Next Article in Journal
Can Health Perceptions, Credibility, and Physical Appearance of Low-Fat Foods Stimulate Buying Intentions?
Next Article in Special Issue
Evaluation of Long Sea Snail Hinia reticulata (Gastropod) from the Middle Adriatic Sea as a Possible Alternative for Human Consumption
Previous Article in Journal
Regulatory Effect of Lactobacillus brevis Bmb6 on Gut Barrier Functions in Experimental Colitis
Previous Article in Special Issue
Nutrient Composition of Demersal, Pelagic, and Mesopelagic Fish Species Sampled Off the Coast of Bangladesh and Their Potential Contribution to Food and Nutrition Security—The EAF-Nansen Programme
Article

Seasonal Changes in Free Amino Acid and Fatty Acid Compositions of Sardines, Sardina pilchardus (Walbaum, 1792): Implications for Nutrition

1
Department of Marine Studies, University of Split, Ruđera Boškovića 37, HR-21000 Split, Croatia
2
Regional Veterinary Institute Split, Croatian Veterinary Institute, Poljička cesta 33, 21000 Split, Croatia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2020, 9(7), 867; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070867
Received: 13 May 2020 / Revised: 25 June 2020 / Accepted: 30 June 2020 / Published: 2 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seafood and Seafood Products)
The aim of this study was to clarify the seasonal variation in the proximate composition of the free amino acid (AA) and fatty acid (FA) profiles of the European sardine (Sardina pilchardus) from the Adriatic Sea and to better understand the nutritive value needed to organize more effective industrial processing, aquaculture use and to ensure the health benefits for consumers through available bioactive compounds such as omega-3 FA and essential AA. The lipid content ranged from 1.18 to 10.58% during the year, being the highest from July to September. For the first time, this paper reports the monthly variation in AA content in sardines. The highest total AA content was measured during the winter period, from January (843 mg/100 g fillet) to March (953 mg/100 g) with histidine, arginine and threonine being the most dominant. The total content of essential free AA (histidine, threonine, valine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, tryptophan and lysine) ranged from 137 to 571 mg/100 g fillet (wet weight), recorded in May and March, respectively. The fatty acid profile analyses revealed the major saturated FA as palmitic (C16:0), followed by myristic (C14:0), and stearic (C18:0) acids, and the predominant monosaturated FA as oleic (C18:1n–9) and palmitoleic (C16:1n–7). The high concentrations of polyunsaturated FA in sardines were omega-3 FA, particularly eicosapentaenoic (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA; 20:6n-3) FA. From July to September, their content was the highest (>3.5 g/100 g of sardine fillets), confirming that these species are excellent sources of bioactive lipids. View Full-Text
Keywords: Sardina pilchardus; essential amino acids; omega-3; polyunsaturated fatty acids; proximate composition; Mediterranean diet Sardina pilchardus; essential amino acids; omega-3; polyunsaturated fatty acids; proximate composition; Mediterranean diet
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Šimat, V.; Hamed, I.; Petričević, S.; Bogdanović, T. Seasonal Changes in Free Amino Acid and Fatty Acid Compositions of Sardines, Sardina pilchardus (Walbaum, 1792): Implications for Nutrition. Foods 2020, 9, 867. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070867

AMA Style

Šimat V, Hamed I, Petričević S, Bogdanović T. Seasonal Changes in Free Amino Acid and Fatty Acid Compositions of Sardines, Sardina pilchardus (Walbaum, 1792): Implications for Nutrition. Foods. 2020; 9(7):867. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070867

Chicago/Turabian Style

Šimat, Vida, Imen Hamed, Sandra Petričević, and Tanja Bogdanović. 2020. "Seasonal Changes in Free Amino Acid and Fatty Acid Compositions of Sardines, Sardina pilchardus (Walbaum, 1792): Implications for Nutrition" Foods 9, no. 7: 867. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070867

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop