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Article

A Straightforward, Sensitive, and Reliable Strategy for Ethyl Carbamate Detection in By-Products from Baijiu Production by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

1
Research Unit of Food Safety, NHC Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, Ministry of Health, China National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (2019RU014), Beijing 100021, China
2
State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2024, 13(12), 1835; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13121835
Submission received: 22 February 2024 / Revised: 21 May 2024 / Accepted: 3 June 2024 / Published: 11 June 2024
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analytical Methods)

Abstract

Baijiu is a renowned Chinese distilled liquor, notable for its distinctive flavor profile and intricate production process, which prominently involves fermentation and distillation. Ethyl carbamate (EC), a probable human carcinogen, can be potentially formed during these procedures, thus prompting significant health concerns. Consequently, the contamination of EC during Baijiu production has become an increasingly pressing issue. In this study, we developed a rapid and easily operable immunoassay for determining EC in the fermented materials used in Baijiu production. The development of a high-quality antibody specific to EC facilitated a streamlined analytical procedure and heightened method sensitivity. Furthermore, we systematically evaluated other essential parameters. Following optimization, the method achieved an IC50 value of 11.83 μg/kg, with negligible cross-reactivity against EC analogs. The recovery study demonstrated the method’s good accuracy and precision, with mean recovery rates ranging from 86.0% to 105.5% and coefficients of variation all below 10%. To validate the feasibility of the technique, we collected and analyzed 39 samples simultaneously using both the proposed immunoassay and confirmatory gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A robust correlation was observed between the results obtained from the two methods (R2 > 0.99). The detected EC levels ranged from 2.36 μg/kg to 7.08 μg/kg, indicating an increase during the fermentation process.
Keywords: ethyl carbamate; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; Baijiu by-products; fermentation and distillation ethyl carbamate; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; Baijiu by-products; fermentation and distillation

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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, Z.; Liu, Q.; Luo, J.; Luo, P.; Wu, Y. A Straightforward, Sensitive, and Reliable Strategy for Ethyl Carbamate Detection in By-Products from Baijiu Production by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Foods 2024, 13, 1835. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13121835

AMA Style

Wang Z, Liu Q, Luo J, Luo P, Wu Y. A Straightforward, Sensitive, and Reliable Strategy for Ethyl Carbamate Detection in By-Products from Baijiu Production by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Foods. 2024; 13(12):1835. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13121835

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wang, Zifei, Qing Liu, Jiaqi Luo, Pengjie Luo, and Yongning Wu. 2024. "A Straightforward, Sensitive, and Reliable Strategy for Ethyl Carbamate Detection in By-Products from Baijiu Production by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay" Foods 13, no. 12: 1835. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13121835

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