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Processes, Volume 3, Issue 2 (June 2015) , Pages 222-496

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Open AccessArticle Dynamic Optimization in JModelica.org
Processes 2015, 3(2), 471-496; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr3020471
Received: 13 April 2015 / Revised: 30 May 2015 / Accepted: 10 June 2015 / Published: 19 June 2015
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2927 | PDF Full-text (443 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We present the open-source software framework in JModelica.org for numerically solving large-scale dynamic optimization problems. The framework solves problems whose dynamic systems are described in Modelica, an open modeling language supported by several different tools. The framework implements a numerical method based on [...] Read more.
We present the open-source software framework in JModelica.org for numerically solving large-scale dynamic optimization problems. The framework solves problems whose dynamic systems are described in Modelica, an open modeling language supported by several different tools. The framework implements a numerical method based on direct local collocation, of which the details are presented. The implementation uses the open-source third-party software package CasADi to construct the nonlinear program in order to efficiently obtain derivative information using algorithmic differentiation. The framework is interfaced with the numerical optimizers IPOPT and WORHP for finding local optima of the optimization problem after discretization. We provide an illustrative example based on the Van der Pol oscillator of how the framework is used. We also present results for an industrially relevant problem regarding optimal control of a distillation column. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algorithms and Applications in Dynamic Optimization)
Open AccessArticle Design, Operation, Control, and Economics of a Photovoltaic/Fuel Cell/Battery Hybrid Renewable Energy System for Automotive Applications
Processes 2015, 3(2), 452-470; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr3020452
Received: 17 May 2015 / Accepted: 3 June 2015 / Published: 9 June 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4053 | PDF Full-text (12293 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Meeting rapidly growing global energy demand—without producing greenhouse gases or further diminishing the availability of non-renewable resources—requires the development of affordable low-emission renewable energy systems. Here, we develop a hybrid renewable energy system (HRES) for automotive applications—specifically, a roof-installed photovoltaic (PV) array combined [...] Read more.
Meeting rapidly growing global energy demand—without producing greenhouse gases or further diminishing the availability of non-renewable resources—requires the development of affordable low-emission renewable energy systems. Here, we develop a hybrid renewable energy system (HRES) for automotive applications—specifically, a roof-installed photovoltaic (PV) array combined with a PEM fuel cell/NiCd battery bus currently operating shuttle routes on the University of Delaware campus. The system’s overall operating objectives—meeting the total power demand of the bus and maintaining the desired state of charge (SOC) of the NiCd battery—are achieved with appropriately designed controllers: a logic-based “algebraic controller” and a standard PI controller. The design, implementation, and performance of the hybrid system are demonstrated via simulation of real shuttle runs under various operating conditions. The results show that both control strategies perform equally well in enabling the HRES to meet its objectives under typical operating conditions, and under sudden cloud cover conditions; however, at consistently high bus speeds, battery SOC maintenance is better, and the system consumes less hydrogen, with PI control. An economic analysis of the PV investment necessary to realize the HRES design objectives indicates a return on investment of approximately 30% (a slight, but nonetheless positive, ~$550 profit over the bus lifetime) in Newark, DE, establishing the economic viability of the proposed addition of a PV array to the existing University of Delaware fuel cell/battery bus. Full article
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Open AccessReview Review on Valve Stiction. Part I: From Modeling to Smart Diagnosis
Processes 2015, 3(2), 422-451; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr3020422
Received: 20 March 2015 / Accepted: 16 May 2015 / Published: 27 May 2015
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2283 | PDF Full-text (628 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-textRetraction
Abstract
Valve stiction is indicated as one of the main problems affecting control loop performance and then product quality. Therefore, it is important to detect this phenomenon as early as possible, distinguish it from other causes, and suggest the correct action to the operator [...] Read more.
