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Biomedicines, Volume 4, Issue 3 (September 2016) – 11 articles

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Showing the Way: Oncolytic Adenoviruses as Chaperones of Immunostimulatory Adjuncts
Biomedicines 2016, 4(3), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines4030023 - 19 Sep 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1781
Abstract
Oncolytic adenoviruses (OAds) are increasingly recognized as vectors for immunotherapy in the treatment of various solid tumors. The myriads of advantages of using adenovirus include targeted specificity upon infection and selective replication, which lead to localized viral burst, exponential spread of OAds, and [...] Read more.
Oncolytic adenoviruses (OAds) are increasingly recognized as vectors for immunotherapy in the treatment of various solid tumors. The myriads of advantages of using adenovirus include targeted specificity upon infection and selective replication, which lead to localized viral burst, exponential spread of OAds, and antitumor effect. OAds can also induce a strong immune reaction due to the massive release of tumor antigens upon cytolysis and the presence of viral antigens. This review will highlight recent advances in adenoviral vectors expressing immunostimulatory effectors, such as GM-CSF (granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor), interferon-α, interleukin-12, and CD40L. We will also discuss the combination of OAds with other immunotherapeutic strategies and describe the current understanding of how adenoviral vectors interact with the immune system to eliminate cancer cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oncolytic Viruses as a Novel Form of Immunotherapy for Cancer)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
An Abraded Surface of Doxorubicin-Loaded Surfactant-Containing Drug Delivery Systems Effectively Reduces the Survival of Carcinoma Cells
Biomedicines 2016, 4(3), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines4030022 - 15 Sep 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2439
Abstract
An effective antitumor remedy is yet to be developed. All previous approaches for a targeted delivery of anticancer medicine have relied on trial and error. The goal of this study was to use structural insights gained from the study of delivery systems and [...] Read more.
An effective antitumor remedy is yet to be developed. All previous approaches for a targeted delivery of anticancer medicine have relied on trial and error. The goal of this study was to use structural insights gained from the study of delivery systems and malignant cells to provide for a systematic approach to the development of next-generation drugs. We used doxorubicin (Dox) liposomal formulations. We assayed for cytotoxicity via the electrical current exclusion method. Dialysis of the samples yielded information about their drug release profiles. Information about the surface of the delivery systems was obtained through synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements. SAXS measurements revealed that Dox-loading yielded an abraded surface of our Dox liposomal formulation containing soybean oil, which also correlated with an effective reduction of the survival of carcinoma cells. Furthermore, a dialysis assay revealed that a higher burst of Dox was released from soybean oil-containing preparations within the first five hours. We conclude from our results that an abraded surface of Dox-loaded drug delivery system increases their efficacy. The apparent match between surface geometry of drug delivery systems and target cells is suggested as a steppingstone for refined development of drug delivery systems. This is the first study to provide a systematic approach to developing next-generation drug carrier systems using structural insights to guide the development of next-generation drug delivery systems with increased efficacy and reduced side effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Tumor Immunology and Immunotherapy)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Capitalizing on Cancer Specific Replication: Oncolytic Viruses as a Versatile Platform for the Enhancement of Cancer Immunotherapy Strategies
Biomedicines 2016, 4(3), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines4030021 - 24 Aug 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2566
Abstract
The past decade has seen considerable excitement in the use of biological therapies in treating neoplastic disease. In particular, cancer immunotherapy and oncolytic virotherapy have emerged as two frontrunners in this regard with the first FDA approvals for agents in both categories being [...] Read more.
