Next Issue
Previous Issue

Table of Contents

ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf., Volume 7, Issue 8 (August 2018)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) Rural areas in Africa are largely characterized by poor road networks. This poor state of rural [...] Read more.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-45
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle Using the Spatial Knowledge of Map Users to Personalize City Maps: A Case Study with Tourists in Madrid, Spain
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(8), 332; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7080332
Received: 16 July 2018 / Revised: 10 August 2018 / Accepted: 15 August 2018 / Published: 20 August 2018
Viewed by 428 | PDF Full-text (13278 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of personalized maps is to help individual users to read maps and focus on the most task-relevant information. Several approaches have been suggested to develop personalized maps for cities, but few consider the spatial knowledge of its users. We propose the
[...] Read more.
The aim of personalized maps is to help individual users to read maps and focus on the most task-relevant information. Several approaches have been suggested to develop personalized maps for cities, but few consider the spatial knowledge of its users. We propose the design of “cognitively-aware” personalized maps, which take into account the previous experience of users in the city and how the urban space is configured in their minds. Our aim is to facilitate users’ mental links between maps and city places, stimulating users to recall features of the urban space and to assimilate new spatial knowledge. To achieve this goal, we propose the personalization of maps through a map design process based on user modeling and on inferring personalization guidelines from hand-drawn sketches of urban spaces. We applied this process in an experiment with tourists in Madrid, Spain. We categorized the participants into three types of tourists—“Guided”, “Explorer”, and “Conditioned”—according to individual and contextual factors that can influence their spatial knowledge of the city. We also extracted design guidelines from tourists’ sketches and developed map prototypes. The empirical results seem to be promising for developing personalized city maps that could be produced on-the-fly in the future. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for Updating Farmland Cadastral Data in Areas Subject to Landslides
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(8), 331; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7080331
Received: 13 July 2018 / Revised: 11 August 2018 / Accepted: 15 August 2018 / Published: 19 August 2018
Viewed by 645 | PDF Full-text (5265 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to verify the applicability of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to update cadastral records in areas affected by landslides. Its authors intended to compare the accuracy of coordinates determined using different UAV data processing methods for points which
[...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to verify the applicability of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to update cadastral records in areas affected by landslides. Its authors intended to compare the accuracy of coordinates determined using different UAV data processing methods for points which form the framework of a cadastral database, and to find out whether products obtained as a result of such UAV data processing are sufficient to define the extent of changes in the cadastral objects. To achieve this, an experiment was designed to take place at the site of a landslide. The entire photogrammetry mission was planned to cover an area of more than 70 ha. Given the steep grade of the site, the UAV was flown over each line at a different, individually preset altitude, such as to ensure consistent mean shooting distance (height above ground level), and thus, appropriate ground sample distance (GSD; pixel size). The results were analyzed in four variants, differing from each other in terms of the number of control points used and the method of their measurement. This allowed identification of the factors that affect surveying accuracy and the indication of the cadastral data updatable based on an UAV photogrammetric survey. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications and Potential of UAV Photogrammetric Survey)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Segmented Processing Approach of Eigenvector Spatial Filtering Regression for Normalized Difference Vegetation Index in Central China
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(8), 330; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7080330
Received: 5 July 2018 / Revised: 27 July 2018 / Accepted: 7 August 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
Viewed by 322 | PDF Full-text (7514 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A segmented processing approach of eigenvector spatial filtering (ESF) regression is proposed to detect the relationship between NDVI and its environmental factors like DEM, precipitation, relative humidity, precipitation days, soil organic carbon, and soil base saturation in central China. An optimum size of
[...] Read more.
A segmented processing approach of eigenvector spatial filtering (ESF) regression is proposed to detect the relationship between NDVI and its environmental factors like DEM, precipitation, relative humidity, precipitation days, soil organic carbon, and soil base saturation in central China. An optimum size of 32 × 32 is selected through experiments as the basic unit for image segmentation to resolve the large datasets to smaller ones that can be performed in parallel and processed more efficiently. The eigenvectors from the spatial weights matrix (SWM) of each segmented image block are selected as synthetic proxy variables accounting for the spatial effects and aggregated to construct a global ESF regression model. Results show precipitation and humidity are more influential than other factors and spatial autocorrelation plays a vital role in vegetation cover in central China. Despite the increase in model complexity; the parallel ESF regression model performs best across all performance criteria compared to the ordinary least squared linear regression (OLS) and spatial autoregressive (SAR) models. The proposed parallel ESF approach overcomes the computational barrier for large data sets and is very promising in applying spatial regression modeling to a wide range of real world problem solving and forecasting. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCorrection Correction: Dawson, T.; et al. A Spatial Analysis of the Relationship between Vegetation and Poverty. Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7, 83
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(8), 329; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7080329
Received: 30 July 2018 / Accepted: 7 August 2018 / Published: 16 August 2018
Viewed by 448 | PDF Full-text (2927 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The authors wish to make the following corrections to their paper[...] Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Method for the Analysis and Visualization of Similar Flow Hotspot Patterns between Different Regional Groups
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(8), 328; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7080328
Received: 30 June 2018 / Revised: 1 August 2018 / Accepted: 13 August 2018 / Published: 15 August 2018
Viewed by 605 | PDF Full-text (8174 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Interaction among different regions can be illustrated in the form of a stream. For example, the interaction between the flows of people and information among different regions can reflect city network structures, as well as city functions and interconnections. The popularization of big
[...] Read more.
Interaction among different regions can be illustrated in the form of a stream. For example, the interaction between the flows of people and information among different regions can reflect city network structures, as well as city functions and interconnections. The popularization of big data has facilitated the acquisition of flow data for various types of individuals. The application of the regional interaction model, which is based on the summary level of individual flow data mining, is currently a hot research topic. Thus far, however, previous research on spatial interaction methods has mainly focused on point-to-point and area-to-area interaction patterns, and investigations on the patterns of interaction hotspots between two regional groups with predefined neighborhood relationships, that being with two regions, remain scarce. In this study, a method for the identification of similar interaction hotspot patterns between two regional groups is proposed, and geo-information Tupu methods are applied to visualize interaction patterns. China’s air traffic flow data are used as an example to illustrate the performance of the proposed method to identify and analyze interaction hotspot patterns between regional groups with adjoining relationships across China. Research results indicate that the proposed method efficiently identifies the patterns of interaction flow hotspots between regional groups. Moreover, it can be applied to analyze any flow space in the excavation of the patterns of regional group interaction hotspots. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Parallel N-Dimensional Space-Filling Curve Library and Its Application in Massive Point Cloud Management
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(8), 327; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7080327
Received: 10 July 2018 / Revised: 9 August 2018 / Accepted: 13 August 2018 / Published: 15 August 2018
Viewed by 393 | PDF Full-text (5569 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Because of their locality preservation properties, Space-Filling Curves (SFC) have been widely used in massive point dataset management. However, the completeness, universality, and scalability of current SFC implementations are still not well resolved. To address this problem, a generic n-dimensional (nD) SFC library
[...] Read more.
Because of their locality preservation properties, Space-Filling Curves (SFC) have been widely used in massive point dataset management. However, the completeness, universality, and scalability of current SFC implementations are still not well resolved. To address this problem, a generic n-dimensional (nD) SFC library is proposed and validated in massive multiscale nD points management. The library supports two well-known types of SFCs (Morton and Hilbert) with an object-oriented design, and provides common interfaces for encoding, decoding, and nD box query. Parallel implementation permits effective exploitation of underlying multicore resources. During massive point cloud management, all xyz points are attached an additional random level of detail (LOD) value l. A unique 4D SFC key is generated from each xyzl with this library, and then only the keys are stored as flat records in an Oracle Index Organized Table (IOT). The key-only schema benefits both data compression and multiscale clustering. Experiments show that the proposed nD SFC library provides complete functions and robust scalability for massive points management. When loading 23 billion Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) points into an Oracle database, the parallel mode takes about 10 h and the loading speed is estimated four times faster than sequential loading. Furthermore, 4D queries using the Hilbert keys take about 1~5 s and scale well with the dataset size. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Identification of Painted Rock-Shelter Sites Using GIS Integrated with a Decision Support System and Fuzzy Logic
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(8), 326; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7080326
Received: 17 May 2018 / Revised: 1 August 2018 / Accepted: 6 August 2018 / Published: 12 August 2018
Viewed by 978 | PDF Full-text (4408 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The conservation and protection of painted rock shelters is an important issue. Throughout the world, if unprotected, they are vulnerable to vandalism or to industrial activities such as quarrying. This research explores the integrated use of a Geographic Information System (GIS) with a
[...] Read more.
The conservation and protection of painted rock shelters is an important issue. Throughout the world, if unprotected, they are vulnerable to vandalism or to industrial activities such as quarrying. This research explores the integrated use of a Geographic Information System (GIS) with a multi-criteria decision support system and fuzzy logic to identify possible rock art sites over the Vindhyan Plateau in the district of Mirzapur, Central India. The methodology proposed compares results obtained by spatial modelling with validation data derived from recent exhaustive field surveys of more than forty newly discovered rock-shelters in the Vindhyan region. The zones obtained by predictive modelling are in agreement with validation datasets and show that the method can be used for new site prospection. This method represents a potential tool for landscape planners and policy makers to employ when seeking protection from anthropogenic activities of potential areas of painted rock-shelter sites and archaeological deposits. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Journey-to-Crime Distances of Residential Burglars in China Disentangled: Origin and Destination Effects
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(8), 325; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7080325
Received: 25 June 2018 / Revised: 27 July 2018 / Accepted: 6 August 2018 / Published: 12 August 2018
Viewed by 577 | PDF Full-text (1479 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Research on journey-to-crime distance has revealed the importance of both the characteristics of the offender as well as those of target communities. However, the effect of the home community has so far been ignored. Besides, almost all journey-to-crime studies were done in Western
[...] Read more.
Research on journey-to-crime distance has revealed the importance of both the characteristics of the offender as well as those of target communities. However, the effect of the home community has so far been ignored. Besides, almost all journey-to-crime studies were done in Western societies, and little is known about how the distinct features of communities in major Chinese cities shape residential burglars’ travel patterns. To fill this gap, we apply a cross-classified multilevel regression model on data of 3763 burglary trips in ZG City, one of the bustling metropolises in China. This allows us to gain insight into how residential burglars’ journey-to-crime distances are shaped by their individual-level characteristics as well as those of their home and target communities. Results show that the characteristics of the home community have larger effects than those of target communities, while individual-level features are most influential. Older burglars travel over longer distances to commit their burglaries than the younger ones. Offenders who commit their burglaries in groups tend to travel further than solo offenders. Burglars who live in communities with a higher average rent, a denser road network and a higher percentage of local residents commit their burglaries at shorter distances. Communities with a denser road network attract burglars from a longer distance, whereas those with a higher percentage of local residents attract them from shorter by. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human-Centric Data Science for Urban Studies)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle An INS/Floor-Plan Indoor Localization System Using the Firefly Particle Filter
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(8), 324; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7080324
Received: 26 June 2018 / Revised: 28 July 2018 / Accepted: 28 July 2018 / Published: 10 August 2018
Viewed by 337 | PDF Full-text (789 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Location-based services for smartphones are becoming more and more popular. The core of location-based services is how to estimate a user’s location. An INS/floor-plan indoor localization system, using the Firefly Particle Filter (FPF), is proposed to estimate a user’s location. INS includes an
[...] Read more.
