Location-based services for smartphones are becoming more and more popular. The core of location-based services is how to estimate a user’s location. An INS/floor-plan indoor localization system, using the Firefly Particle Filter (FPF), is proposed to estimate a user’s location. INS includes an attitude angle module, a step length module and a step counting module. In the step length module, we propose a hybrid step length model. The proposed step length algorithm reasonably calculates a user’s step length. Because of sensor deviation, non-orthogonality and the user’s jitter, the main bottleneck for INS is that the error grows over time. To reduce the cumulative error, we design cascade filters including the Kalman Filter (KF) and FPF. To a certain extent, KF reduces velocity error and heading drift. On the other hand, the firefly algorithm is used to solve the particle impoverishment problem. Considering that a user may not cross an obstacle, the proposed particle filter is proposed to improve positioning performance. Results show that the average positioning error in walking experiments is 2.14 m.
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