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Foods, Volume 6, Issue 3 (March 2017) – 7 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is a popular herb in cooking, traditional healing, and [...] Read more.
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Open AccessEditorial
Understanding the Fresh Produce Safety Challenges
Foods 2017, 6(3), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods6030023 - 21 Mar 2017
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2804
Abstract
Consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables is important for a balanced diet and healthy life-style. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fresh Produce Safety)
Open AccessArticle
Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes on Ready-to-Eat Meats Using Bacteriocin Mixtures Based on Mode-of-Action
Foods 2017, 6(3), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods6030022 - 14 Mar 2017
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 4002
Abstract
Bacteriocin-producing (Bac+) lactic acid bacteria (LAB) comprising selected strains of Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactococcus lactis, Pediococcus acidilactici, and Enterococcus faecium and thailandicus were examined for inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes during hotdog challenge studies. The Bac+ strains, or their [...] Read more.
Bacteriocin-producing (Bac+) lactic acid bacteria (LAB) comprising selected strains of Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactococcus lactis, Pediococcus acidilactici, and Enterococcus faecium and thailandicus were examined for inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes during hotdog challenge studies. The Bac+ strains, or their cell-free supernatants (CFS), were grouped according to mode-of-action (MOA) as determined from prior studies. Making a mixture of as many MOAs as possible is a practical way to obtain a potent natural antimicrobial mixture to address L. monocytogenes contamination of RTE meat products (i.e., hotdogs). The heat resistance of the bacteriocins allowed the use of pasteurization to eliminate residual producer cells for use as post-process surface application or their inclusion into hotdog meat emulsion during cooking. The use of Bac+ LAB comprising 3× MOAs directly as co-inoculants on hotdogs was not effective at inhibiting L. monocytogenes. However, the use of multiple MOA Bac+ CFS mixtures in a variety of trials demonstrated the effectiveness of this approach by showing a >2-log decrease of L. monocytogenes in treatment samples and 6–7 log difference vs. controls. These data suggest that surface application of multiple mode-of-action bacteriocin mixtures can provide for an Alternative 2, and possibly Alternative 1, process category as specified by USDA-FSIS for control of L. monocytogenes on RTE meat products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Proteins and Bioactive Peptides) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessFeature PaperCommunication
Listeria monocytogenes in Fresh Produce: Outbreaks, Prevalence and Contamination Levels
Foods 2017, 6(3), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods6030021 - 09 Mar 2017
Cited by 55 | Viewed by 5465
Abstract
Listeria monocytogenes, a member of the genus Listeria, is widely distributed in agricultural environments, such as soil, manure and water. This organism is a recognized foodborne pathogenic bacterium that causes many diseases, from mild gastroenteritis to severe blood and/or central nervous [...] Read more.
Listeria monocytogenes, a member of the genus Listeria, is widely distributed in agricultural environments, such as soil, manure and water. This organism is a recognized foodborne pathogenic bacterium that causes many diseases, from mild gastroenteritis to severe blood and/or central nervous system infections, as well as abortion in pregnant women. Generally, processed ready-to-eat and cold-stored meat and dairy products are considered high-risk foods for L. monocytogenes infections that cause human illness (listeriosis). However, recently, several listeriosis outbreaks have been linked to fresh produce contamination around the world. Additionally, many studies have detected L. monocytogenes in fresh produce samples and even in some minimally processed vegetables. Thus L. monocytogenes may contaminate fresh produce if present in the growing environment (soil and water). Prevention of biofilm formation is an important control measure to reduce the prevalence and survival of L. monocytogenes in growing environments and on fresh produce. This article specifically focuses on fresh produce–associated listeriosis outbreaks, prevalence in growing environments, contamination levels of fresh produce, and associated fresh produce safety challenges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial, Chemical and Physical Contamination of Food Products)
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Open AccessArticle
Chemotypic Characterization and Biological Activity of Rosmarinus officinalis
Foods 2017, 6(3), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods6030020 - 05 Mar 2017
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 5236
Abstract
Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is a popular herb in cooking, traditional healing, and aromatherapy. The essential oils of R. officinalis were obtained from plants growing in Victoria (Australia), Alabama (USA), Western Cape (South Africa), Kenya, Nepal, and Yemen. Chemical compositions of the [...] Read more.
Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is a popular herb in cooking, traditional healing, and aromatherapy. The essential oils of R. officinalis were obtained from plants growing in Victoria (Australia), Alabama (USA), Western Cape (South Africa), Kenya, Nepal, and Yemen. Chemical compositions of the rosemary oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as well as chiral gas chromatography. The oils were dominated by (+)-α-pinene (13.5%–37.7%), 1,8-cineole (16.1%–29.3%), (+)-verbenone (0.8%–16.9%), (−)-borneol (2.1%–6.9%), (−)-camphor (0.7%–7.0%), and racemic limonene (1.6%–4.4%). Hierarchical cluster analysis, based on the compositions of these essential oils in addition to 72 compositions reported in the literature, revealed at least five different chemotypes of rosemary oil. Antifungal, cytotoxicity, xanthine oxidase inhibitory, and tyrosinase inhibitory activity screenings were carried out, but showed only marginal activities. Full article
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Open AccessCommentary
Red Yeast Rice
Foods 2017, 6(3), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods6030019 - 01 Mar 2017
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4595
Abstract
Red yeast rice (RYR), produced by the fermentation of the Monascus purpureus mold, has been used for a long time in Asian cuisine and traditional medicine. It consists of multiple bioactive substances, including monacolins, which potentially can be used as a nutraceutical. Monacolin [...] Read more.
Red yeast rice (RYR), produced by the fermentation of the Monascus purpureus mold, has been used for a long time in Asian cuisine and traditional medicine. It consists of multiple bioactive substances, including monacolins, which potentially can be used as a nutraceutical. Monacolin K, which is chemically identical to lovastatin, has been recognized as responsible for the cholesterolreducing effect of this compound. While the European Food Safety Authority maintains that the use of monacolin K from RYR preparations of at least 10 mg can produce a normal blood cholesterol level, the United States Food and Drug Administration considers monacolin K, due to its similarity with lovastatin, an unapproved drug, and therefore marketing of products that label the monacolin content is prohibited. This mini-review summarizes the benefit of RYR in hyperlipidemia, maintains RYR use as a food, and addresses the importance of regulation regarding RYR and the need for clinical data and clear label information for consumers with reference to a toxin-free, nonaugmented, standardized amount of monacolins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals: The New Frontier) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle
Occurrence and Antioxidant Activity of C1 Degradation Products in Cocoa
Foods 2017, 6(3), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods6030018 - 28 Feb 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2773
Abstract
Procyanidin C1 is by far the main flavan-3-ol trimer in cocoa. Like other flavan-3-ols, however, it suffers a lot during heat treatments such as roasting. RP-HPLCHRMS/MS(ESI(−))analysis applied to an aqueous model medium containing commercial procyanidin C1 proved that epimerization is the main reaction [...] Read more.
Procyanidin C1 is by far the main flavan-3-ol trimer in cocoa. Like other flavan-3-ols, however, it suffers a lot during heat treatments such as roasting. RP-HPLCHRMS/MS(ESI(−))analysis applied to an aqueous model medium containing commercial procyanidin C1 proved that epimerization is the main reaction involved in its degradation (accounting for 62% of degradation products). In addition to depolymerization, cocoa procyanidin C1 also proved sensitive to oxidation, yielding once- and twice-oxidized dimers. No chemical oligomer involving the native trimer was found in either model medium or cocoa, while two C1 isomers were retrieved. C1 degradation products exhibited antioxidant activity (monitored by RPHPLC-Online TEAC) close to that of C1 (when expressed in µM TE/mg·kg−1). Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Study Approach of Antioxidant Properties in Foods: Update and Considerations
Foods 2017, 6(3), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods6030017 - 28 Feb 2017
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2927
Abstract
The assessment of interactions between natural antioxidants and other food matrix components represents the main step in the investigation of total antioxidant properties, in terms of potential health benefits. The diversity of chemical structures of natural compounds, besides their possible interactions, as well [...] Read more.
The assessment of interactions between natural antioxidants and other food matrix components represents the main step in the investigation of total antioxidant properties, in terms of potential health benefits. The diversity of chemical structures of natural compounds, besides their possible interactions, as well as the biological role and different modes of action makes it difficult to assess a single and reliable procedure for the evaluation of antioxidant activity. Today, much attention is given to the distinction between extractable and non-extractable antioxidants as a key tool in the description of the nutritional and healthy properties of food matrices. The starting point for the investigation of antioxidant effects of food extracts is the analysis of antioxidant properties of pure compounds and their interactions. Another complementary approach could be represented by the study of how different biologically active compound-rich extracts contribute to the total antioxidant capacity. Full article
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