Valve stiction is indicated as one of the main problems affecting control loop performance and then product quality. Therefore, it is important to detect this phenomenon as early as possible, distinguish it from other causes, and suggest the correct action to the operator in order to fix it. It is also very desirable to give an estimate of stiction amount, in order to be able to follow its evolution in time to allow the scheduling of valve maintenance or different operations, if necessary. This paper, in two parts, is a review of the state of the art about the phenomenon of stiction from its basic characterization to smart diagnosis, including modeling, detection techniques, quantification, compensation and a description of commercial software packages. In particular, Part I of the study analyzes the most significant works appearing in the recent literature, pointing out analogies and differences among various techniques, showing more appealing features and possible points of weakness. The review also includes an illustration of the main features of performance monitoring systems proposed by major software houses. Finally, the paper gives indications on future research trends and potential advantages for loop diagnosis when additional measurements are available, as in newly designed plants with valve positioners and smart instrumentation. In Part II, performance of some well-established methods for stiction quantification are compared by applications to different industrial datasets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Process Control: Current Trends and Future Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle Computer-Aided Framework for the Design of Freeze-Drying Cycles: Optimization of the Operating Conditions of the Primary Drying Stage
Processes 2015, 3(2), 406-421; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr3020406
Received: 18 December 2014 / Accepted: 16 May 2015 / Published: 25 May 2015
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2292 | PDF Full-text (1457 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper deals with the freeze-drying process and, in particular, with the optimization of the operating conditions of the primary drying stage. When designing a freeze-drying cycle, process control aims at obtaining the values of the operating conditions (temperature of the heating fluid [...] Read more.
This paper deals with the freeze-drying process and, in particular, with the optimization of the operating conditions of the primary drying stage. When designing a freeze-drying cycle, process control aims at obtaining the values of the operating conditions (temperature of the heating fluid and pressure in the drying chamber) resulting in a product temperature lower than the limit value of the product, and in the shortest drying time. This is particularly challenging, mainly due to the intrinsic nonlinearity of the system. In this framework, deep process knowledge is required for deriving a suitable process dynamic model that can be used to calculate the design space for the primary drying stage. The design space can then be used to properly design (and optimize) the process, preserving product quality. The case of a product whose dried layer resistance, one of the key model parameters, is affected by the operating conditions is addressed in this paper, and a simple and effective method to calculate the design space in this case is presented and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Process Control: Current Trends and Future Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle The Application of Dielectric Spectroscopy and Biocalorimetry for the Monitoring of Biomass in Immobilized Mammalian Cell Cultures
Processes 2015, 3(2), 384-405; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr3020384
Received: 30 December 2014 / Revised: 27 April 2015 / Accepted: 29 April 2015 / Published: 7 May 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2843 | PDF Full-text (1927 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to introduce dielectric spectroscopy and biocalorimetry as monitoring methods to follow immobilised Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell culture development. The theory behind both monitoring techniques is explained and perfusion cultures are performed in a Reaction Calorimeter (eRC1 [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to introduce dielectric spectroscopy and biocalorimetry as monitoring methods to follow immobilised Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell culture development. The theory behind both monitoring techniques is explained and perfusion cultures are performed in a Reaction Calorimeter (eRC1 from Mettler Toledo) as an application example. The findings of this work show that dielectric spectroscopy gives highly reliable information upon the viable cell density throughout the entire culture. On the other hand, the RC1 could only provide accurate data from day 5, when the cell density exceeded 4 × 106 vcells∙mL−1 (viable cell per mL) working volume (WV). The method validation showed the limit of detection (LOD) for 1.4 L cultures to be 8.86 × 106 vcells∙mL−1, a viable cell density commonly achieved in fed-batch and the early stages of a perfusion culture. This work suggests that biocalorimetry should be possible to implement at industrial scale to monitor CHO cell cultures. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Algorithm for Finding Process Identification Intervals from Normal Operating Data
Processes 2015, 3(2), 357-383; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr3020357
Received: 24 January 2015 / Accepted: 23 April 2015 / Published: 6 May 2015
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1921 | PDF Full-text (396 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Performing experiments for system identification is often a time-consuming task which may also interfere with the process operation. With memory prices going down and the possibility of cloud storage, years of data is more and more commonly stored (without compression) in a history [...] Read more.
Performing experiments for system identification is often a time-consuming task which may also interfere with the process operation. With memory prices going down and the possibility of cloud storage, years of data is more and more commonly stored (without compression) in a history database. In such stored data, there may already be intervals informative enough for system identification. Therefore, the goal of this project was to find an algorithm that searches and marks intervals suitable for process identification (rather than completely autonomous system identification). For each loop, four stored variables are required: setpoint, manipulated variable, measured process output and mode of the controller. The essential features of the method are the search for excitation of the input and output, followed by the estimation of a Laguerre model combined with a hypothesis test to check that there is a causal relationship between process input and output. The use of Laguerre models is crucial to handle processes with deadtime without explicit delay estimation. The method was tested on three years of data from about 200 control loops. It was able to find all intervals in which known identification experiments were performed as well as many other useful intervals in closed/open loop operation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Process Control: Current Trends and Future Challenges)
Open AccessArticle A Combined Feed-Forward/Feed-Back Control System for a QbD-Based Continuous Tablet Manufacturing Process
Processes 2015, 3(2), 339-356; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr3020339
Received: 10 December 2014 / Revised: 20 March 2015 / Accepted: 20 April 2015 / Published: 6 May 2015
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3627 | PDF Full-text (958 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing together with PAT (Process Analytical Technology) provides a suitable platform for automatic control of the end product quality as desired by QbD (quality by design)-based efficient manufacturing. The precise control of the quality of the pharmaceutical product requires corrective actions [...] Read more.
Continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing together with PAT (Process Analytical Technology) provides a suitable platform for automatic control of the end product quality as desired by QbD (quality by design)-based efficient manufacturing. The precise control of the quality of the pharmaceutical product requires corrective actions in the process/raw material variability before product quality can be influenced. In this manuscript, a combined feed-forward/feed-back control system has been developed for a direct compaction continuous tablet manufacturing process. The feed-forward controller takes into account the effect of process disturbances proactively while the feed-back control system ensures the end product quality consistently. The coupled feed-forward/feed-back control system ensures the minimum variability in the final product quality irrespective of process and raw material variations. The performance of the combined control strategy has been evaluated through process simulation and is found to be more effective in comparison with a feed-back only control strategy and, therefore, demonstrates potential to further improve pharmaceutical tablet manufacturing operations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Chemical Engineering Perspective on the Origins of Life
Processes 2015, 3(2), 309-338; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr3020309
Received: 29 January 2015 / Revised: 18 April 2015 / Accepted: 19 April 2015 / Published: 5 May 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3395 | PDF Full-text (3473 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Atoms and molecules assemble into materials, with the material structure determining the properties and ultimate function. Human-made materials and systems have achieved great complexity, such as the integrated circuit and the modern airplane. However, they still do not rival the adaptivity and robustness [...] Read more.
Atoms and molecules assemble into materials, with the material structure determining the properties and ultimate function. Human-made materials and systems have achieved great complexity, such as the integrated circuit and the modern airplane. However, they still do not rival the adaptivity and robustness of biological systems. Understanding the reaction and assembly of molecules on the early Earth is a scientific grand challenge, and also can elucidate the design principles underlying biological materials and systems. This research requires understanding of chemical reactions, thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, heat and mass transfer, optimization, and control. Thus, the discipline of chemical engineering can play a central role in advancing the field. In this paper, an overview of research in the origins field is given, with particular emphasis on the origin of biopolymers and the role of chemical engineering phenomena. A case study is presented to highlight the importance of the environment and its coupling to the chemistry. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Network Analysis Identifies Crosstalk Interactions Governing TGF-β Signaling Dynamics during Endoderm Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells
Processes 2015, 3(2), 286-308; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr3020286
Received: 15 December 2014 / Revised: 29 March 2015 / Accepted: 24 April 2015 / Published: 4 May 2015
Viewed by 2247 | PDF Full-text (1413 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The fate choice of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is controlled by complex signaling milieu synthesized by diverse chemical factors in the growth media. Prevalence of crosstalks and interactions between parallel pathways renders any analysis probing the process of fate transition of hESCs [...] Read more.
The fate choice of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is controlled by complex signaling milieu synthesized by diverse chemical factors in the growth media. Prevalence of crosstalks and interactions between parallel pathways renders any analysis probing the process of fate transition of hESCs elusive. This work presents an important step in the evaluation of network level interactions between signaling molecules controlling endoderm lineage specification from hESCs using a statistical network identification algorithm. Network analysis was performed on detailed signaling dynamics of key molecules from TGF-β/SMAD, PI3K/AKT and MAPK/ERK pathways under two common endoderm induction conditions. The results show the existence of significant crosstalk interactions during endoderm signaling and they identify differences in network connectivity between the induction conditions in the early and late phases of signaling dynamics. Predicted networks elucidate the significant effect of modulation of AKT mediated crosstalk leading to the success of PI3K inhibition in inducing efficient endoderm from hESCs in combination with TGF-β/SMAD signaling. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Novel ARX-Based Approach for the Steady-State Identification Analysis of Industrial Depropanizer Column Datasets
Processes 2015, 3(2), 257-285; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr3020257
Received: 4 February 2015 / Revised: 15 March 2015 / Accepted: 2 April 2015 / Published: 22 April 2015
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2130 | PDF Full-text (814 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper introduces a novel steady-state identification (SSI) method based on the auto-regressive model with exogenous inputs (ARX). This method allows the SSI with reduced tuning by analyzing the identifiability properties of the system. In particular, the singularity of the model matrices is [...] Read more.
