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Volume 5, December
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European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education is published by MDPI from Volume 10 Issue 1 (2020). Previous articles were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence, and they are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with University Association of Education and Psychology.

Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ., Volume 5, Issue 2 (August 2015) – 13 articles , Pages 145-292

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181 KiB  
Article
Structural and functional social support in elderly objective and subjective health ratings
by Sergio Iglesias and Ana V. Arias
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2015, 5(2), 243-252; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe5020023 - 4 Aug 2015
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1034
Abstract
This paper aims to investigate the causes that explain the discrepancies between the effects of social relationships on health and wellness of the elderly people. Several disciplines of health sciences have developed different theories to explain the evidence that confirm the positive effects [...] Read more.
This paper aims to investigate the causes that explain the discrepancies between the effects of social relationships on health and wellness of the elderly people. Several disciplines of health sciences have developed different theories to explain the evidence that confirm the positive effects of social relations. Furthermore, there is acumuative evidence confirming most of the predictions derived from its principles. However, the empirical evidence has not always confirmed these beneficial relationships and sometimes these evidences contradict some of the theoretical predictions. Even, it is not difficult to find reversed effects. In this paper we follow some of the approaches developed from Social Psychology which analyze the different effects of social relationships on the health of older people. Two types of aspects of social relations have served to this purpose. First, the structural aspects (i.e., frequency of intercourse). Second, qualitative-functional aspects of great tradition in estudies of quality of life and wellbeing of older people (i.e. social support). Following the Convoy Model, we measured perceived social support and frecuency of relationships in 168 spaniards, men and women (aged 62 years old and more). We analyze these discrepancies in the light of the underlying mechanisms. Full article
71 KiB  
Article
Alexithymia, resilience and paranormal beliefs in an elderly institutionalized center
by Inmaculada Méndez, Julia García-Sevilla, Juan P. Martínez, Ana Mª Bermúdez, Pilar Pérez and Isabel García-Munuera
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2015, 5(2), 209-219; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe5020020 - 4 Aug 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 807
Abstract
Alexithymia refers to the difficulty to understand and identify feelings and those of others. The process of adapting a residential facility is one of the stressful situations older people may face. In order to overcome this situation, resilience is critical and even there [...] Read more.
Alexithymia refers to the difficulty to understand and identify feelings and those of others. The process of adapting a residential facility is one of the stressful situations older people may face. In order to overcome this situation, resilience is critical and even there are people who seek support in religion or paranormal beliefs. In this paper, we studied the relationship between alexithymia, resilience and paranormal beliefs in a group of 35 seniors (21 women) aged between 66 and 95 years old in an institutionalized center. The instruments used were the TAS-20 Scale in order to assess alexithymia, the CD-RISC for evaluating resilience and the Enhanced Paranormal Beliefs Scale. Among main findings, it must be emphasized that subjects with greater difficulty identifying feelings are those with less personal control and less belief about extraordinary life forms; subjects with greater personal control had higher belief about those extraordinary life forms. Professional applications that can be launched in elderly institutionalized centers are discussed. Full article
352 KiB  
Article
Effect of the aerobic exercise and the environmental enrichment on the reduction of the anxiety levels in the aging
by Patricia Sampedro
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2015, 5(2), 197-208; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe5020019 - 4 Aug 2015
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 800
Abstract
The environmental enrichment (EE) and the aerobic exercise (EX) are interventions capable of reducing anxiety levels in the aging, but few is known about how they modulating the projections to the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA). We studied the effect of an EE and EX [...] Read more.
The environmental enrichment (EE) and the aerobic exercise (EX) are interventions capable of reducing anxiety levels in the aging, but few is known about how they modulating the projections to the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA). We studied the effect of an EE and EX programs carried out during two months in 18 month-old Wistar rats assigned to 3 groups: (CO, N=6), EE (N=8) y EX (N=8). The EX program was carried out during 15min/day and the EE group was housed in a big cage with different objects frequently changed. Through the cytochrome c oxidase histochemistry (COx), we analysed the metabolic activity of several brain regions involved in the anxiety response. The EE reduced the brain activity of regions involved in the activation of the HPA axis (infralimbic cortex, basolateral amygdala and the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (p<0.05). On the other hand, the EX program increased the activity of brain regions involved in the inhibition of the HPA axis (cingulate cortex, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the dorsal hippocampus (p<0.05). In conclusion, it seemed that the EE and the EX modulate in different way the activity of brain regions that project to the HPA axis and they could constitute successful interventions to reduce the anxiety levels in the aging. Full article
188 KiB  
Article
Strengths in the elderly as a factor that increases wellbeing
by Encarnación Ramírez, Ana R. Ortega and Rafael Martos
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2015, 5(2), 187-195; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe5020018 - 4 Aug 2015
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1023
Abstract
In the last decades there has been increased the study of the psychological strengths as factor that concerns the well-being. They are considered as a subset of features of personality to which a moral value is added, being defined as natural qualities that [...] Read more.
In the last decades there has been increased the study of the psychological strengths as factor that concerns the well-being. They are considered as a subset of features of personality to which a moral value is added, being defined as natural qualities that the persons are intrinsically motivated to use as they increase the quality of life. The investigations demonstrate that they act as factors of protection and prevention of the psychopathology and of the problems of behavior in the different stages of life. There are strengths that are more relevant in older people and their training would try to influence the behavior and the emotional functioning to increase the satisfaction with the life. In the present work we analyze the strengths that predominate in older and we propose a program of intervention to promote the improve their health and quality of life. This is a new proposal because, until now, interventions in this area have been aimed at palliate various problems or as a complement to traditional therapy but not to prevent the onset of common disorders in the elderly. Full article
83 KiB  
Article
Creativity, paranormal beliefs and cognitive impairment in the elderly
by Inmaculada Méndez, Julia García-Sevilla, Juan P. Martínez, Isabel García-Munuera, Ana Mª Bermúdez and Pilar Pérez
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2015, 5(2), 253-265; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe5020024 - 3 Aug 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 869
Abstract
In the case of older people, aesthetic thought and creativity are ways to keep mind and imagination active by contributing to prevent cognitive decline. Furthermore, having a religious belief system or even a belief system or paranormal experiences has proved to be beneficial [...] Read more.
In the case of older people, aesthetic thought and creativity are ways to keep mind and imagination active by contributing to prevent cognitive decline. Furthermore, having a religious belief system or even a belief system or paranormal experiences has proved to be beneficial for the health of the elderly. The objective was to study the relationship between creativity, degree of cognitive impairment and paranormal beliefs. The existence of differences depending on sociodemographic characteristics was analyzed. A group of 36 elderly people (16 men) aged between 66 and 95 years were administered the Mini-Mental State Examination (MEC), the CREA Test and the Paranormal Beliefs Scale. The main outcomes include that: those with better cognitive status are more creative; the less creative subjects had more traditional religious beliefs and even greater superstition; the elderly with better cognitive status were the least superstitious. It is remarkable that men were more creative, while women excelled in traditional religious beliefs. The study allows reflecting on the importance of professionals who work with the elderly to carry out programs to encourage creativity and even collect information about the belief system. Full article
290 KiB  
Article
Analysis of knowledge on drug delivery
by Juan M. Carmona, Ana M. Baena, Ana C. Berral, Quintiliano Sotelo, Beatriz Recio and Irene Recio
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2015, 5(2), 233-241; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe5020022 - 3 Aug 2015
Viewed by 793
Abstract
The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge of health professionals Hospital of Montilla on the administration of drugs in emergencies. Material: cross-sectional descriptive study conducted at the Hospital of Montilla (Córdoba). A questionnaire to doctors and nurses were distributed by [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge of health professionals Hospital of Montilla on the administration of drugs in emergencies. Material: cross-sectional descriptive study conducted at the Hospital of Montilla (Córdoba). A questionnaire to doctors and nurses were distributed by random sampling during the month of December 2014. A survey of Machado de Azevedo et al. (2012) that consists of 9 items for the assessment of knowledge on medication administration was used. Results: The sample was composed of 59.1% of physicians and 40.9% of nurses with an average age of 38.05 (SD±8.981). Regarding the situation of respondents, 72.7% had received prior training. Regarding their own self-assessment, 72.7% considered to have a satisfactory knowledge of drug administration. 90.9% of respondents known to exist protocols on the administration of drugs in his unit. Discussion: Although the knowledge of drug delivery is acceptable for health workers, there are differences between the two analyzed collectives. Therefore, it would be ideal to perform adequate training and retraining of staff for optimal knowledge and, in this way, improve health care. Full article
172 KiB  
Article
Factors involved in adherence to therapy in fibromyalgia patients
by Mª Dolores Ruiz-Fernández, Dolores Hernández-Martínez, Antonia Fernández-Leyva and María López-Cano
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2015, 5(2), 165-173; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe5020016 - 3 Aug 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 875
Abstract
Fibromyalgia is a chronic disease that it needs of a complex and multiple drug therapy. With the aim to study the degree of adherence to therapy in this disease to the pharmacological treatment prescribed and, to know how they influence a series of [...] Read more.
Fibromyalgia is a chronic disease that it needs of a complex and multiple drug therapy. With the aim to study the degree of adherence to therapy in this disease to the pharmacological treatment prescribed and, to know how they influence a series of variables as they are the age, the perceived health, the number of drugs and the difficulty in taking medication, a descriptive study was realized in 50 patients diagnosed of fibromyalgia. The results show us as the most patients are multiple medication and a large percentage present bad adherence to treatment, being in these patients the mean perceived health score significantly higher in chronic problems, compared to those with they have a good adherence. The multivariate logistic regression analysis indicates a high risk of non-adherence in patients who they are multiple medication, they are 60 or older and they have chronic mental problems, although the association only is significant for chronic problems. Therefore, factors as such the number of drugs, the age and the perception that they have about their health, are variables to take into consideration in the degree of adherence to therapy in these patients. Full article
408 KiB  
Article
Cognitive decline, functional dependency and sociodemographic characteristics in elderly patients with bone fractures
by Ana R. Ortega and Mª José Calero
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2015, 5(2), 221-232; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe5020021 - 2 Aug 2015
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 715
Abstract
The objective of this paper was to study the evolution of cognitive status and of functional dependency in patients over 65 and how these relate to different demographic variables. The sample consisted of 259 elderly people admitted to the Hospital Neurotraumatológico in Jaen [...] Read more.
The objective of this paper was to study the evolution of cognitive status and of functional dependency in patients over 65 and how these relate to different demographic variables. The sample consisted of 259 elderly people admitted to the Hospital Neurotraumatológico in Jaen (Spain) with a diagnosis of bone fracture. Sociodemographic data was obtained through a semi-structured interview. Furthermore, the following tests were also administered: Barthel Index, Lawton and Brody’s Scale, Phototest, and Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly. According to the results of this study, elderly patients show increased dependency during hospitalization and a mild recovery at discharge, but without regaining their dependency values prior to hospitalization. There is a differential incidence of functional decline as a function of gender, where women have significantly lower functional dependency at home than men and they do not decline as much as men do from their status prior to hospitalization. Also, we have encountered significant inverse relations between the different levels of dependency and cognitive status, and the age of the elderly patient. Moreover, married patients experienced greater functional gain than did the widowed patients, regardless of gender. Full article
433 KiB  
Article
Impairment of visual perception in Aging: Compensatory brain mechanisms
by José M. Rodríguez-Ferrer
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2015, 5(2), 175-186; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe5020017 - 2 Aug 2015
Viewed by 776
Abstract
We have studied the effects of normal aging on visual perception and the existence of possible compensatory brain mechanisms. Were measured in three groups of 30 people with normal vision and average age of 19.6, 42.6 and 65.7 years, the response time to [...] Read more.
We have studied the effects of normal aging on visual perception and the existence of possible compensatory brain mechanisms. Were measured in three groups of 30 people with normal vision and average age of 19.6, 42.6 and 65.7 years, the response time to the presentation of stimuli (0.5º in diameter grey circles) sequentially in 24 positions of the visual field, distributed in 8 polar coordinates and 3 eccentricities (2.15, 3.83 and 5.53 degrees of visual field). The stimulus was presented for 100 milliseconds, with low and high contrast (6% and 78%, respectively). The experiments were conducted with and without covert attention to stimuli. With age was observed a progressive increase in the response times from the stimuli of 6% of contrast and those presented in the eccentricity of 5.53º. With covert attention, response times were significantly reduced in the three age groups. However, while the younger and older showed similar reductions in the response times, the adult group obtained minor cuts. These results show that during aging occurs a selective and progressive deterioration in the perception of low contrast and that this deterioration is greater in the peripheral macular areas and that from sixty years the visual attention compensating mechanisms have greater efficiency in the improvement of visual perception. Full article
287 KiB  
Article
Memory, executive functions and cognitive impairment in elderly population
by Yolanda Clemente, Julia García-Sevilla and Inmaculada Méndez
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2015, 5(2), 153-163; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe5020015 - 2 Aug 2015
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 927
Abstract
Cognitive functions refer to the superior brain or mental function. These processes are usually first to suffer cognitive impairment associated with ageing. The aim of this study was: to analyse the state of memory and executive functions in a sample of elder population [...] Read more.
Cognitive functions refer to the superior brain or mental function. These processes are usually first to suffer cognitive impairment associated with ageing. The aim of this study was: to analyse the state of memory and executive functions in a sample of elder population with and without cognitive impairment; and compare the cognitive state between elder who live in a public home for the elderly and elder who live in their homes. Therefore, a screening test was carried out to check the cognitive impairment level (Cognitive Mini Test MEC-35), and after that, the Memory Alteration Test (T@M) and the Ring Test were applied. The participants were 24 subjects, 12 of which belonged to a public home for the elderly and the other 12 lived in their homes. The average age of the participants was 78. The study has allowed us to establish the significant relation between the cognitive deterioration level and the state of the memory and executive functions. Besides, sex was indifferent in memory as a variable, but not in executive functions. Finally, the fact of the people living in a public home show us no significant differences in the state of memory and executive functions compared to people who live in their homes. Full article
174 KiB  
Article
The social concept of climacteric in rural and urban population
by Ana Mª Carrobles, Minerva Velasco and Sagrario Gómez-Cantarino
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2015, 5(2), 145-151; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe5020014 - 2 Aug 2015
Viewed by 870
Abstract
The menopause is a phase of complex transition that involves biological, psychological, social, and cultural factors. The phenomenon of the menopause is something natural and universal for all women. This stage is influenced by the socio-cultural environment in which the woman to live. [...] Read more.
The menopause is a phase of complex transition that involves biological, psychological, social, and cultural factors. The phenomenon of the menopause is something natural and universal for all women. This stage is influenced by the socio-cultural environment in which the woman to live. Through a qualitative research study among women who live in the province of Toledo. The selection of women was performed by sampling non-probability convenience. The procedure of discussion groups with women, of different social status, and various personal situations. Urban women are mostly the menopause as something pathological, many of them need help to deal with this moment, but those in rural areas see the menopause as a natural, another stage more of their lives in part because family support networks provide experiences and experiences that they share with their families. The urban areas arrive after the climacteric, multiparous women develop after menopause. Housewives become before the menopause, those working outside the home. Depending on the attitude towards the climacteric, will be able to have experiences or others, through the knowledge of the concept of menopause, improves in the future the quality of care. Full article
188 KiB  
Article
Instruments for evaluating the burden of family caregivers of persons with dementia
by África Martos, Fernando Cardila, Ana B. Barragán, Mª del Carmen Pérez-Fuentes, Mª del Mar Molero and José J. Gázquez
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2015, 5(2), 281-292; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe5020026 - 15 Jul 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1043
Abstract
The aging population in developing countries is a reality which has given rise to degenerative diseases, among them dementia. The changes undergone during dementia cause a loss of functions which makes the person affected more dependent on others in performing their activities, and [...] Read more.
The aging population in developing countries is a reality which has given rise to degenerative diseases, among them dementia. The changes undergone during dementia cause a loss of functions which makes the person affected more dependent on others in performing their activities, and therefore these activities are taken over by the caregiver. The process of becoming a caretaker often means the appearance of overload, referring to the perception that the caregiver has of the influence that caring for that person has on their health, social and personal life and economy. Quantification of the risk of exhaustion should be done using a common procedure. Therefore, this study was intended to review instruments for evaluating the burden on family caregivers of persons with dementia. The method used was systematic review of the Lilacs, ProQuest, PsycArticles and Dialnet Plus databases, after which the primary sources of the instruments used in those studies were found. Six different versions of four different instruments were found in this way. In 34 of 42 studies, the burden evaluation instrument used was the Zarit scale (Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview) or a version or adaptation of it. These results show that the preference for this scale for evaluating burden in caregivers is continuous and without variation since the nineties. Full article
201 KiB  
Article
Prevalence of depression in Spain: Analysis of the last 15 years
by Fernando Cardila, África Martos, Ana B. Barragán, Mª del Carmen Pérez-Fuentes, Mª del Mar Molero and José J. Gázquez
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2015, 5(2), 267-279; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe5020025 - 15 Jun 2015
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3512
Abstract
Depression in Spain in recent years has become an important problem of public health which is the cause of heavy government healthcare spending. The various depressive disorders have commonly been associated with other psychopathological disorders, especially anxiety, and with physical diseases. Its prevalence [...] Read more.
Depression in Spain in recent years has become an important problem of public health which is the cause of heavy government healthcare spending. The various depressive disorders have commonly been associated with other psychopathological disorders, especially anxiety, and with physical diseases. Its prevalence varied depending on the study because of the characteristics of the samples, the instruments used or the type of disorder studied. A systematic review was done in several national and international databases, in which a total of 63 publications were found, with only nine remaining after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The data analyzed concerning the nine publications use a diversity of samples: patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, university students, children clinical population, preschool children, elderly population, general population, hospitalized patients and smokers. The data on prevalence varied in the studies examined from 1.12% in preschool children, 8.56% in the general population and up to 55.6% in university students. After analysis of results, a constant pattern was observed in gender with a higher proportion of women who suffer from depression), although the data on prevalence varied from one study to another and their comparison was complicated. Full article
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