The past decade has seen considerable excitement in the use of biological therapies in treating neoplastic disease. In particular, cancer immunotherapy and oncolytic virotherapy have emerged as two frontrunners in this regard with the first FDA approvals for agents in both categories being obtained in the last 5 years. It is becoming increasingly apparent that these two approaches are not mutually exclusive and that much of the therapeutic benefit obtained from the use of oncolytic viruses (OVs) is in fact the result of their immunotherapeutic function. Indeed, OVs have been shown to recruit and activate an antitumor immune response and much of the current work in this field centers around increasing this activity through strategies such as engineering genes for immunomodulators into OV backbones. Because of their broad immunostimulatory functions, OVs can also be rationally combined with a variety of other immunotherapeutic approaches including cancer vaccination strategies, adoptive cell transfer and checkpoint blockade. Therefore, while they are important therapeutics in their own right, the true power of OVs may lie in their ability to enhance the effectiveness of a wide range of immunotherapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oncolytic Viruses as a Novel Form of Immunotherapy for Cancer)
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Open AccessReview
Emerging Therapeutic Potential of Nanoparticles in Pancreatic Cancer: A Systematic Review of Clinical Trials
Biomedicines 2016, 4(3), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines4030020 - 19 Aug 2016
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2908
Abstract
Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive disease with a five year survival rate of less than 5%, which is associated with late presentation. In recent years, research into nanomedicine and the use of nanoparticles as therapeutic agents for cancers has increased. This article describes [...] Read more.
Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive disease with a five year survival rate of less than 5%, which is associated with late presentation. In recent years, research into nanomedicine and the use of nanoparticles as therapeutic agents for cancers has increased. This article describes the latest developments in the use of nanoparticles, and evaluates the risks and benefits of nanoparticles as an emerging therapy for pancreatic cancer. The Preferred Reporting Items of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses checklist was used. Studies were extracted by searching the Embase, MEDLINE, SCOPUS, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases from inception to 18 March 2016 with no language restrictions. Clinical trials involving the use of nanoparticles as a therapeutic or prognostic option in patients with pancreatic cancer were considered. Selected studies were evaluated using the Jadad score for randomised control trials and the Therapy CA Worksheet for intervention studies. Of the 210 articles found, 10 clinical trials including one randomised control trial and nine phase I/II clinical trials met the inclusion criteria and were analysed. These studies demonstrated that nanoparticles can be used in conjunction with chemotherapeutic agents increasing their efficacy whilst reducing their toxicity. Increased efficacy of treatment with nanoparticles may improve the clinical outcomes and quality of life in patients with pancreatic cancer, although the long-term side effects are yet to be defined. The study registration number is CRD42015020009. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Tumor Immunology and Immunotherapy)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Recombinant Poxvirus and the Tumor Microenvironment: Oncolysis, Immune Regulation and Immunization
Biomedicines 2016, 4(3), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines4030019 - 12 Aug 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2360
Abstract
Oncolytic viruses (OVs) are being extensively studied for their potential roles in the development of cancer therapy regimens. In addition to their direct lytic effects, OVs can initiate and drive systemic antitumor immunity indirectly via release of tumor antigen, as well as by [...] Read more.
Oncolytic viruses (OVs) are being extensively studied for their potential roles in the development of cancer therapy regimens. In addition to their direct lytic effects, OVs can initiate and drive systemic antitumor immunity indirectly via release of tumor antigen, as well as by encoding and delivering immunostimulatory molecules. This combination makes them an effective platform for the development of immunotherapeutic strategies beyond their primary lytic function. Engineering the viruses to also express tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) allows them to simultaneously serve as therapeutic vaccines, targeting and amplifying an immune response to TAAs. Our group and others have shown that vaccinating intratumorally with a poxvirus that encodes TAAs, in addition to immune stimulatory molecules, can modulate the tumor microenvironment, overcome immune inhibitory pathways, and drive both local and systemic tumor specific immune responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oncolytic Viruses as a Novel Form of Immunotherapy for Cancer)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
From Benchtop to Bedside: A Review of Oncolytic Virotherapy
Biomedicines 2016, 4(3), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines4030018 - 02 Aug 2016
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 2799
Abstract
Oncolytic viruses (OVs) demonstrate the ability to replicate selectively in cancer cells, resulting in antitumor effects by a variety of mechanisms, including direct cell lysis and indirect cell death through immune-mediate host responses. Although the mechanisms of action of OVs are still not [...] Read more.
