Special Issue "Building Information Modeling and 3D GIS Integration: From the Theoretical to the Practical"

A special issue of ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information (ISSN 2220-9964).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2018).

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Gunho Sohn Website E-Mail
Department of Earth and Space Science and Engineering, York University, Toronto, ON M3J1P3, Canada
Phone: +1 416 650 8011
Interests: augmented urban space modeling; 3D city model reconstruction; spatial data analytics; photogrammetry; computer vision; machine learning
Guest Editor
Dr. Claire Ellul Website E-Mail
Department of Civil, Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, University College London, London, UK
Interests: 3D GIS; 3D city models; GeoBIM; spatial data quality and interoperability

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Building Information Modeling (BIM) is an emerging technology providing an innovative process for generating and managing high-dimensional virtual representations of physical and functional characteristics of critical infrastructure. In recent years, BIM has attracted a great deal of interests from Geographic Information System (GIS) communities, due to the inherited benefits that can be synergistically gained by integrating two spatial modeling systems. However, there are severe scientific and technical barriers, which hinders a cohesive integration of BIM and GIS for fully conducting high-dimensional and multi-scale spatial data modeling, semantic analytics and visualization. This Special Issues aims to advance our understanding of how spatial data science and engineering can be applied to BIM for improving efficiency and accuracy of data processing, integration and operation. We welcome submissions that utilize BIM in the framework of GIS or vice versa, or that propose a mid-way integration of the two with methodological, theoretical, and practical innovations.   Each paper should also include a short section on the future prospects for BIM/GIS integration. This Special Issue seeks to describe and discuss the following topics, but is not limited to them:

  • Data model for BIM and GIS integration
  • Level of Detail/Development Specification for BIM and GIS integration
  • Spatial data analytics for BIM/GIS/BIM and GIS integration
  • 3D GIS for BIM or BIM for 3D GIS
  • As-built BIM reconstruction
  • Heritage for BIM/GIS/BIM and GIS integration
  • Infrastructure for BIM/GIS/BIM and GIS integration
  • Smart city for BIM/GIS/BIM and GIS integration
  • Visualization for BIM/GIS/BIM and GIS integration
  • Simulation of building characteristics using BIM/GIS/BIM and GIS integration
  • Case studies of BIM/GIS/BIM and GIS integration
  • Comparision of theoretical and practical BIM/GIS integration
  • Cloudsourced data generation and maintenance
  • Open sources
  • The n-dimension of BIM and GIS

Dr. Gunho Sohn

Dr. Claire Ellul

Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Integration of BIM and GIS
  • 3D GIS for BIM
  • Data modeling for BIM and GIS integration
  • Decision support system
  • High-dimensional spatial data analytics
  • Multi-scale spatial data analytics
  • As-built BIM reconstruction
  • Smart city
  • Cloud computing
  • Open source

