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ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf., Volume 5, Issue 4 (April 2016)

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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Dynamic Physical Storage Model for Vehicle Navigation Maps
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(4), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5040053 - 22 Apr 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1667
Abstract
The physical storage model is one of the key technologies for vehicle navigation maps used in a navigation system. However, the performance of most traditional storage models is limited in dynamic navigation due to the static storage format they use. In this paper, [...] Read more.
The physical storage model is one of the key technologies for vehicle navigation maps used in a navigation system. However, the performance of most traditional storage models is limited in dynamic navigation due to the static storage format they use. In this paper, we proposed a new physical storage model, China Navigation Data Format (CNDF), which helped access and update the navigation data. The CNDF model used the reach-based hierarchy method to build a road hierarchal network, which enhanced the efficiency of data compression. It also adopted the Linear Link Coding method, in which the start position was combined with the end position as the identification code for multi-level links, and each link traced up-level links consistently without recording the array of identifications. The navigation map of East China (including Beijing, Tianjin, Shandong, Hebei, and Jiangsu) at 1:10,000, generated using the CNDF model, and the real time traffic information in Beijing were combined to test the performance of a navigation system using an embedded navigation device. Results showed that it cost less than 1 second each time to refresh the navigation map, and the accuracy of the hierarchal shortest-path algorithm was 99.9%. Our work implied that the CNDF model is efficient in vehicle navigation applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Location-Based Services)
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Open AccessArticle
TOD District Planning Based on Residents’ Perspectives
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(4), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5040052 - 14 Apr 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1541
Abstract
This study uses the MRT (mass rapid transit system) Banqiao Station as an example to explore residents’ satisfaction toward transit-oriented development (TOD) living environment characteristics around the Banqiao MRT station. The study uses descriptive statistics, reliability analysis, the factor analysis method and multiple [...] Read more.
This study uses the MRT (mass rapid transit system) Banqiao Station as an example to explore residents’ satisfaction toward transit-oriented development (TOD) living environment characteristics around the Banqiao MRT station. The study uses descriptive statistics, reliability analysis, the factor analysis method and multiple regression analysis to verify the data, and one should expect the study to serve as a reference basis for the government, academia and businesses to formulate urban development and transportation policies. This study shows that residents are mostly satisfied with a 10-minute walk distance to convenience stores. Furthermore, this study uses the factor analysis method and thus brings forth five major TOD factors. With stepwise regression analysis, we discovered that Factors 1 and 2 represent land use and transportation, respectively, while Factor 5 represents high-density development, all of which are significantly related to resident satisfaction. Additionally, gender, age, career, educational background and incomes are individual characteristics that should be forcibly entered into the regression equation. Only Factors 1 and 5 achieve statistical significance. Finally, the study suggests improvements to the surrounding environments of Banqiao Station by focusing on the TOD characteristics of design and density, which can increase TOD residential satisfaction and the public health of residents surrounding the MRT Banqiao Station. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Pull-Based Modeling and Algorithms for Real-Time Provision of High-Frequency Sensor Data from Sensor Observation Services
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(4), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5040051 - 14 Apr 2016
Viewed by 1620
Abstract
The widely used pull-based method for high-frequency sensor data acquisition from Sensor Observation Services (SOS) is not efficient in real-time applications; therefore, further attention must be paid to real-time mechanisms in the provision process if sensor webs are to achieve their full potential. [...] Read more.
The widely used pull-based method for high-frequency sensor data acquisition from Sensor Observation Services (SOS) is not efficient in real-time applications; therefore, further attention must be paid to real-time mechanisms in the provision process if sensor webs are to achieve their full potential. To address this problem, we created a data provision problem model, and compare the recursive algorithm Kalman Filter (KF) and our two proposed self-adaptive linear algorithms Harvestor Additive Increase and Multiplicative Decrease (H-AIMD) and Harvestor Multiplicative Increase and Additive Decrease (H-MIAD) with the commonly used Static Policy, which requests data with an unchanged time interval. We also developed a comprehensive performance evaluation method that considers the real-time capacity and resource waste to compare the performance of the four data provision algorithms. Experiments with real sensor data show that the Static Policy needs accurate priori parameters, Kalman Filter is most suitable for the data provision of sensors with long-term stable time intervals, and H-AIMD is the steadiest with better efficiency and less delayed number of data while with a higher resource waste than the others for data streams with much fluctuations in time intervals. The proposed model and algorithms are useful as a basic reference for real-time applications by pull-based stream data acquisition. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Potential of UAVs for Monitoring Mudflat Morphodynamics (Application to the Seine Estuary, France)
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(4), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5040050 - 13 Apr 2016
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2139
Abstract
Intertidal mudflats play a critical role in estuarine exchange, connecting marine and continental supplies of nutrients and sediments. However, their complex morphodynamics, associated with a wide range of physical and biological processes, are still poorly understood and require further field investigation. In addition, [...] Read more.