Oncolytic viruses (OVs) demonstrate the ability to replicate selectively in cancer cells, resulting in antitumor effects by a variety of mechanisms, including direct cell lysis and indirect cell death through immune-mediate host responses. Although the mechanisms of action of OVs are still not fully understood, major advances have been made in our understanding of how OVs function and interact with the host immune system, resulting in the recent FDA approval of the first OV for cancer therapy in the USA. This review provides an overview of the history of OVs, their selectivity for cancer cells, and their multifaceted mechanism of antitumor action, as well as strategies employed to augment selectivity and efficacy of OVs. OVs in combination with standard cancer therapies are also discussed, as well as a review of ongoing human clinical trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oncolytic Viruses as a Novel Form of Immunotherapy for Cancer)
Open AccessArticle
In Vitro Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Microbial Potentiality Investigation of Different Fractions of Caryota urens Leaves
Biomedicines 2016, 4(3), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines4030017 - 27 Jul 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2082
Abstract
Background: Caryota urens is a member of the Arecaceae family and a common plant in the Southeast Asian region. This plant has been reported as an anti-microbial agent in recent years. Thus, we aimed to find out the MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) against [...] Read more.
Background: Caryota urens is a member of the Arecaceae family and a common plant in the Southeast Asian region. This plant has been reported as an anti-microbial agent in recent years. Thus, we aimed to find out the MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) against different pathogenic microorganism. Methods: The leaves of C. urens were extracted and fractioned using different reagents (chloroform, n-hexane and carbon tetrachloride). Disc diffusion method was implemented for the assessment of in vitro anti-microbial potency (500 and 250 µg/disc). Result: The entire fraction showed good effect (with the zone of inhibition 19–25 mm) against both gram positive (Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus cereus, Sarina lutea) and gram negative (Vibrio mimicus, Shigella boydii, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacterial pathogens and fungal strains (Aspergillus niger, Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The plants also possess effective free radical scavenging potency with an IC50 of 130.32 µg/mL. Conclusion: This finding reflects a link between the presence of anti-oxidative material and a substantial anti-microbial activity, and substantiates all previous claims against C. urens. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Fifty Years of Clinical Application of Newcastle Disease Virus: Time to Celebrate!
Biomedicines 2016, 4(3), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines4030016 - 20 Jul 2016
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 2647
Abstract
This review provides an overview of 50 years of basic and clinical research on an oncolytic avian virus, Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV), which has particular anti-neoplastic and immune stimulatory properties. Of special interest is the fact that this biological agent induces immunogenic cell [...] Read more.
This review provides an overview of 50 years of basic and clinical research on an oncolytic avian virus, Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV), which has particular anti-neoplastic and immune stimulatory properties. Of special interest is the fact that this biological agent induces immunogenic cell death and systemic anti-tumor immunity. Furthermore, localized oncolytic virotherapy with NDV was shown to overcome systemic tumor resistance to immune checkpoint blockade immunotherapy. Clinical experience attests to low side effects and a high safety profile. This is due among others to the strong virus-induced type I interferon response. Other viral characteristics are lack of interaction with host cell DNA, lack of genetic recombination and independence of virus replication from cell proliferation. In this millennium, new recombinant strains of viruses are being produced with improved therapeutic properties. Clinical applications include single case observations, case series studies and Phase I to III studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oncolytic Viruses as a Novel Form of Immunotherapy for Cancer)
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Open AccessArticle
Design, Synthesis and Biochemical Evaluation of Novel Selective Estrogen Receptor Ligand Conjugates Incorporating an Endoxifen-Combretastatin Hybrid Scaffold
Biomedicines 2016, 4(3), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines4030015 - 20 Jul 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2148
Abstract
Nuclear-receptors are often overexpressed in tumours and can thereby be used as targets when designing novel selective chemotherapeutic agents. To date, many conjugates incorporating an estrogen receptor (ER) ligand have been synthesised in order to direct chemical agents to tissue sites containing ERs. [...] Read more.
