Previous Issue
Volume 6, November

Table of Contents

Aerospace, Volume 6, Issue 12 (December 2019)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle
Determination of Serviceability Limits of a Turboshaft Engine by the Criterion of Blade Natural Frequency and Stall Margin
Aerospace 2019, 6(12), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace6120132 (registering DOI) - 09 Dec 2019
Abstract
This paper analyzes the health and performance of the 12-stage axial compressor of the TV3-117VM/VMA turboshaft operated in a desert environment. The results of the dimensional control of 4800 worn blades are analyzed to model the wear process. Operational experience and two-phase flow [...] Read more.
This paper analyzes the health and performance of the 12-stage axial compressor of the TV3-117VM/VMA turboshaft operated in a desert environment. The results of the dimensional control of 4800 worn blades are analyzed to model the wear process. Operational experience and two-phase flow simulations are used to assess the effectiveness of an inlet particle separator. Numerical modal analysis is performed to generate the Campbell diagram of the worn blades and identify resonant blade vibrations which can lead to high cycle fatigue (HCF): mode 7 engine order 30 in the first stage and mode 8 engine order 60 in the fourth. It is also shown that the gradual loss of the stall margin over time determines the serviceability limits of compressor blades. In particular, the chord wear of sixth-stage blades as high as 6.19 mm results in a reduction of the stall margin by 15–17% and a permanent stall at 770–790 flight hours. In addition, recommendations setting out go/no-go criteria are made to maintenance and repair organizations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 9th EASN International Conference on Innovation in Aviation & Space)
Open AccessArticle
Integration and Verification Approach of ISTSat-1 CubeSat
Aerospace 2019, 6(12), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace6120131 - 01 Dec 2019
Abstract
Large-scale space projects rely on a thorough Assembly, Integration, and Verification (AIV) process to provide the upmost reliability to spacecraft. While this has not traditionally been the case with CubeSats, their increasing role in space science and technology has led to new verification [...] Read more.
Large-scale space projects rely on a thorough Assembly, Integration, and Verification (AIV) process to provide the upmost reliability to spacecraft. While this has not traditionally been the case with CubeSats, their increasing role in space science and technology has led to new verification approaches, including in educational CubeSats. This work describes the integration and verification approach for ISTSat-1, which is an educational CubeSat from the Instituto Superior Técnico in Portugal that partially discards the typical stage-gate approach to spacecraft development in favor of a more iterative approach, allowing for the system-level verification of unfinished prototypes. Early verification included software functional testing on a flatsat model, thermal vacuum and vibration testing on a battery model, ionizing radiation testing on the on-board computer, and non-ionizing radiation (EMC) testing on all subsystems. The testing of functional prototypes at an early development stage led to uncovering system-level errors that would typically require hardware redesign at a later project stage. The team considers the approach to be useful for educational projects that employ a small, co-located team with low non-recurring engineering costs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Verification Approaches for Nano- and Micro-Satellites)
Open AccessArticle
Hardware-In-The-Loop and Software-In-The-Loop Testing of the MOVE-II CubeSat
Aerospace 2019, 6(12), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace6120130 - 01 Dec 2019
Abstract
This article reports the ongoing work on an environment for hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) and software-in-the-loop (SIL) tests of CubeSats and the benefits gained from using such an environment for low-cost satellite development. The satellite tested for these reported efforts was the MOVE-II CubeSat, developed [...] Read more.
This article reports the ongoing work on an environment for hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) and software-in-the-loop (SIL) tests of CubeSats and the benefits gained from using such an environment for low-cost satellite development. The satellite tested for these reported efforts was the MOVE-II CubeSat, developed at the Technical University of Munich since April 2015. The HIL environment has supported the development and verification of MOVE-II’s flight software and continues to aid the MOVE-II mission after its launch on 3 December 2018. The HIL environment allows the satellite to interact with a simulated space environment in real-time during on-ground tests. Simulated models are used to replace the satellite’s sensors and actuators, providing the interaction between the satellite and the HIL simulation. This approach allows for high hardware coverage and requires relatively low development effort and equipment cost compared to other simulation approaches. One key distinction from other simulation environments is the inclusion of the electrical domain of the satellite, which enables accurate power budget verification. The presented results include the verification of MOVE-II’s attitude determination and control algorithms, the verification of the power budget, and the training of the operator team with realistic simulated failures prior to launch. This report additionally presents how the simulation environment was used to analyze issues detected after launch and to verify the performance of new software developed to address the in-flight anomalies prior to software deployment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Verification Approaches for Nano- and Micro-Satellites)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Influence of Polyisobutylene Kerosene Additive on Combustion Efficiency in a Liquid Propellant Rocket Engine
Aerospace 2019, 6(12), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace6120129 - 27 Nov 2019
Abstract
The combustion of kerosene with the polymer additive polyisobutylene (PIB) was experimentally investigated. The aim of the study was to measure the effect of PIB kerosene on the efficiency of combustion chamber cooling and the combustion efficiency of the liquid propellant for a [...] Read more.