Location-based services for smartphones are becoming more and more popular. The core of location-based services is how to estimate a user’s location. An INS/floor-plan indoor localization system, using the Firefly Particle Filter (FPF), is proposed to estimate a user’s location. INS includes an attitude angle module, a step length module and a step counting module. In the step length module, we propose a hybrid step length model. The proposed step length algorithm reasonably calculates a user’s step length. Because of sensor deviation, non-orthogonality and the user’s jitter, the main bottleneck for INS is that the error grows over time. To reduce the cumulative error, we design cascade filters including the Kalman Filter (KF) and FPF. To a certain extent, KF reduces velocity error and heading drift. On the other hand, the firefly algorithm is used to solve the particle impoverishment problem. Considering that a user may not cross an obstacle, the proposed particle filter is proposed to improve positioning performance. Results show that the average positioning error in walking experiments is 2.14 m. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Analyzing the Tagging Quality of the Spanish OpenStreetMap
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(8), 323; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7080323
Received: 24 May 2018 / Revised: 27 July 2018 / Accepted: 7 August 2018 / Published: 9 August 2018
Viewed by 446 | PDF Full-text (3040 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, a framework for the assessment of the quality of OpenStreetMap is presented, comprising a batch of methods to analyze the quality of entity tagging. The approach uses Taginfo as a reference base and analyses quality measures such as completeness, compliance,
[...] Read more.
In this paper, a framework for the assessment of the quality of OpenStreetMap is presented, comprising a batch of methods to analyze the quality of entity tagging. The approach uses Taginfo as a reference base and analyses quality measures such as completeness, compliance, consistence, granularity, richness and trust . The framework has been used to analyze the quality of OpenStreetMap in Spain, comparing the main cities of Spain. Also a comparison between Spain and some major European cities has been carried out. Additionally, a Web tool has been also developed in order to facilitate the same kind of analysis in any area of the world. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Comparison of Communication Viewsheds Derived from High-Resolution Digital Surface Models Using Line-of-Sight, 2D Fresnel Zone, and 3D Fresnel Zone Analysis
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(8), 322; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7080322
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 29 July 2018 / Accepted: 7 August 2018 / Published: 9 August 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 359 | PDF Full-text (9297 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We compared three methods for deriving communication viewsheds, which indicate the coverage areas for transmitter points from high-resolution digital surface models. Communication viewsheds were analyzed with a novel 3D Fresnel zone method, as well as line-of-sight (LOS) analysis and 2D Fresnel zone analysis,
[...] Read more.
We compared three methods for deriving communication viewsheds, which indicate the coverage areas for transmitter points from high-resolution digital surface models. Communication viewsheds were analyzed with a novel 3D Fresnel zone method, as well as line-of-sight (LOS) analysis and 2D Fresnel zone analysis, using high-resolution digital surface models (DSM) from a topographical survey. A LOS analysis calculates a visibility index by comparing the profile elevations of landforms between the transmitter and the receiver, using LOS elevations. A 2D Fresnel zone analysis calculates a 2D Fresnel index by comparing the profile elevations of landforms with the transverse plane elevations of the Fresnel zone. A 3D Fresnel zone analysis quantitatively analyzes communication stability by calculating a 3D Fresnel index, obtained by comparing the elevations of every terrain cell in a Fresnel zone with the total altitude of the Fresnel zone. The latter produced the most accurate results. Indexes derived by applying different transmitter offset heights, signal frequencies, and DSM resolutions for each of the three methods were then quantitatively analyzed. As both the offset height of the transmitter and the signal frequency decreased, the differences between the results derived from each method increased significantly. Moreover, larger DSM cells generated less accurate results. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Extracting Indoor Space Information in Complex Building Environments
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(8), 321; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7080321
Received: 26 May 2018 / Revised: 29 July 2018 / Accepted: 7 August 2018 / Published: 9 August 2018
Viewed by 401 | PDF Full-text (10130 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Indoor space information extraction is an important aspect of reconstruction for building information modeling and a necessary process for geographic information system from outdoor to indoor. Entity model extracting methods provide advantages in terms of accuracy for building indoor spaces, as compared with
[...] Read more.
Indoor space information extraction is an important aspect of reconstruction for building information modeling and a necessary process for geographic information system from outdoor to indoor. Entity model extracting methods provide advantages in terms of accuracy for building indoor spaces, as compared with network and grid model methods, and the extraction results can be converted into a network or grid model. However, existing entity model extracting methods based on a search loop do not consider the complex indoor environment of a building, such as isolated columns and walls or cross-floor spaces. In this study, such complex indoor environments are analyzed in detail, and a new approach for extracting buildings’ indoor space information is proposed. This approach is based on indoor space boundary calculation, the Boolean difference for single-floor space extraction, relationship reconstruction, and cross-floor space extraction. The experimental results showed that the proposed method can accurately extract indoor space information from the complex indoor environment of a building with geometric, semantic, and relationship information. This study is theoretically important for better understanding the complexity of indoor space extraction and practically important for improving the modeling accuracy of buildings. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Exploring Railway Network Dynamics in China from 2008 to 2017
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(8), 320; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7080320
Received: 10 July 2018 / Revised: 3 August 2018 / Accepted: 7 August 2018 / Published: 8 August 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 406 | PDF Full-text (3252 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
China’s high speed rail (HSR) network has been rapidly constructed and developed during the past 10 years. However, few studies have reported the spatiotemporal changes of railway network structures and how those structures have been affected by the operation of high speed rail
[...] Read more.
China’s high speed rail (HSR) network has been rapidly constructed and developed during the past 10 years. However, few studies have reported the spatiotemporal changes of railway network structures and how those structures have been affected by the operation of high speed rail systems in different periods. This paper analyzes the evolving network characteristics of China’s railway network during each of the four main stages of HSR development over a 10-year period. These four stages include Stage 1, when no HSR was in place prior to August 2008; Stage 2, when several HSR lines were put into operation between August 2008, and July 2011; Stage 3, when the network skeleton of most main HSR lines was put into place. This covered the period until January 2013. Finally, Stage 4 covers the deep intensification of several new HSR lines and the rapid development of intercity-HSR railway lines between January 2013, and July 2017. This paper presents a detailed analysis of the timetable-based statistical properties of China’s railway network, as well as the spatiotemporal patterns of the more than 2700 stations that have been affected by the opening of HSR lines and the corresponding policy changes. Generally, we find that the distribution of both degrees and strengths are characterized by scale-free patterns. In addition, the decreasing average path length and increasing network clustering coefficient indicate that the small world characteristic is more significant in the evolution of China’s railway network. Correlations between different network indices are explored, in order to further investigate the dynamics of China’s railway system. Overall, our study offers a new approach for assessing the growth and evolution of a real railway network based on train timetables. Our study can also be referenced by policymakers looking to adjust HSR operations and plan future HSR routes. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle BIM-GIS Integration as Dedicated and Independent Course for Geoinformatics Students: Merits, Challenges, and Ways Forward
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(8), 319; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7080319
Received: 31 May 2018 / Revised: 25 July 2018 / Accepted: 5 August 2018 / Published: 8 August 2018
Viewed by 535 | PDF Full-text (1481 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Information mined from building information models as well as associated geographical data and Geographic Information System (GIS) analyses can increase the success of construction processes and asset management, including buildings, roads, and public facilities. The integration of information from both domains requires high
[...] Read more.
Information mined from building information models as well as associated geographical data and Geographic Information System (GIS) analyses can increase the success of construction processes and asset management, including buildings, roads, and public facilities. The integration of information from both domains requires high expertise in both spheres. The existing B.Sc and M.Sc. programs linked to the built environment at the Technical University of Munich offer courses for the Building Information Model (BIM) and GIS that are distributed among study programs in Civil Engineering, Architecture, and Geomatics. Students graduating as professionals in one of these domains rarely know how to solve pre-defined technical problems associated with the integration of information from BIM and GIS. Students in such programs seldom practice skills needed for the integration of information from BIM and GIS at a level that is needed in working life. Conversely, the technologies in both domains create artificial boundaries that do not exist in reality—for example, water and electricity would not be of use if the utilities terminated in front of buildings. To bring a change and bridge the gap between BIM and GIS, a change in the teaching methods of BIM/GIS needs to be considered. The Technical University of Munich (TUM) has developed a master’s course (M.Sc. course) for students in Geoinformatics which focuses on competencies required to achieve BIM/GIS integration. This paper describes the course development process and provides a unique perspective on the curriculum and subjects. It also presents the course objective, course development, the selection and development of learning materials, and the assessment of the intended learning outcome of the course. The developed course is validated through a questionnaire, and feedback is provided by participants of the BIM/GIS integration workshop representing a panel of experts in the domain. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Methodology for Planar Representation of Frescoed Oval Domes: Formulation and Testing on Pisa Cathedral
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(8), 318; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7080318
Received: 8 June 2018 / Revised: 24 July 2018 / Accepted: 3 August 2018 / Published: 7 August 2018
Viewed by 563 | PDF Full-text (6491 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents an original methodology for planar development of a frescoed dome with an oval plan. Input data include a rigorous geometric survey, performed with a laser scanner, and a photogrammetry campaign, which associates a high-quality photographic texture to the 3D model.
[...] Read more.
This paper presents an original methodology for planar development of a frescoed dome with an oval plan. Input data include a rigorous geometric survey, performed with a laser scanner, and a photogrammetry campaign, which associates a high-quality photographic texture to the 3D model. Therefore, the main topics include the development of geometry and, contextually, of the associated textures. In order to overcome the inability to directly develop the surface, an orthographic azimuthal projection is used. Starting from a prerequisite study of building methodology, the dome is divided into sectors and bands, each linked with the maximum acceptable deformations and the actual geometric discontinuities detectable by the analysis of Gaussian curvature. Upon definition of the development model, a custom automation script has been devised for geometry projection. This effectively generates a (u,v) map, associated to the model, which is used for model texturing and provides the planar development of the fresco. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Data Acquisition and Processing in Cultural Heritage)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Method Based on Floating Car Data and Gradient-Boosted Decision Tree Classification for the Detection of Auxiliary Through Lanes at Intersections
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(8), 317; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7080317
Received: 25 May 2018 / Revised: 6 July 2018 / Accepted: 19 July 2018 / Published: 5 August 2018
Viewed by 507 | PDF Full-text (5186 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The rapid detection of information on continuously changing intersection auxiliary through lane is a major task of lane-level navigation data updates. However, existing lane number detection methods possess long update cycles and high computational costs. Therefore, this study proposes a novel method based
[...] Read more.
