and have been shown through both observational and [...] Read more.
Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi are two tick-borne bacteria that cause disease in people and animals. For each of these bacteria, there is a complex of closely related genospecies and/or strains that are genetically distinct and have been shown through both observational and experimental studies to have different host tropisms. In this review we compare the known ecologies of these two bacterial complexes in the far western USA and find remarkable similarities, which will help us understand evolutionary histories and coadaptation among vertebrate host, tick vector, and bacteria. For both complexes, sensu stricto genospecies (those that infect humans) share a similar geographic range, are vectored mainly by ticks in the Ixodes ricinus-complex, utilize mainly white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) as a reservoir in the eastern USA and tree squirrels in the far west, and tend to be generalists, infecting a wider variety of vertebrate host species. Other sensu lato genospecies within each complex are generally more specialized, occurring often in local enzootic cycles within a narrow range of vertebrate hosts and specialized vector species. We suggest that these similar ecologies may have arisen through utilization of a generalist tick species as a vector, resulting in a potentially more virulent generalist pathogen that spills over into humans, vs. utilization of a specialized tick vector on a particular vertebrate host species, promoting microbe specialization. Such tight host-vector-pathogen coupling could also facilitate high enzootic prevalence and the evolution of host immune-tolerance and bacterial avirulence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Comparative Studies in Tick-Borne Diseases in Animals and Humans)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop