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Processes 2019, 7(4), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7040213

Metabolic Engineering and Fermentation Process Strategies for L-Tryptophan Production by Escherichia coli

1
School of Life Science and Food Engineering, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huaian 223003, China
2
School of Engineering and Sciences, Campus Monterrey, Tecnologico de Monterrey, Ave. Eugenio Garza Sada 2501, Monterrey CP 64849, N.L., Mexico
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 March 2019 / Revised: 29 March 2019 / Accepted: 8 April 2019 / Published: 12 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Sustainable Chemical Processes)
PDF [820 KB, uploaded 12 April 2019]

Abstract

L-tryptophan is an essential aromatic amino acid that has been widely used in medicine, food, and animal feed. Microbial biosynthesis of L-tryptophan through metabolic engineering approaches represents a sustainable, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly route compared to chemical synthesis. In particular, metabolic pathway engineering allows enhanced product titers by inactivating/blocking the competing pathways, increasing the intracellular level of essential precursors, and overexpressing rate-limiting enzymatic steps. Based on the route of the l-tryptophan biosynthesis pathway, this review presents a systematic and detailed summary of the contemporary metabolic engineering approaches employed for l-tryptophan production. In addition to the engineering of the l-tryptophan biosynthesis pathway, the metabolic engineering modification of carbon source uptake, by-product formation, key regulatory factors, and the polyhydroxybutyrate biosynthesis pathway in l-tryptophan biosynthesis are discussed. Moreover, fermentation bioprocess optimization strategies used for l-tryptophan overproduction are also delineated. Towards the end, the review is wrapped up with the concluding remarks, and future strategies are outlined for the development of a high l-tryptophan production strain.
Keywords: metabolic engineering; bioprocess; L-tryptophan; by-product; regulatory factors; polyhydroxybutyrate; fermentation process optimization metabolic engineering; bioprocess; L-tryptophan; by-product; regulatory factors; polyhydroxybutyrate; fermentation process optimization
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Liu, L.; Bilal, M.; Luo, H.; Zhao, Y.; Iqbal, H.M.N. Metabolic Engineering and Fermentation Process Strategies for L-Tryptophan Production by Escherichia coli. Processes 2019, 7, 213.

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