The rapid detection of information on continuously changing intersection auxiliary through lane is a major task of lane-level navigation data updates. However, existing lane number detection methods possess long update cycles and high computational costs. Therefore, this study proposes a novel method based on floating car data (FCD) for the detection of auxiliary through lane changes at road intersections. First, roads near intersections are divided into three sections and the spatial distribution characteristics of the FCD of each section are analyzed. Second, the FCD is preprocessed to obtain a standardized FCD dataset by removing redundant data through an improved amplitude-limiting average filtering method. Third, a basic classifier for the number of lanes is constructed. Fourth, the final number of lanes of the road section is determined by combining the basic classifier and the gradient-boosted decision tree model. Finally, the presence of an auxiliary through lane at the intersection is determined in accordance with the change in the number of intersection lanes. The method was tested using data for a road in Wuchang District, Wuhan City. Experimental results show that this method can rapidly obtain auxiliary through lane information from the FCD and is superior to other classification methods. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Air Quality Context Information Model for Ubiquitous Public Access to Geographic Information
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(8), 316; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7080316
Received: 21 June 2018 / Revised: 25 July 2018 / Accepted: 30 July 2018 / Published: 4 August 2018
Viewed by 433 | PDF Full-text (3699 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The advance in Information Communication Technology (ICT) has contributed to global challenges of improving urban air quality. Ubiquitous computing technology enables citizens to easily access air quality information services without spatial or temporal limitations. Citizens are also encouraged to participate in air quality
[...] Read more.
The advance in Information Communication Technology (ICT) has contributed to global challenges of improving urban air quality. Ubiquitous computing technology enables citizens to easily access air quality information services without spatial or temporal limitations. Citizens are also encouraged to participate in air quality assessment and environmental governance. These societal and technical changes require a new paradigm to develop an air quality information system and its services. An air quality information system needs to integrate varied types of air quality information from heterogeneous data sources as well as allow citizens to express their concerns about air quality. Thus, a standardized manner is necessary to develop an air quality information system. In this regard, an air quality context information model was designed according to the Ubiquitous Public Access (UPA) context information model defined in the International Organization for Standard (ISO) 19154. For validation and verification purposes, the air quality context information model was implemented in a geographic information system (GIS)-based air quality information system. Implementation results showed that spatially relevant air quality information services were generated from the system, depending on the location and air quality situations near a specific user. Also, citizens can contribute air quality information at their current regions. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Improving Tree Species Classification Using UAS Multispectral Images and Texture Measures
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(8), 315; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7080315
Received: 14 June 2018 / Revised: 16 July 2018 / Accepted: 30 July 2018 / Published: 3 August 2018
Viewed by 424 | PDF Full-text (12636 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper focuses on the use of ultra-high resolution Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) imagery to classify tree species. Multispectral surveys were performed on a plant nursery to produce Digital Surface Models and orthophotos with ground sample distance equal to 0.01 m. Different combinations
[...] Read more.
This paper focuses on the use of ultra-high resolution Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) imagery to classify tree species. Multispectral surveys were performed on a plant nursery to produce Digital Surface Models and orthophotos with ground sample distance equal to 0.01 m. Different combinations of multispectral images, multi-temporal data, and texture measures were employed to improve classification. The Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix was used to generate texture images with different window sizes and procedures for optimal texture features and window size selection were investigated. The study evaluates how methods used in Remote Sensing could be applied on ultra-high resolution UAS images. Combinations of original and derived bands were classified with the Maximum Likelihood algorithm, and Principal Component Analysis was conducted in order to understand the correlation between bands. The study proves that the use of texture features produces a significant increase of the Overall Accuracy, whose values change from 58% to 78% or 87%, depending on components reduction. The improvement given by the introduction of texture measures is highlighted even in terms of User’s and Producer’s Accuracy. For classification purposes, the inclusion of texture can compensate for difficulties of performing multi-temporal surveys. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications and Potential of UAV Photogrammetric Survey)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Multi-Temporal Image Analysis for Fluvial Morphological Characterization with Application to Albanian Rivers
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(8), 314; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7080314
Received: 31 May 2018 / Revised: 25 June 2018 / Accepted: 30 June 2018 / Published: 3 August 2018
Viewed by 494 | PDF Full-text (3915 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A procedure for the characterization of the temporal evolution of river morphology is presented. Wet and active river channels are obtained from the processing of imagery datasets. Information about channel widths and active channel surface subdivision in water, vegetation and gravel coverage classes
[...] Read more.
