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Article

Study of the Kinetics of Extraction Process for The Production of Hemp Inflorescences Extracts by Means of Conventional Maceration (CM) and Rapid Solid-Liquid Dynamic Extraction (RSLDE)

1
Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, via Pansini, 5, 80131 Naples, Italy
2
Department of Agricultural Science, University of Naples Federico II, via Università 100, 80045 Portici (NA), Italy
3
Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, via Cintia; Monte S. Angelo Complex, 80126 Naples, Italy
4
ENI Digital, via Emilia 1, 20097 San Donato Milanese (MI), Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Separations 2020, 7(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations7020020
Received: 26 January 2020 / Revised: 14 March 2020 / Accepted: 26 March 2020 / Published: 30 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraction and Isolation of Natural Products)
In the present work, the kinetics of the extraction process from female inflorescences of Canapa sativa subsp. sativa var. sativa were studied, on the basis of determination of the content of cannabinoids: cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA), cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), before and after decarboxylation in the oven, in order to evaluate the possible use of the hemp extract obtained in the food sector. Therefore, both conventional maceration (CM) and rapid solid-liquid dynamic extraction (RSLDE), also known as cyclically pressurized extraction (CPE), were carried out, using parts of the plant approximately of the same size. The alcoholic extracts thus obtained were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in order to calculate the percentages of cannabinoids present in the inflorescences and thus be able to evaluate the degree of decarboxylation. Furthermore, the extracts were dried to calculate the percentage of solid material present in it, that was made mainly by cannabinoids. The amount of substance extracted from the inflorescences was about 10% (w/w), for both cases considered. Therefore, the extraction yield was the same in the two cases examined and the final qualities were almost identical. However, the extraction times were significantly different. In fact, the maceration of hemp inflorescences in ethyl alcohol was completed in no less than 24 h, while with the RSLDE the extraction was completed in only 4 h. Finally, for a better understanding of the extraction process with cyclically pressurized extraction, a numerical simulation was carried out which allowed to better evaluate the influence of extractive parameters. View Full-Text
Keywords: hemp; cannabinoids; cannabidiol; Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol; maceration; cyclically pressurized extraction: RSLDE hemp; cannabinoids; cannabidiol; Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol; maceration; cyclically pressurized extraction: RSLDE
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gallo, M.; Formato, A.; Ciaravolo, M.; Formato, G.; Naviglio, D. Study of the Kinetics of Extraction Process for The Production of Hemp Inflorescences Extracts by Means of Conventional Maceration (CM) and Rapid Solid-Liquid Dynamic Extraction (RSLDE). Separations 2020, 7, 20. https://doi.org/10.3390/separations7020020

AMA Style

Gallo M, Formato A, Ciaravolo M, Formato G, Naviglio D. Study of the Kinetics of Extraction Process for The Production of Hemp Inflorescences Extracts by Means of Conventional Maceration (CM) and Rapid Solid-Liquid Dynamic Extraction (RSLDE). Separations. 2020; 7(2):20. https://doi.org/10.3390/separations7020020

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gallo, Monica, Andrea Formato, Martina Ciaravolo, Gaetano Formato, and Daniele Naviglio. 2020. "Study of the Kinetics of Extraction Process for The Production of Hemp Inflorescences Extracts by Means of Conventional Maceration (CM) and Rapid Solid-Liquid Dynamic Extraction (RSLDE)" Separations 7, no. 2: 20. https://doi.org/10.3390/separations7020020

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