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Open AccessArticle

Management of Glyphosate-Resistant Weeds in Mexican Citrus Groves: Chemical Alternatives and Economic Viability

Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos 13565-905, Brazil
National Institute of Forestry, Agriculture and Livestock Research (INIFAP)-Valle del Guadiana Experimental Field, Durango 34170, Mexico
Departamento de Fitotecnia, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa 36570-900, Brazil
Bayer Crop Science Mexico, Mexico 11520, Mexico
Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Edaphology, University of Cordoba, 14071 Cordoba, Spain
Department of Agricultural Parasitology, Chapingo Autonomous University, Texcoco 56230, Mexico
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Plants 2019, 8(9), 325;
Received: 1 August 2019 / Revised: 30 August 2019 / Accepted: 2 September 2019 / Published: 4 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Herbicide Resistance in Plants)
Glyphosate is a cheap herbicide that has been used to control a wide range of weeds (4–6 times/year) in citrus groves of the Gulf of Mexico; however, its excessive use has selected for glyphosate-resistant weeds. We evaluated the efficacy and economic viability of 13 herbicide treatments (glyphosate combined with PRE- and/or POST-emergence herbicides and other alternative treatments), applied in tank-mixture or sequence, to control glyphosate-resistant weeds in two Persian lime groves (referred to as SM-I and SM-II) of the municipality of Acateno, Puebla, during two years (2014 and 2015). The SM-I and SM-II fields had 243 and 346 weeds/m2, respectively, composed mainly of Bidens pilosa and Leptochloa virgata. Echinochloa colona was also frequent in SM-II. The glyphosate alone treatments (1080, 1440, or 1800 g ae ha−1) presented control levels of the total weed population ranging from 64% to 85% at 15, 30, and 45 d after treatment (DAT) in both fields. Mixtures of glyphosate with grass herbicides such as fluazifop-p-butyl, sethoxydim, and clethodim efficiently controlled E. colona and L. virgata, but favored the regrowth of B. pilosa. The sequential applications of glyphosate + (bromacil + diuron) and glufosinate + oxyfluorfen controlled more than 85% the total weed community for more than 75 days. However, these treatments were between 360% and 390% more expensive (1.79 and 1.89 $/day ha−1 of satisfactory weed control, respectively), compared to the representative treatment (glyphosate 1080 g ae ha−1 = USD $29.0 ha−1). In practical and economic terms, glufosinate alone was the best treatment controlling glyphosate resistant weeds maintaining control levels >80% for at least 60 DAT ($1.35/day ha−1). The rest of the treatments, applied in tank-mix or in sequence with glyphosate, had similar or lower control levels (~70%) than glyphosate at 1080 g ae ha−1. The adoption of glufosiante alone, glufosinate + oxyfluorfen or glyphosate + (bromacil + diuron) must consider the cost of satisfactory weed control per day, the period of weed control, as well as other factors associated with production costs to obtain an integrated weed management in the short and long term. View Full-Text
Keywords: Citrus latifolia; hairy beggarticks; integrated weed management; junglerice; tropical sprangletop Citrus latifolia; hairy beggarticks; integrated weed management; junglerice; tropical sprangletop
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Alcántara-de la Cruz, R.; Domínguez-Martínez, P.A.; da Silveira, H.M.; Cruz-Hipólito, H.E.; Palma-Bautista, C.; Vázquez-García, J.G.; Domínguez-Valenzuela, J.A.; De Prado, R. Management of Glyphosate-Resistant Weeds in Mexican Citrus Groves: Chemical Alternatives and Economic Viability. Plants 2019, 8, 325.

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