The study used 69 brains (n
= 69) from adult dog cadavers, divided by their skull type into three groups, brachi (B), dolicho (D) and mesaticephalic (M) (n
= 23 each), and aimed: (1) to determine whether the Bronson equation may be applied, without reservation, to estimate brain weight (BW) in brachy (B), dolicho (D), and mesaticephalic (M) dog breeds; and (2) to evaluate which breeds are more closely related to each other in an evolutionary scenario. All subjects were identified by sex, age, breed, and body weight (bw). An oscillating saw was used for a circumferential craniotomy to open the skulls; the brains were removed and weighed using a digital scale. For statistical analysis, p-
values < 0.05 were considered significant. The work demonstrated a strong relationship between the observed and predicted BW by using the Bronson equation. It was possible to hypothesize that groups B and D present a greater encephalization level than M breeds, that B and D dog breeds are more closely related to each other than to M, and from the three groups, the D individuals presented the highest brain mass mean.
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