The combustion of kerosene with the polymer additive polyisobutylene (PIB) was experimentally investigated. The aim of the study was to measure the effect of PIB kerosene on the efficiency of combustion chamber cooling and the combustion efficiency of the liquid propellant for a rocket engine operating on kerosene and gaseous oxygen (GOX). The study was conducted on an experimental rocket engine using kerosene wall film cooling in the combustion chamber. Fire tests showed that the addition of polyisobutylene to kerosene had no significant effect on the combustion efficiency. However, analysis of the wall temperature measurement results showed that the use of PIB kerosene is more effective for film cooling than pure kerosene, which can increase the efficiency of combustion chamber cooling and subsequently increase its reliability and reusability. Thus, the findings of this study are expected to be of use in further investigations of wall film cooling efficiency. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditorial
Special Issue “Advances in Hybrid Rocket Technology and Related Analysis Methodologies”
Aerospace 2019, 6(12), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace6120128 - 26 Nov 2019
Abstract
Hybrid rockets are chemical propulsion systems that, in the most common configuration, employ a liquid oxidizer (or gaseous in much rarer cases) and a solid fuel; the oxidizer, stored in tanks, is properly injected in the combustion chamber where the solid fuel grain [...] Read more.
Hybrid rockets are chemical propulsion systems that, in the most common configuration, employ a liquid oxidizer (or gaseous in much rarer cases) and a solid fuel; the oxidizer, stored in tanks, is properly injected in the combustion chamber where the solid fuel grain is bonded [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Nano-Sized and Mechanically Activated Composites: Perspectives for Enhanced Mass Burning Rate in Aluminized Solid Fuels for Hybrid Rocket Propulsion
Aerospace 2019, 6(12), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace6120127 - 25 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
This work provides a lab-scale investigation of the ballistics of solid fuel formulations based on hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene and loaded with Al-based energetic additives. Tested metal-based fillers span from micron- to nano-sized powders and include oxidizer-containing fuel-rich composites. The latter are obtained by chemical [...] Read more.
This work provides a lab-scale investigation of the ballistics of solid fuel formulations based on hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene and loaded with Al-based energetic additives. Tested metal-based fillers span from micron- to nano-sized powders and include oxidizer-containing fuel-rich composites. The latter are obtained by chemical and mechanical processes providing reduced diffusion distance between Al and the oxidizing species source. A thorough pre-burning characterization of the additives is performed. The combustion behaviors of the tested formulations are analyzed considering the solid fuel regression rate and the mass burning rate as the main parameters of interest. A non-metallized formulation is taken as baseline for the relative grading of the tested fuels. Instantaneous and time-average regression rate data are determined by an optical time-resolved technique. The ballistic responses of the fuels are analyzed together with high-speed visualizations of the regressing surface. The fuel formulation loaded with 10 wt.% nano-sized aluminum (ALEX-100) shows a mass burning rate enhancement over the baseline of 55% ± 11% for an oxygen mass flux of 325 ± 20 kg/(m2∙s), but this performance increase nearly disappears as combustion proceeds. Captured high-speed images of the regressing surface show the critical issue of aggregation affecting the ALEX-100-loaded formulation and hindering the metal combustion. The oxidizer-containing composite additives promote metal ignition and (partial) burning in the oxidizer-lean region of the reacting boundary layer. Fuels loaded with 10 wt.% fluoropolymer-coated nano-Al show mass burning rate enhancement over the baseline >40% for oxygen mass flux in the range 325 to 155 kg/(m2∙s). The regression rate data of the fuel composition loaded with nano-sized Al-ammonium perchlorate composite show similar results. In these formulations, the oxidizer content in the fuel grain is <2 wt.%, but it plays a key role in performance enhancement thanks to the reduced metal–oxidizer diffusion distance. Formulations loaded with mechanically activated ALEX-100–polytetrafluoroethylene composites show mass burning rate increases up to 140% ± 20% with metal mass fractions of 30%. This performance is achieved with the fluoropolymer mass fraction in the additive of 45%. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Predesign Considerations for the DC Link Voltage Level of the CENTRELINE Fuselage Fan Drive Unit
Aerospace 2019, 6(12), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace6120126 - 20 Nov 2019
Abstract
Electric propulsion (EP) systems offer considerably more degrees of freedom (DOFs) within the design process of aircraft compared to conventional aircraft engines. This requires large, computationally expensive design space explorations (DSE) with coupled models of the single components to incorporate interdependencies during optimization. [...] Read more.
Electric propulsion (EP) systems offer considerably more degrees of freedom (DOFs) within the design process of aircraft compared to conventional aircraft engines. This requires large, computationally expensive design space explorations (DSE) with coupled models of the single components to incorporate interdependencies during optimization. The purpose of this paper is to exemplarily study these interdependencies of system key performance parameters (KPIs), e.g., system mass and efficiency, for a varying DC link voltage level of the power transmission system considering the example of the propulsion system of the CENTRELINE project, including an electric motor, a DC/AC inverter, and the DC power transmission cables. Each component is described by a physically derived, analytical model linking specific subdomains, e.g., electromagnetics, structural mechanics and thermal analysis, which are used for a coupled system model. This approach strongly enhances model accuracy and simultaneously keeps the computational effort at a low level. The results of the DSE reveal that the system KPIs improve for higher DC link voltage despite slightly inferior performance of motor and inverter as the mass of the DC power transmission cable has a major share for a an aircraft of the size as in the CENTRELINE project. Modeling of further components and implementation of optimization strategies will be part of future work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 9th EASN International Conference on Innovation in Aviation & Space)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Back to TopTop