A procedure for the characterization of the temporal evolution of river morphology is presented. Wet and active river channels are obtained from the processing of imagery datasets. Information about channel widths and active channel surface subdivision in water, vegetation and gravel coverage classes are evaluated along with channel centerline lengths and sinuosity indices. The analysis is carried out on a series of optical remotely-sensed imagery acquired by different satellite missions during the time period between 1968 and 2017. Data from the CORONA, LANDSAT and Sentinel-2 missions were considered. Besides satellite imagery, a digital elevation model and aerial ortho-photos were also used. The procedure was applied to three, highly dynamic, Albanian rivers: Shkumbin, Seman and Vjosë, showing a high potential for application in contexts with limitations in ground data availability. The results of the procedure were assessed against reference data produced by means of expert interpretation of a reference set of river reaches. The results differ from reference values by just a few percentage points (<6%). The time evolution of hydromorphological parameters is well characterized, and the results support the design of future studies aimed at the understanding of the relations between climatic and anthropogenic controls and the response of river morphological trajectories. Moreover, the high spatial and temporal resolution of the Sentinel-2 mission motivates the development of an automatic monitoring system based on a rolling application of the defined procedure. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Multidimensional Arrays for Analysing Geoscientific Data
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(8), 313; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7080313
Received: 27 June 2018 / Revised: 20 July 2018 / Accepted: 30 July 2018 / Published: 3 August 2018
Viewed by 359 | PDF Full-text (620 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Geographic data is growing in size and variety, which calls for big data management tools and analysis methods. To efficiently integrate information from high dimensional data, this paper explicitly proposes array-based modeling. A large portion of Earth observations and model simulations are naturally
[...] Read more.
Geographic data is growing in size and variety, which calls for big data management tools and analysis methods. To efficiently integrate information from high dimensional data, this paper explicitly proposes array-based modeling. A large portion of Earth observations and model simulations are naturally arrays once digitalized. This paper discusses the challenges in using arrays such as the discretization of continuous spatiotemporal phenomena, irregular dimensions, regridding, high-dimensional data analysis, and large-scale data management. We define categories and applications of typical array operations, compare their implementation in open-source software, and demonstrate dimension reduction and array regridding in study cases using Landsat and MODIS imagery. It turns out that arrays are a convenient data structure for representing and analysing many spatiotemporal phenomena. Although the array model simplifies data organization, array properties like the meaning of grid cell values are rarely being made explicit in practice. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle CS Projects Involving Geoinformatics: A Survey of Implementation Approaches
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(8), 312; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7080312
Received: 30 March 2018 / Revised: 4 June 2018 / Accepted: 25 June 2018 / Published: 2 August 2018
Viewed by 424 | PDF Full-text (7579 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the last decade, citizen science (CS) has seen a renewed interest from both traditional science and the lay public as testified by a wide number of initiatives, projects, and dedicated technological applications. One of the main reasons for this renewed interest lies
[...] Read more.
In the last decade, citizen science (CS) has seen a renewed interest from both traditional science and the lay public as testified by a wide number of initiatives, projects, and dedicated technological applications. One of the main reasons for this renewed interest lies in the fact that the ways in which citizen science projects are designed and managed have been significantly improved by the recent advancements in information and communications technologies (ICT), especially in the field of geoinformatics. In this research work, we investigate currently active citizen science projects that involve geoinformation to understand how geoinformatics is actually employed. To achieve this, we define eight activities typically carried out during the implementation of a CS initiative as well as a series of approaches for each activity, in order to pinpoint distinct strategies within the different projects. To this end, a representative set of ongoing CS initiatives is selected and surveyed. The results show how CS projects address the various activities, and report which strategies and technologies from geoinformatics are massively or marginally used. The quantitative results are presented, supported by examples and descriptions. Finally, cues and critical issues coming from the research are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geoinformatics in Citizen Science)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Processing BIM and GIS Models in Practice: Experiences and Recommendations from a GeoBIM Project in The Netherlands
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(8), 311; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7080311
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 17 July 2018 / Accepted: 25 July 2018 / Published: 2 August 2018
Viewed by 547 | PDF Full-text (20097 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It is widely acknowledged that the integration of BIM and GIS data is a crucial step forward for future 3D city modelling, but most of the research conducted so far has covered only the high-level and semantic aspects of GIS-BIM integration. This paper
[...] Read more.
It is widely acknowledged that the integration of BIM and GIS data is a crucial step forward for future 3D city modelling, but most of the research conducted so far has covered only the high-level and semantic aspects of GIS-BIM integration. This paper presents the results of the GeoBIM project, which tackled three integration problems focussing instead on aspects involving geometry processing: (i) the automated processing of complex architectural IFC models; (ii) the integration of existing GIS subsoil data in BIM; and (iii) the georeferencing of BIM models for their use in GIS software. All the problems have been studied using real world models and existing datasets made and used by practitioners in The Netherlands. For each problem, this paper exposes in detail the issues faced, proposed solutions, and recommendations for a more successful integration. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Software Systems Approach to Multi-Scale GIS-BIM Utility Infrastructure Network Integration and Resource Flow Simulation
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(8), 310; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7080310
Received: 27 April 2018 / Revised: 8 July 2018 / Accepted: 25 July 2018 / Published: 1 August 2018
Viewed by 512 | PDF Full-text (4489 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There is an increasing impetus for the use of digital city models and sensor network data to understand the current demand for utility resources and inform future infrastructure service planning across a range of spatial scales. Achieving this requires the ability to represent
[...] Read more.
