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Open AccessArticle

Distribution and Community Assembly of Trees Along an Andean Elevational Gradient

1
Department of Biology, Columbus State University, University System of Georgia, Columbus, GA 31907, USA
2
Department of Biology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
3
Laboratorio de Ecología de Plantas, Escuela de Ciencias Biológicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, Quito 170143, Ecuador
4
Herbario QCA, Escuela de Ciencias Biológicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, Quito 170143, Ecuador
5
The Lovett School, Atlanta, GA 30327, USA
6
State Botanical Garden of Georgia, Athens, GA 30605, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Plants 2019, 8(9), 326; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8090326
Received: 26 July 2019 / Revised: 24 August 2019 / Accepted: 28 August 2019 / Published: 5 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant DNA Barcode)
Highlighting patterns of distribution and assembly of plants involves the use of community phylogenetic analyses and complementary traditional taxonomic metrics. However, these patterns are often unknown or in dispute, particularly along elevational gradients, with studies finding different patterns based on elevation. We investigated how patterns of tree diversity and structure change along an elevation gradient using taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity metrics. We sampled 595 individuals (36 families; 53 genera; 88 species) across 15 plots along an elevational gradient (2440–3330 m) in Ecuador. Seventy species were sequenced for the rbcL and matK gene regions to generate a phylogeny. Species richness, Shannon–Weaver diversity, Simpson’s Dominance, Simpson’s Evenness, phylogenetic diversity (PD), mean pairwise distance (MPD), and mean nearest taxon distance (MNTD) were evaluated for each plot. Values were correlated with elevation and standardized effect sizes (SES) of MPD and MNTD were generated, including and excluding tree fern species, for comparisons across elevation. Taxonomic and phylogenetic metrics found that species diversity decreases with elevation. We also found that overall the community has a non-random phylogenetic structure, dependent on the presence of tree ferns, with stronger phylogenetic clustering at high elevations. Combined, this evidence supports the ideas that tree ferns have converged with angiosperms to occupy the same habitat and that an increased filtering of clades has led to more closely related angiosperm species at higher elevations. View Full-Text
Keywords: community phylogenetics; Ecuador; montane forests; taxonomic metrics; tree diversity community phylogenetics; Ecuador; montane forests; taxonomic metrics; tree diversity
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Worthy, S.J.; Jiménez Paz, R.A.; Pérez, Á.J.; Reynolds, A.; Cruse-Sanders, J.; Valencia, R.; Barone, J.A.; Burgess, K.S. Distribution and Community Assembly of Trees Along an Andean Elevational Gradient. Plants 2019, 8, 326.

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