Intertidal mudflats play a critical role in estuarine exchange, connecting marine and continental supplies of nutrients and sediments. However, their complex morphodynamics, associated with a wide range of physical and biological processes, are still poorly understood and require further field investigation. In addition, mudflats are challenging areas for Structure-from-Motion (SfM) photogrammetric surveys. Indeed, the mudflats generally hold back residual tidal water, which can make stereo restitution particularly difficult because of poor correlations or sun-glint effects. This study aims to show the potential of light UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) for monitoring sedimentary hydrodynamics at different spatial scales in a silty estuary. For each UAV mission an orthophotograph and a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) are computed. From repeated surveys the diachronic evolution of the area can be observed via DEM differencing. Considering the ground texture in such a context, the stereo restitution process is made possible because of the high spatial resolution of the UAV photographs. Providing a synoptic view as well as high spatial resolution (less than 4 cm), the UAV dataset enables multi-scale approaches from the study of large areas to the morphodynamics of smaller-scale sedimentary structures and the morphodynamics impact of plant ground cover. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Geomatics)
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Open AccessArticle
Requirements on Long-Term Accessibility and Preservation of Research Results with Particular Regard to Their Provenance
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(4), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5040049 - 11 Apr 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2341
Abstract
Since important national and international funders of research projects require statements on the long-term accessibility of research results, many new solutions appeared to fulfil these demands. The solutions are implemented on various scopes, starting from specific solutions for one research group up to [...] Read more.
Since important national and international funders of research projects require statements on the long-term accessibility of research results, many new solutions appeared to fulfil these demands. The solutions are implemented on various scopes, starting from specific solutions for one research group up to solutions with a national focus (i.e., the RADAR project). While portals for globally standardized research data (e.g., climate data) are available, there is currently no provision for the large amount of data resulting from specialized research in individual research foci, the so called long-tail of sciences. In this article we describe the considerations regarding the implementation of a local research data repository for the Collaborative Research Centre (CRC) 840. The main focus will be on the examination of requirements for, and an agenda of, a possible technical implementation. Requirements were derived from a more theoretical examination of similar projects and relevant literature, diverse discussions with researchers and project leaders, by analysis of existing publication data, and finally the prototypical implementation with refining iterations. Notably, the discussions with the researchers lead to new features going beyond the challenges of the mere long-term preservation of research data. Besides the need for an infrastructure that permits long-term preservation and retrieval of research data, our system will allow the reconstruction of the complete provenance of published research results. This requirement is a serious diversification of the problem, because it creates the need to qualify additional transformation data, describing the transformation process from primary research data to research results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Data Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Open Data and Beyond
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(4), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5040048 - 07 Apr 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3140
Abstract
In recent years, there has been an increasing trend of releasing public sector information as open data. Governments worldwide see the potential benefits of opening up their data. The potential benefits are more transparency, increased governmental efficiency and effectiveness, and external benefits, including [...] Read more.
In recent years, there has been an increasing trend of releasing public sector information as open data. Governments worldwide see the potential benefits of opening up their data. The potential benefits are more transparency, increased governmental efficiency and effectiveness, and external benefits, including societal and economic benefits. The private sector also recognizes potential benefits of making their datasets available as open data. One such company is Liander, an energy network administrator in the Netherlands. Liander views open data as a contributing factor to energy conservation. However, to date there has been little research done into the actual effects of open data. This research has developed a monitoring framework to assess the effects of open data, and has applied the framework to Liander’s small-scale energy consumption dataset. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Data Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Modeling Spatial Interactions between Areas to Assess the Burglary Risk
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(4), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5040047 - 01 Apr 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2427
Abstract
It is generally acknowledged that the urban environment presents different types of risk factors, but how the structural effects of areas influence the risk levels in neighboring areas has been less widely investigated. This research assesses the local effects of burglary contributory factors [...] Read more.
It is generally acknowledged that the urban environment presents different types of risk factors, but how the structural effects of areas influence the risk levels in neighboring areas has been less widely investigated. This research assesses the local effects of burglary contributory factors on burglary over small areas in a large metropolitan region. A comparative framework is developed for analyzing the effects of geographic dependence on burglary rates, and for assessing how such dependence conditions the community context and the urban land use. A local indicators spatial autocorrelation analysis assesses burglaries over five years (2011–2015) to identify risk clusters. Thereafter, effects of different variables (e.g., unemployment, building density) on burglary frequency are estimated in a series of regression models while controlling for changes in the risk levels of nearby surrounding areas. Results uncover strong evidence that the configuration of the surroundings influences risk. After controlling for area-based interaction, patterns are identified that contrast with the previous literature, such as lower burglary frequency in areas with higher tenancy in social housing units. Together the findings demonstrate that the spatial arrangement of areas is as crucial as contextual crime factors, particularly when assessing the risk for small areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Spatial and Spatiotemporal Crime Analytics)
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Open AccessArticle
Distribution Pattern of Landslides Triggered by the 2014 Ludian Earthquake of China: Implications for Regional Threshold Topography and the Seismogenic Fault Identification
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(4), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5040046 - 30 Mar 2016
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2282
Abstract
The 3 August 2014 Ludian earthquake with a moment magnitude scale (Mw) of 6.1 induced widespread landslides in the Ludian County and its vicinity. This paper presents a preliminary analysis of the distribution patterns and characteristics of these co-seismic landslides. In total, 1826 [...] Read more.
The 3 August 2014 Ludian earthquake with a moment magnitude scale (Mw) of 6.1 induced widespread landslides in the Ludian County and its vicinity. This paper presents a preliminary analysis of the distribution patterns and characteristics of these co-seismic landslides. In total, 1826 landslides with a total area of 19.12 km2 triggered by the 3 August 2014 Ludian earthquake were visually interpreted using high-resolution aerial photos and Landsat-8 images. The sizes of the landslides were, in general, much smaller than those triggered by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. The main types of landslides were rock falls and shallow, disrupted landslides from steep slopes. These landslides were unevenly distributed within the study area and concentrated within an elliptical area with a 25-km NW–SE striking long axis and a 15-km NW–SE striking short axis. Three indexes including landslides number (LN), landslide area ratio (LAR), and landslide density (LD) were employed to analyze the relation between the landslide distribution and several factors, including lithology, elevation, slope, aspect, distance to epicenter and distance to the active fault. The results show that slopes consisting of deeply weathered and fractured sandstones and mudstones were the more susceptible to co-seismic landslides. The elevation range of high landslide susceptibility was between 900–1300 m and 1800–2000 m. There was a generally positive correlation between co-seismic landslides and slope angle, until a maximum for the slope class 40°–50°. The co-seismic landslides occurred preferably on Southeast (SE), South (S) and Southwest (SW) oriented slopes. Results also show that the landslide concentration tends to decrease with distance from the surface projection of the epicenter rather than the seismogenic fault, and the highest landslide concentration is located within a 5–6 km distance of the seismogenic fault. Regarding the epicenter, the largest landslide clusters were found on the SE, northeast by east (NEE) and nearly West (W) of the epicenter. In addition, we also suggest that statistical results of slope gradients of landslides might imply a threshold topography of the study area within a tectonically active background. By analogy with other events, the statistical results of landslides aspects also imply the seismogenic fault of the Ludian earthquake might have been the Northwest (NW)-trending fault, which is consistent with other studies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Forest above Ground Biomass Inversion by Fusing GLAS with Optical Remote Sensing Data
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(4), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5040045 - 28 Mar 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1727
Abstract
Forest biomass is an important parameter for quantifying and understanding biological and physical processes on the Earth’s surface. Rapid, reliable, and objective estimations of forest biomass are essential to terrestrial ecosystem research. The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) produced substantial scientific data for [...] Read more.
Forest biomass is an important parameter for quantifying and understanding biological and physical processes on the Earth’s surface. Rapid, reliable, and objective estimations of forest biomass are essential to terrestrial ecosystem research. The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) produced substantial scientific data for detecting the vegetation structure at the footprint level. This study combined GLAS data with MODIS/BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function) and ASTER GDEM data to estimate forest aboveground biomass (AGB) in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province, China. The GLAS waveform characteristic parameters were extracted using the wavelet method. The ASTER DEM was used to compute the terrain index for reducing the topographic influence on the GLAS canopy height estimation. A neural network method was applied to assimilate the MODIS BRDF data with the canopy heights for estimating continuous forest heights. Forest leaf area indices (LAIs) were derived from Landsat TM imagery. A series of biomass estimation models were developed and validated using regression analyses between field-estimated biomass, canopy height, and LAI. The GLAS-derived canopy heights in Xishuangbanna correlated well with the field-estimated AGB (R2 = 0.61, RMSE = 52.79 Mg/ha). Combining the GLAS estimated canopy heights and LAI yielded a stronger correlation with the field-estimated AGB (R2 = 0.73, RMSE = 38.20 Mg/ha), which indicates that the accuracy of the estimated biomass in complex terrains can be improved significantly by integrating GLAS and optical remote sensing data. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Migrating 2 and 3D Datasets: Preserving AutoCAD at the Archaeology Data Service
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(4), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5040044 - 25 Mar 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2369
Abstract
The Archaeology Data Service (ADS) is a digital archive that has been promoting good practice in the use of digital archaeological data and supporting research, learning and teaching with high quality and dependable digital resources for twenty years. The ADS does this by [...] Read more.