There is an increasing impetus for the use of digital city models and sensor network data to understand the current demand for utility resources and inform future infrastructure service planning across a range of spatial scales. Achieving this requires the ability to represent a city as a complex system of connected and interdependent components in which the topology of the electricity, water, gas, and heat demand-supply networks are modelled in an integrated manner. However, integrated modelling of these networks is hampered by the disparity between the predominant data formats and modelling processes used in the Geospatial Information Science (GIS) and Building Information Modelling (BIM) domains. This paper presents a software systems approach to scale-free, multi-format, integrated modelling of evolving cross-domain utility infrastructure network topologies, and the analysis of the spatiotemporal dynamics of their resource flows. The system uses a graph database to integrate the topology of utility network components represented in the CityGML UtilityNetwork Application Domain Extension (ADE), Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) and JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) real-time streaming messages. A message broker is used to disseminate the changing state of the integrated topology and the dynamic resource flows derived from the streaming data. The capability of the developed system is demonstrated via a case study in which internal building and local electricity distribution feeder networks are integrated, and a real-time building management sensor data stream is used to simulate and visualise the spatiotemporal dynamics of electricity flows using a dynamic web-based visualisation. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Mapping Rural Road Networks from Global Positioning System (GPS) Trajectories of Motorcycle Taxis in Sigomre Area, Siaya County, Kenya
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(8), 309; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7080309
Received: 25 June 2018 / Revised: 17 July 2018 / Accepted: 30 July 2018 / Published: 1 August 2018
Viewed by 493 | PDF Full-text (4949 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Effective transport infrastructure is an essential component of economic integration, accessibility to vital social services and a means of mitigation in times of emergency. Rural areas in Africa are largely characterized by poor transport infrastructure. This poor state of rural road networks contributes
[...] Read more.
Effective transport infrastructure is an essential component of economic integration, accessibility to vital social services and a means of mitigation in times of emergency. Rural areas in Africa are largely characterized by poor transport infrastructure. This poor state of rural road networks contributes to the vulnerability of communities in developing countries by hampering access to vital social services and opportunities. In addition, maps of road networks are incomplete, and not up-to-date. Lack of accurate maps of village-level road networks hinders determination of access to social services and timely response to emergencies in remote locations. In some countries in sub-Saharan Africa, communities in rural areas and some in urban areas have devised an alternative mode of public transport system that is reliant on motorcycle taxis. This new mode of transport has improved local mobility and has created a vibrant economy that depends on the motorcycle taxi business. The taxi system also offers an opportunity for understanding local-level mobility and the characterization of the underlying transport infrastructure. By capturing the spatial and temporal characteristics of the taxis, we could design detailed maps of rural infrastructure and reveal the human mobility patterns that are associated with the motorcycle taxi system. In this study, we tracked motorcycle taxis in a rural area in Kenya by tagging volunteer riders with Global Positioning System (GPS) data loggers. A semi-automatic method was applied on the resulting trajectories to map rural-level road networks. The results showed that GPS trajectories from motorcycle taxis could potentially improve the maps of rural roads and augment other mapping initiatives like OpenStreetMap. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Identifying Modes of Driving Railway Trains from GPS Trajectory Data: An Ensemble Classifier-Based Approach
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(8), 308; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7080308
Received: 18 June 2018 / Revised: 24 July 2018 / Accepted: 30 July 2018 / Published: 1 August 2018
Viewed by 291 | PDF Full-text (4926 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recognizing Modes of Driving Railway Trains (MDRT) can help to solve railway freight transportation problems in driver behavior research, auto-driving system design and capacity utilization optimization. Previous studies have focused on analyses and applications of MDRT, but there is currently no approach to
[...] Read more.
Recognizing Modes of Driving Railway Trains (MDRT) can help to solve railway freight transportation problems in driver behavior research, auto-driving system design and capacity utilization optimization. Previous studies have focused on analyses and applications of MDRT, but there is currently no approach to automatically and effectively identify MDRT in the context of big data. In this study, we propose an integrated approach including data preprocessing, feature extraction, classifiers modeling, training and parameter tuning, and model evaluation to infer MDRT using GPS data. The highlights of this study are as follows: First, we propose methods for extracting Driving Segmented Standard Deviation Features (DSSDF) combined with classical features for the purpose of improving identification performances. Second, we find the most suitable classifier for identifying MDRT based on a comparison of performances of K-Nearest Neighbor, Support Vector Machines, AdaBoost, Random Forest, Gradient Boosting Decision Tree, and XGBoost. From the real-data experiment, we conclude that: (i) The ensemble classifier XGBoost produces the best performance with an accuracy of 92.70%; (ii) The group of DSSDF plays an important role in identifying MDRT with an accuracy improvement of 11.2% (using XGBoost). The proposed approach has been applied in capacity utilization optimization and new driver training for the Baoshen Railway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human-Centric Data Science for Urban Studies)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Automation of Building Permission by Integration of BIM and Geospatial Data
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(8), 307; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7080307
Received: 31 May 2018 / Revised: 1 July 2018 / Accepted: 25 July 2018 / Published: 31 July 2018
Viewed by 386 | PDF Full-text (3475 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The building permission process is to a large extent an analogue process where much information is handled in paper format or as pdf files. With the ongoing digitalisation in society, there is a potential to automate this process by integrating Building Information Models
[...] Read more.
The building permission process is to a large extent an analogue process where much information is handled in paper format or as pdf files. With the ongoing digitalisation in society, there is a potential to automate this process by integrating Building Information Models (BIM) of planned buildings and geospatial data to check if a building conforms to the building permission regulations. In this study, an inventory of which regulations in the (Swedish) detailed development plans that can be automatically checked or supported by 3D visualisation was conducted. Then, two of these regulations, the building height and the building footprint area, were studied in detail to find to which extent they can be automatically checked by integration of BIM and geospatial data. In addition, a feasibility study of one visual criterion was conducted. One concern when automating the building permission process is the variability of content within the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) data model. Variations in modelling methods and model content leads to differences in IFC models’ content and structure; these differences complicate automated processes. To facilitate automated processes, requirements on the production of IFC models for building permission applications could be defined in the form of model view definitions or delivery specifications. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Satellite-Derived Bathymetry for Improving Canadian Hydrographic Service Charts
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(8), 306; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7080306
Received: 21 June 2018 / Revised: 23 July 2018 / Accepted: 25 July 2018 / Published: 31 July 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 413 | PDF Full-text (4448 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Approximately 1000 Canadian Hydrographic Service (CHS) charts cover Canada’s oceans and navigable waters. Many charts use information collected with techniques that predate the more advanced technologies available to Hydrographic Offices (HOs) today. Furthermore, gaps in survey data, particularly in the Canadian Arctic where
[...] Read more.