Nuclear-receptors are often overexpressed in tumours and can thereby be used as targets when designing novel selective chemotherapeutic agents. To date, many conjugates incorporating an estrogen receptor (ER) ligand have been synthesised in order to direct chemical agents to tissue sites containing ERs. A series of ER ligand conjugates were synthesised incorporating an antagonistic ER ligand scaffold based on endoxifen, covalently-bound via an amide linkage to a variety of combretastatin-based analogues, which may act as antimitotic agents. These novel endoxifen-combretastatin hybrid scaffold analogues were biochemically evaluated in order to determine their antiproliferative and cytotoxicity effects in both the ER-positive MCF-7 and the ER-negative MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines. ER competitive binding assays were carried out to assess the binding affinity of the lead conjugate 28 towards both the ERα and ERβ isoforms. In results from the NCI 60-cell line screen, the lead conjugate 28 displayed potent and highly selective antiproliferative activity towards the MCF-7 human cancer cell line (IC50 = 5 nM). In the ER-binding assays, the lead conjugate 28 demonstrated potent ER competitive binding in ERα (IC50 value: 0.9 nM) and ERβ (IC50 value: 4.7 nM). Preliminary biochemical results also demonstrate that the lead conjugate 28 may exhibit pure antagonism. This series makes an important addition to the class of ER antagonists and may have potential applications in anticancer therapy. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Antibody–Drug Conjugates for Cancer Therapy
Biomedicines 2016, 4(3), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines4030014 - 11 Jul 2016
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 5351
Abstract
Antibody–drug conjugates (ADCs) take advantage of the specificity of a monoclonal antibody to deliver a linked cytotoxic agent directly into a tumour cell. The development of these compounds provides exciting opportunities for improvements in patient care. Here, we review the key issues impacting [...] Read more.
Antibody–drug conjugates (ADCs) take advantage of the specificity of a monoclonal antibody to deliver a linked cytotoxic agent directly into a tumour cell. The development of these compounds provides exciting opportunities for improvements in patient care. Here, we review the key issues impacting on the clinical success of ADCs in cancer therapy. Like many other developing therapeutic classes, there remain challenges in the design and optimisation of these compounds. As the clinical applications for ADCs continue to expand, key strategies to improve patient outcomes include better patient selection for treatment and the identification of mechanisms of therapy resistance. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Tumor-Associated Macrophages in Oncolytic Virotherapy: Friend or Foe?
Biomedicines 2016, 4(3), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines4030013 - 07 Jul 2016
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3166
Abstract
Cancer therapy remains a challenge due to toxicity limitations of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Oncolytic viruses that selectively replicate and destroy cancer cells are of increasing interest. In addition to direct cell lysis, these vectors stimulate an anti-tumor immune response. A key regulator [...] Read more.
Cancer therapy remains a challenge due to toxicity limitations of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Oncolytic viruses that selectively replicate and destroy cancer cells are of increasing interest. In addition to direct cell lysis, these vectors stimulate an anti-tumor immune response. A key regulator of tumor immunity is the tumor-associated macrophage population. Macrophages can either support oncolytic virus therapy through pro-inflammatory stimulation of the anti-tumor response at the cost of hindering direct oncolysis or through immunosuppressive protection of virus replication at the cost of hindering the anti-tumor immune response. Despite similarities in macrophage interaction between adult and pediatric tumors and the abundance of research supporting macrophage modulation in adult tumors, there are few studies investigating macrophage modulation in pediatric cancers or modulation of immunotherapy. We review the current state of knowledge regarding macrophages in cancers and their influence on oncolytic virotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oncolytic Viruses as a Novel Form of Immunotherapy for Cancer)
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