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Cross-Domain Building Models—A Step towards Interoperability
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(9), 363; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7090363 - 04 Sep 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Buildings have a multifunctional character, which makes it hard to define just one model for all their diverse functions. As these diverse functions are addressed by actors of different perspectives and domain backgrounds, the possibility to exchange available building information would be desirable. [...] Read more.
Buildings have a multifunctional character, which makes it hard to define just one model for all their diverse functions. As these diverse functions are addressed by actors of different perspectives and domain backgrounds, the possibility to exchange available building information would be desirable. Two main models for the creation of building information are Industry Foundation Classes/Building Information Modelling (IFC/BIM) and City Geography Markup Language (CityGML). As the importance of information interchange has been recognized, several authors have tried to develop intermediate models for the information exchange between IFC/BIM and CityGML, e.g., the Unified Building Model (UBM), the BIM Oriented Indoor data Model (BO-IDM), the Indoor Emergency Spatial Model (IESM) and the BIM-GIS integration model for Flood Damage Assessment (FDA model). Nevertheless, all these models have been created with a certain use in mind. Our focus in this article is to identify common elements amongst these proposed models and to combine them into one “core model” that is as simple as possible, while simultaneously containing all important elements. Furthermore, this base model extracted from proposed intermediate models can then be expanded to serve specific use requirements, while still being exchangeable. To show this cross-domain character of the core model, we validated the resulting model with two cases of use (production environment/maintenance and 3D digital cadaster). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Achieving Complete and Near-Lossless Conversion from IFC to CityGML
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(9), 355; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7090355 - 27 Aug 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
The Singapore Government has embarked on a project to establish a three-dimensional city model and collaborative data platform for Singapore. The research herein contributes to this endeavour by developing a methodology and algorithms to automate the conversion of Building Information Models (BIM), in [...] Read more.
The Singapore Government has embarked on a project to establish a three-dimensional city model and collaborative data platform for Singapore. The research herein contributes to this endeavour by developing a methodology and algorithms to automate the conversion of Building Information Models (BIM), in the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) data format, into CityGML building models, capturing both geometric and semantic information as available in the BIM models, and including exterior as well as interior structures. We adopt a Triple Graph Grammar (TGG) to formally relate IFC and CityGML, both semantically and geometrically, and to transform a building information model, expressed as an IFC object graph, into a city model expressed as a CityGML object graph. The work pipeline includes extending the CityGML data model with an Application Domain Extension (ADE), which allows capturing information from IFC that is relevant in the geospatial context but at the same time not supported by CityGML in its standard form. In this paper, we elaborate on the triple graph grammar approach and the motivation and roadmap for the development of the ADE. While a fully complete and lossless conversion may never be achieved, this paper suggests that both a TGG and an ADE are natural choices for supporting the conversion between IFC and CityGML. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Extracting Indoor Space Information in Complex Building Environments
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(8), 321; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7080321 - 09 Aug 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Indoor space information extraction is an important aspect of reconstruction for building information modeling and a necessary process for geographic information system from outdoor to indoor. Entity model extracting methods provide advantages in terms of accuracy for building indoor spaces, as compared with [...] Read more.
Indoor space information extraction is an important aspect of reconstruction for building information modeling and a necessary process for geographic information system from outdoor to indoor. Entity model extracting methods provide advantages in terms of accuracy for building indoor spaces, as compared with network and grid model methods, and the extraction results can be converted into a network or grid model. However, existing entity model extracting methods based on a search loop do not consider the complex indoor environment of a building, such as isolated columns and walls or cross-floor spaces. In this study, such complex indoor environments are analyzed in detail, and a new approach for extracting buildings’ indoor space information is proposed. This approach is based on indoor space boundary calculation, the Boolean difference for single-floor space extraction, relationship reconstruction, and cross-floor space extraction. The experimental results showed that the proposed method can accurately extract indoor space information from the complex indoor environment of a building with geometric, semantic, and relationship information. This study is theoretically important for better understanding the complexity of indoor space extraction and practically important for improving the modeling accuracy of buildings. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
BIM-GIS Integration as Dedicated and Independent Course for Geoinformatics Students: Merits, Challenges, and Ways Forward
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(8), 319; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7080319 - 08 Aug 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Information mined from building information models as well as associated geographical data and Geographic Information System (GIS) analyses can increase the success of construction processes and asset management, including buildings, roads, and public facilities. The integration of information from both domains requires high [...] Read more.
Information mined from building information models as well as associated geographical data and Geographic Information System (GIS) analyses can increase the success of construction processes and asset management, including buildings, roads, and public facilities. The integration of information from both domains requires high expertise in both spheres. The existing B.Sc and M.Sc. programs linked to the built environment at the Technical University of Munich offer courses for the Building Information Model (BIM) and GIS that are distributed among study programs in Civil Engineering, Architecture, and Geomatics. Students graduating as professionals in one of these domains rarely know how to solve pre-defined technical problems associated with the integration of information from BIM and GIS. Students in such programs seldom practice skills needed for the integration of information from BIM and GIS at a level that is needed in working life. Conversely, the technologies in both domains create artificial boundaries that do not exist in reality—for example, water and electricity would not be of use if the utilities terminated in front of buildings. To bring a change and bridge the gap between BIM and GIS, a change in the teaching methods of BIM/GIS needs to be considered. The Technical University of Munich (TUM) has developed a master’s course (M.Sc. course) for students in Geoinformatics which focuses on competencies required to achieve BIM/GIS integration. This paper describes the course development process and provides a unique perspective on the curriculum and subjects. It also presents the course objective, course development, the selection and development of learning materials, and the assessment of the intended learning outcome of the course. The developed course is validated through a questionnaire, and feedback is provided by participants of the BIM/GIS integration workshop representing a panel of experts in the domain. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Processing BIM and GIS Models in Practice: Experiences and Recommendations from a GeoBIM Project in The Netherlands
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(8), 311; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7080311 - 02 Aug 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