Approximately 1000 Canadian Hydrographic Service (CHS) charts cover Canada’s oceans and navigable waters. Many charts use information collected with techniques that predate the more advanced technologies available to Hydrographic Offices (HOs) today. Furthermore, gaps in survey data, particularly in the Canadian Arctic where only 6% of waters are surveyed to modern standards, are also problematic. Through a Canadian Space Agency (CSA) Government Related Initiatives Program (GRIP) project, CHS is exploring remote sensing techniques to assist with the improvement of Canadian navigational charts. Projects exploring optical/Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) shoreline extraction and change detection, as well as optical Satellite-Derived Bathymetry (SDB), are currently underway. This paper focuses on SDB extracted from high-resolution optical imagery, highlighting current results as well as the challenges and opportunities CHS will encounter when implementing SDB within its operational chart production process. SDB is of particular interest to CHS due to its ability to supplement depths derived from traditional hydrographic surveys. This is of great importance in shallow and/or remote Canadian waters where achieving wide-area depth coverage through traditional surveys is costly, time-consuming and a safety risk to survey operators. With an accuracy of around 1 m, SDB could be used by CHS to fill gaps in survey data and to provide valuable information in dynamic areas. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Prioritizing Abandoned Mine Lands Rehabilitation: Combining Landscape Connectivity and Pattern Indices with Scenario Analysis Using Land-Use Modeling
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(8), 305; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7080305
Received: 8 June 2018 / Revised: 11 July 2018 / Accepted: 20 July 2018 / Published: 31 July 2018
Viewed by 249 | PDF Full-text (3908 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Connectivity modeling approaches for abandoned mine lands (AML) patches are limited in post-mining landscape restoration, especially where great land use changes might be expected due to large-scale land reclamation. This study presents a novel approach combining AML patch sizes with a proximity index
[...] Read more.
Connectivity modeling approaches for abandoned mine lands (AML) patches are limited in post-mining landscape restoration, especially where great land use changes might be expected due to large-scale land reclamation. This study presents a novel approach combining AML patch sizes with a proximity index to characterize patch-scaled connectivity for determining the spatial positions of patches with huge sizes and high connectivity. Then this study propose a scenario-based method coupled with landscape-scale metrics for quantifying landscape-scaled connectivity, which aims at exploring the optimal reclamation scheme with the highest connectivity. Using the Mentougou District in Beijing, China, as a case study, this paper confirmed which patches should be reclaimed first to meet the predetermined reclamation numbers; then this paper tested three different reclamation scenarios (i.e., cultivated land-oriented, forest-oriented, and construction land-oriented scenarios) to describe the impact of the different development strategies on landscape connectivity. The research found that the forest-oriented scenario increased connectivity quantitatively, showing an increase in the integral index of connectivity (IIC) and other landscape-scale metrics. Therefore, this paper suggests that future land-use policies should emphasize converting AML into more forest to blend in with the surrounding land-use categories. The findings presented here can contribute to better understanding the quantitative analysis of the connectivity of AML patches at both the patch scale and the landscape scale, thus providing scientific support for AML management in mine-site rehabilitation. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Are the Poor Digitally Left Behind? Indications of Urban Divides Based on Remote Sensing and Twitter Data
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(8), 304; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7080304
Received: 20 June 2018 / Revised: 17 July 2018 / Accepted: 25 July 2018 / Published: 30 July 2018
Viewed by 378 | PDF Full-text (4434 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Every city is—quoting Plato—divided into two, one city of the poor, the other of the rich. In this study we test whether the economic urban divide is reflected in the digital sphere of cities. Because, especially in dynamically growing cities, ready-to-use comprehensive data
[...] Read more.
Every city is—quoting Plato—divided into two, one city of the poor, the other of the rich. In this study we test whether the economic urban divide is reflected in the digital sphere of cities. Because, especially in dynamically growing cities, ready-to-use comprehensive data sets on the urban poor, as well as on the digital divide, are not existent, we use proxies: we spatially delimit the urban poor using settlement characteristics derived from remote sensing data. The digital divide is targeted by geolocated Twitter data. Based on a sample of eight cities across the globe, we spatially test whether areas of the urban poor are more likely to be digital cold spots. Over the course of time, we analyze whether temporal signatures in poor urban areas differ from formal environments. We find that the economic divide influences digital participation in public life. Less residents of morphological slums are found to be digitally oriented (“are digitally left behind”) as compared to residents of formal settlements. However, among the few twitter users in morphological slums, we find their temporal behavior similar to the twitter users in formal settlements. In general, we conclude this discussion, this study exemplifies that the combination of both heterogeneous data sets allows for extending the capabilities of individual disciplines for research towards urban poverty. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geospatial Big Data and Urban Studies)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditorial Remote Sensing and Geospatial Technologies in Public Health
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(8), 303; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7080303
Received: 11 July 2018 / Accepted: 20 July 2018 / Published: 30 July 2018
Viewed by 354 | PDF Full-text (178 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing and Geospatial Technologies in Public Health)
Back to Top