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Children, Volume 6, Issue 8 (August 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Pleuropulmonary blastomas (PPB) are sarcomatous malignant pediatric tumors of the lung parenchyma [...] Read more.
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Open AccessReview
Applying Trauma-Informed Practices to the Care of Refugee and Immigrant Youth: 10 Clinical Pearls
Children 2019, 6(8), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/children6080094 - 20 Aug 2019
Viewed by 553
Abstract
Immigrant and refugee youth have higher rates of trauma than youth who are not transnational. While youth are incredibly resilient, trauma and toxic stress can result in poor health outcomes that persist throughout life. However, clinical interventions can promote resilience and decrease the [...] Read more.
Immigrant and refugee youth have higher rates of trauma than youth who are not transnational. While youth are incredibly resilient, trauma and toxic stress can result in poor health outcomes that persist throughout life. However, clinical interventions can promote resilience and decrease the negative impact of trauma. This article will review the principles of trauma-informed care and its application for the care of immigrant and refugee youth and their families by sharing concrete and feasible strategies for primary care providers and systems. Full article
Open AccessReview
Researching the Experiences of Children with Cancer: Considerations for Practice
Children 2019, 6(8), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/children6080093 - 16 Aug 2019
Viewed by 476
Abstract
Children and adolescents with cancer often participate in medical and psychosocial research throughout their diagnosis and treatment. Furthermore, this involvement frequently extends into the survivorship period. Sometimes referred to as “doubly vulnerable” research participants, children and adolescents with cancer are not only minors, [...] Read more.
Children and adolescents with cancer often participate in medical and psychosocial research throughout their diagnosis and treatment. Furthermore, this involvement frequently extends into the survivorship period. Sometimes referred to as “doubly vulnerable” research participants, children and adolescents with cancer are not only minors, but also minors facing significant medical, developmental, and psychosocial stressors associated with chronic illness. Thus, it is important to exercise care in designing and conducting research with this population; however, these considerations have not been adequately addressed in pediatric healthcare literature. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to describe the research preferences and experiences of children and adolescents with cancer to identify techniques for supporting this population as research participants. By incorporating developmentally appropriate, context-specific, and child-centered adjustments, researchers can help children and adolescents with cancer effectively and meaningfully describe their illness experiences while also developing a positive outlook on future research participation. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Developmental Pathways of Preschool Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Communicative and Social Sequelae One Year after Treatment
Children 2019, 6(8), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/children6080092 - 13 Aug 2019
Viewed by 538
Abstract
Early childhood is considered to be a period of rapid development, with the acquisition of abilities predicting future positive school competences. Motor, cognitive, and social difficulties related to cancer therapies heavily impact the development of children with cancer. This study focused on two [...] Read more.
Early childhood is considered to be a period of rapid development, with the acquisition of abilities predicting future positive school competences. Motor, cognitive, and social difficulties related to cancer therapies heavily impact the development of children with cancer. This study focused on two main aims: To assess the developmental pathways of preschool children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia one year post-treatment and to compare these abilities both with those of a control group of healthy peers and with Italian norms. Forty-four children and their families, recruited through the Hematology-Oncologic Clinic of the Department of Child and Woman Health (University of Padua), agreed to participate in this study. The children’s mean age was 4.52 years (SD = 0.94, range = 2.5–6 years), equally distributed by gender, all diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Matched healthy peers were recruited through pediatricians’ ambulatories. Each family was interviewed adopting the Vineland adaptive behavior scales. Paired sample Wilcoxon tests revealed that children were reported to have significantly more developmental difficulties than their healthy peers. When compared with Italian norms, they scored particularly low in verbal competence, social, and coping skills. No significant association was found between treatment variables and developmental abilities. These findings suggest that the creation of specialized interventions, both for parents and children, may fill the possible delays in children’s development probably due to stress, lack of adequate stimulation, or difficult adaptation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Cognitive Processes Underlying Reading Improvement during a Rhythm-Based Intervention. A Small-Scale Investigation of Italian Children with Dyslexia
Children 2019, 6(8), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/children6080091 - 08 Aug 2019
Viewed by 640
Abstract
Music and rhythm-based training programs to improve reading are a novel approach to treatment of developmental dyslexia and have attracted the attention of trainers and researchers. Experimental studies demonstrating poor basic auditory processing abilities in individuals with dyslexia suggest they should be effective. [...] Read more.
Music and rhythm-based training programs to improve reading are a novel approach to treatment of developmental dyslexia and have attracted the attention of trainers and researchers. Experimental studies demonstrating poor basic auditory processing abilities in individuals with dyslexia suggest they should be effective. On this basis, the efficacy of a novel rhythm-based intervention, Rhythmic Reading Training (RRT), was recently investigated and found to improve reading skills in Italian children with dyslexia, but its mode of action remains somewhat unclear. In this study, 19 children and preadolescents with dyslexia received 20 sessions of RRT over 10 weeks. Gains in a set of reading-related cognitive abilities—verbal working memory, auditory, and visual attention, and rhythm processing—were measured, along with reading outcomes. Analysis of the specific contribution of cognitive subprocesses to the primary effect of RRT highlighted that reading speed improvement during the intervention was related to rhythm and auditory discrimination abilities as well as verbal working memory. The relationships among specific reading parameters and the neuropsychological profile of participants are discussed. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Comparing Standardized and Parent-Reported Motor Outcomes of Extremely Preterm Infants
Children 2019, 6(8), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/children6080090 - 01 Aug 2019
Viewed by 703
Abstract
Extremely preterm infants are at increased risk of motor impairment. The Canadian Neonatal Follow-Up Network (CNFUN) afforded an opportunity to study the outcomes of extremely preterm children. The purpose of this study was to compare 18-month corrected age (CA) motor outcomes of extremely [...] Read more.
Extremely preterm infants are at increased risk of motor impairment. The Canadian Neonatal Follow-Up Network (CNFUN) afforded an opportunity to study the outcomes of extremely preterm children. The purpose of this study was to compare 18-month corrected age (CA) motor outcomes of extremely preterm infants with parent-reported functional outcomes at 3 years CA. CNFUN data of 1376 infants were used to conduct chi-square analyses to compare Bayley-III motor scores (composite, gross, and fine motor) at 18 months CA with parent-reported Ages and Stages Questionnaire motor scores (gross and fine motor) at 3 years CA. The correlation of motor scores at 18-months CA with parent-reported gross and fine motor scores at 3 years CA was also examined. We found that 1 in 5 infants scoring within or above the average range on the Bayley-III had parent-reported functional fine and gross motor difficulties at 3 years CA. Bayley-III scores were only moderately correlated with functional motor outcomes. Results of the study suggest that the Bayley-III at 18 months CA was able to detect the majority of infants with motor problems, but not all; therefore, ongoing follow-up of extremely preterm infants is required. The Bayley-III motor composite score has greater clinical utility compared to sub-scale scores. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurodevelopment of Survivors Born Very Preterm)
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Open AccessReview
Emerging Topics in Cardiometabolic and Psychologic Sequelae, Pathogenesis, and Treatment of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: A Review
Children 2019, 6(8), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/children6080089 - 31 Jul 2019
Viewed by 709
Abstract
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder, affecting 6–10% of reproductive age women and influences the reproductive, metabolic, dermatologic, and psychiatric health of affected girls and women. Despite its prevalence, the pathogenesis of the disease is largely unknown, and treatment options [...] Read more.