This paper introduces a novel steady-state identification (SSI) method based on the auto-regressive model with exogenous inputs (ARX). This method allows the SSI with reduced tuning by analyzing the identifiability properties of the system. In particular, the singularity of the model matrices is used as an index for steady-state determination. In this contribution, the novel SSI method is compared to other available techniques, namely the F-like test, wavelet transform and a polynomial-based approach. These methods are implemented for SSI of three different case studies. In the first case, a simulated dataset is used for calibrating the output-based SSI methods. The second case corresponds to a literature nonlinear continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) example running at different steady states in which the ARX-based approach is tuned with the available input-output data. Finally, an industrial case with real data of a depropanizer column from PETROBRAS S.A. considering different pieces of equipment is analyzed. The results for a reflux drum case indicate that the wavelet and the F-like test can satisfactorily detect the steady-state periods after careful tuning and when respecting their hypothesis, i.e., smooth data for the wavelet method and the presence of variance in the data for the F-like test. Through a heat exchanger case with different measurement frequencies, we demonstrate the advantages of using the ARX-based method over the other techniques, which include the aspect of online implementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Process Control: Current Trends and Future Challenges)
Open AccessReview A Quantitative Systems Pharmacology Perspective on Cancer Immunology
Processes 2015, 3(2), 235-256; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr3020235
Received: 7 December 2014 / Revised: 2 April 2015 / Accepted: 13 April 2015 / Published: 22 April 2015
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2343 | PDF Full-text (877 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The return on investment within the pharmaceutical industry has exhibited an exponential decline over the last several decades. Contemporary analysis suggests that the rate-limiting step associated with the drug discovery and development process is our limited understanding of the disease pathophysiology in humans [...] Read more.
The return on investment within the pharmaceutical industry has exhibited an exponential decline over the last several decades. Contemporary analysis suggests that the rate-limiting step associated with the drug discovery and development process is our limited understanding of the disease pathophysiology in humans that is targeted by a drug. Similar to other industries, mechanistic modeling and simulation has been proposed as an enabling quantitative tool to help address this problem. Moreover, immunotherapies are transforming the clinical treatment of cure cancer and are becoming a major segment of the pharmaceutical research and development pipeline. As the clinical benefit of these immunotherapies seems to be limited to subset of the patient population, identifying the specific defect in the complex network of interactions associated with host immunity to a malignancy is a major challenge for expanding the clinical benefit. Understanding the interaction between malignant and immune cells is inherently a systems problem, where an engineering perspective may be helpful. The objective of this manuscript is to summarize this quantitative systems perspective, particularly with respect to developing immunotherapies for the treatment of cancer. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Optimizing the Production of Renewable Aromatics via Crop Oil Catalytic Cracking
Processes 2015, 3(2), 222-234; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr3020222
Received: 9 February 2015 / Revised: 26 March 2015 / Accepted: 28 March 2015 / Published: 3 April 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2479 | PDF Full-text (717 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
While HZSM-5 catalytic cracking of crop oil toward aromatics have been well documented, this work adds to this body of knowledge with a full acid byproduct analysis that provides improved mass balance closure along with a design of experiment optimization of reaction conditions. [...] Read more.
While HZSM-5 catalytic cracking of crop oil toward aromatics have been well documented, this work adds to this body of knowledge with a full acid byproduct analysis that provides improved mass balance closure along with a design of experiment optimization of reaction conditions. Fatty acids are an inevitable byproduct when converting any triglyceride oil, but are most often overlooked; despite the impact fatty acids have on downstream processing. Acid analysis verified that only short chain fatty acids, mainly acetic acid, were present in low quantities when all feed oil was reacted. When relatively high fatty acid amounts were present, these were mainly uncracked C16 and C18 fatty acids. Optimization is a balance of aromatics formation vs. unwanted gas products, coke and residual fatty acids. A design of experiments approach was used to provide insight into where the optimal reaction conditions reside for HZSM-5 facilitated reactions. These conditions can then form the basis for further development into a commercially viable process for the production of renewable aromatics and other byproducts. Full article
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