It is widely acknowledged that the integration of BIM and GIS data is a crucial step forward for future 3D city modelling, but most of the research conducted so far has covered only the high-level and semantic aspects of GIS-BIM integration. This paper [...] Read more.
It is widely acknowledged that the integration of BIM and GIS data is a crucial step forward for future 3D city modelling, but most of the research conducted so far has covered only the high-level and semantic aspects of GIS-BIM integration. This paper presents the results of the GeoBIM project, which tackled three integration problems focussing instead on aspects involving geometry processing: (i) the automated processing of complex architectural IFC models; (ii) the integration of existing GIS subsoil data in BIM; and (iii) the georeferencing of BIM models for their use in GIS software. All the problems have been studied using real world models and existing datasets made and used by practitioners in The Netherlands. For each problem, this paper exposes in detail the issues faced, proposed solutions, and recommendations for a more successful integration. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Software Systems Approach to Multi-Scale GIS-BIM Utility Infrastructure Network Integration and Resource Flow Simulation
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(8), 310; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7080310 - 01 Aug 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
There is an increasing impetus for the use of digital city models and sensor network data to understand the current demand for utility resources and inform future infrastructure service planning across a range of spatial scales. Achieving this requires the ability to represent [...] Read more.
There is an increasing impetus for the use of digital city models and sensor network data to understand the current demand for utility resources and inform future infrastructure service planning across a range of spatial scales. Achieving this requires the ability to represent a city as a complex system of connected and interdependent components in which the topology of the electricity, water, gas, and heat demand-supply networks are modelled in an integrated manner. However, integrated modelling of these networks is hampered by the disparity between the predominant data formats and modelling processes used in the Geospatial Information Science (GIS) and Building Information Modelling (BIM) domains. This paper presents a software systems approach to scale-free, multi-format, integrated modelling of evolving cross-domain utility infrastructure network topologies, and the analysis of the spatiotemporal dynamics of their resource flows. The system uses a graph database to integrate the topology of utility network components represented in the CityGML UtilityNetwork Application Domain Extension (ADE), Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) and JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) real-time streaming messages. A message broker is used to disseminate the changing state of the integrated topology and the dynamic resource flows derived from the streaming data. The capability of the developed system is demonstrated via a case study in which internal building and local electricity distribution feeder networks are integrated, and a real-time building management sensor data stream is used to simulate and visualise the spatiotemporal dynamics of electricity flows using a dynamic web-based visualisation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Automation of Building Permission by Integration of BIM and Geospatial Data
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(8), 307; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7080307 - 31 Jul 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
The building permission process is to a large extent an analogue process where much information is handled in paper format or as pdf files. With the ongoing digitalisation in society, there is a potential to automate this process by integrating Building Information Models [...] Read more.
The building permission process is to a large extent an analogue process where much information is handled in paper format or as pdf files. With the ongoing digitalisation in society, there is a potential to automate this process by integrating Building Information Models (BIM) of planned buildings and geospatial data to check if a building conforms to the building permission regulations. In this study, an inventory of which regulations in the (Swedish) detailed development plans that can be automatically checked or supported by 3D visualisation was conducted. Then, two of these regulations, the building height and the building footprint area, were studied in detail to find to which extent they can be automatically checked by integration of BIM and geospatial data. In addition, a feasibility study of one visual criterion was conducted. One concern when automating the building permission process is the variability of content within the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) data model. Variations in modelling methods and model content leads to differences in IFC models’ content and structure; these differences complicate automated processes. To facilitate automated processes, requirements on the production of IFC models for building permission applications could be defined in the form of model view definitions or delivery specifications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modeling of Macroscopic Building Evacuation Using IFC Data
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(8), 302; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7080302 - 29 Jul 2018
Abstract
Presently, most models of crowd evacuations within a building are created manually. This is inefficient. To address this issue, this paper focuses on the differences and relationship between industry foundation classes (IFC) and the macroscopic network model for evacuation (MNME), and studies the [...] Read more.
Presently, most models of crowd evacuations within a building are created manually. This is inefficient. To address this issue, this paper focuses on the differences and relationship between industry foundation classes (IFC) and the macroscopic network model for evacuation (MNME), and studies the mapping and construction methods used to convert entity objects into nodes and arcs in the MNME. Furthermore, corresponding attribute information in the MNME are established from IFC. Based on this process, the MNME is created and used as an input to EVACNET4 to obtain simulation results. Finally, the results, together with a 3D building model, are expressed in a unified environment. Our study results show that a network as well as the relevant attributes can be automatically generated from IFC, and can be adapted to different working conditions. The method proposed in this paper can automatically map the semantic information model to the MNME and the simulation result as well as the building model can be integrated in a Geographic Information System (GIS) environment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a Conceptual Mapping Standard to Link Building and Geospatial Information
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(5), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7050162 - 24 Apr 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
This study introduces the BIM (building information modeling)-GIS (geographic information system) conceptual mapping (B2GM) standard ISO N19166 and proposes a mapping mechanism. In addition, the major issues concerning BIM-GIS integration, and the considerations that it requires, are discussed. The B2GM is currently being [...] Read more.
This study introduces the BIM (building information modeling)-GIS (geographic information system) conceptual mapping (B2GM) standard ISO N19166 and proposes a mapping mechanism. In addition, the major issues concerning BIM-GIS integration, and the considerations that it requires, are discussed. The B2GM is currently being standardized by the spatial-information international standardization organization TC211. Previous studies on BIM-GIS integration seem to focus on the integration of different types of model schemas and on the implementation of service interfaces. B2GM concerns the clear definition of the conditions and methods for mapping the object information required from the user’s use-case viewpoint for city-scale mapping. The benefits of the B2GM approach are that the user is able directly control the BIM-GIS linkage and integration process in order to acquire the necessary objection information. This can reveal cases of possibly unclear BIM-GIS integration outside the black box in an explicit and standard way, so that the user can distinctively predict the final output obtainable from the BIM-GIS integration. This study examined B2GM in terms of its development background, components, and several utilization examples, as well as the levels and considerations of the integration of different BIM-GIS models. Full article
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