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder, affecting 6–10% of reproductive age women and influences the reproductive, metabolic, dermatologic, and psychiatric health of affected girls and women. Despite its prevalence, the pathogenesis of the disease is largely unknown, and treatment options are limited. Thus, PCOS has been a ripe area for research in recent years, and novel etiologic pathways, diagnostic parameters, and treatment options are being explored. This review focuses on recent data suggesting pathogenic and therapeutic considerations, as well as the psychiatric and metabolic sequelae of PCOS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obesity and Metabolic Dysregulation in Childhood)
Open AccessReview
Complementary and Integrative Management of Pediatric Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction Implemented within an Interprofessional Clinic
Children 2019, 6(8), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/children6080088 - 30 Jul 2019
Viewed by 721
Abstract
Lower urinary tract dysfunction in children is a common multifactorial functional problem that often correlates with bowel dysfunction and behavioral disorders. Ideal management combines integrative therapies that optimize bladder and bowel habits, address behavioral issues, foster mind–body connection, and improve pelvic floor muscle [...] Read more.
Lower urinary tract dysfunction in children is a common multifactorial functional problem that often correlates with bowel dysfunction and behavioral disorders. Ideal management combines integrative therapies that optimize bladder and bowel habits, address behavioral issues, foster mind–body connection, and improve pelvic floor muscle dysfunction. Movement therapies that teach diaphragmatic breathing and relaxation, mind–body awareness, and healthy pelvic floor muscle function are vital for long-term symptom improvement in children. This paper outlines recommendations for integrative management of these patients and discusses a recently developed interprofessional clinic that aims to better meet these patients’ complex needs and to provide patients with an integrated holistic plan of care. Additional work is needed to scientifically assess these treatment models and educate providers across the various disciplines that evaluate and treat these patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Complementary and Integrative Movement Therapies for Children)
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Open AccessOpinion
Challenges in Caring for Linguistic Minorities in the Pediatric Population
Children 2019, 6(8), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/children6080087 - 25 Jul 2019
Viewed by 763
Abstract
Physicians in the United States (U.S.) face unique obstacles in providing care for persons with limited English proficiency (LEP), especially speakers of rare languages. Lack of professional resources is not a problem exclusive to health care delivery, with speakers of Mayan dialects receiving [...] Read more.
Physicians in the United States (U.S.) face unique obstacles in providing care for persons with limited English proficiency (LEP), especially speakers of rare languages. Lack of professional resources is not a problem exclusive to health care delivery, with speakers of Mayan dialects receiving increasingly narrow representation in detention centers and immigration courts at the U.S.–Mexico border. Parent-child dynamics and other crucial information related to pediatric care may be lost in translation in the event of inadequate interpreter services. Several strategies could address disparities in medical care faced by persons with LEP, speaking rare as well as more common languages. These include increasing the availability of professional interpreters via expanded and/or incentivized training programs, providing focused education in interpreter services for medical students, and unifying interpretation services provided by local consulates and nonprofit agencies for both medical and legal purposes. Full article
Open AccessReview
Current Management of Pleuropulmonary Blastoma: A Surgical Perspective
Children 2019, 6(8), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/children6080086 - 25 Jul 2019
Viewed by 883
Abstract
Pleuropulmonary blastomas (PPB) are pediatric, embryonal cancers of the lung parenchyma and pleural surfaces and are among the most common DICER1—related disorders. These tumors undergo evolution through several forms, allowing division into types I, Ir, II, and III, with correlates to the age [...] Read more.
Pleuropulmonary blastomas (PPB) are pediatric, embryonal cancers of the lung parenchyma and pleural surfaces and are among the most common DICER1—related disorders. These tumors undergo evolution through several forms, allowing division into types I, Ir, II, and III, with correlates to the age of diagnosis and prognosis. We sought to provide a comprehensive review of the relevant literature describing the characteristics of these tumors and their multidisciplinary treatment, with an emphasis on surgical management. We describe the complementary roles of chemotherapy and surgery in the successful management of this disease. We discuss the timing of surgery and options for surgical approaches. We address the differentiation of PPB from congenital pulmonary airway malformation and the role of DICER1 testing for children with pulmonary cysts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Surgical Oncology)
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