The Archaeology Data Service (ADS) is a digital archive that has been promoting good practice in the use of digital archaeological data and supporting research, learning and teaching with high quality and dependable digital resources for twenty years. The ADS does this by preserving digital data in the long-term and by promoting and disseminating, open and free datasets, gathered from all sectors of archaeology. An integral component of the ADS remit has been the life-cycle principle of preservation, curation and dissemination of data in order to enable re-use. The ADS practices a combination of normalization, version migration, format migration and refreshment for the active management and ongoing preservation of all archived data types. This paper highlights the importance of the ongoing management of research data for long-term preservation. In particular this paper focuses on the challenges of migrating spatial data, specifically Computer Aided Design (CAD) files. Successful data migration of these files ensures that data is accessible and usable, and provides many opportunities through data re-use to combine and re-interrogate datasets, allowing new archaeological interpretations to be developed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Data Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigating “Locality” of Intra-Urban Spatial Interactions in New York City Using Foursquare Data
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(4), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5040043 - 24 Mar 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2029
Abstract
Thanks to the increasing popularity of location-based social networks, a large amount of user-generated geo-referenced check-in data is now available, and such check-in data is becoming a new data source in the study of mobility and travel. Conventionally, spatial interactions between places were [...] Read more.
Thanks to the increasing popularity of location-based social networks, a large amount of user-generated geo-referenced check-in data is now available, and such check-in data is becoming a new data source in the study of mobility and travel. Conventionally, spatial interactions between places were measured based on the trips made between them. This paper empirically investigates the use of social media data (i.e., Foursquare data) to study the “locality” of such intra-urban spatial interactions in New York City, and specifically: (i) the level of “locality” of spatial interactions; (ii) the impacts of personal characteristics on “locality” of spatial interaction and finally; (iii) the heterogeneity in spatial distribution of “local” interactions. The results of this study indicate that: (1) spatial interactions show a high degree of locality; (2) gender does not have a considerable impact on the locality of spatial interactions and finally; (3) “local” interactions likely cluster in some places within the research city. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
4D-SAS: A Distributed Dynamic-Data Driven Simulation and Analysis System for Massive Spatial Agent-Based Modeling
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(4), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5040042 - 23 Mar 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2722
Abstract
Significant computation challenges are emerging as agent-based modeling becomes more complicated and dynamically data-driven. In this context, parallel simulation is an attractive solution when dealing with massive data and computation requirements. Nearly all the available distributed simulation systems, however, do not support geospatial [...] Read more.
Significant computation challenges are emerging as agent-based modeling becomes more complicated and dynamically data-driven. In this context, parallel simulation is an attractive solution when dealing with massive data and computation requirements. Nearly all the available distributed simulation systems, however, do not support geospatial phenomena modeling, dynamic data injection, and real-time visualization. To tackle these problems, we propose a distributed dynamic-data driven simulation and analysis system (4D-SAS) specifically for massive spatial agent-based modeling to support real-time representation and analysis of geospatial phenomena. To accomplish large-scale geospatial problem-solving, the 4D-SAS system was spatially enabled to support geospatial model development and employs high-performance computing to improve simulation performance. It can automatically decompose simulation tasks and distribute them among computing nodes following two common schemes: order division or spatial decomposition. Moreover, it provides streaming channels and a storage database to incorporate dynamic data into simulation models; updating agent context in real-time. A new online visualization module was developed based on a GIS mapping library, SharpMap, for an animated display of model execution to help clients understand the model outputs efficiently. To evaluate the system’s efficiency and scalability, two different spatially explicitly agent-based models, an en-route choice model, and a forest fire propagation model, were created on 4D-SAS. Simulation results illustrate that 4D-SAS provides an efficient platform for dynamic data-driven geospatial modeling, e.g., both discrete multi-agent simulation and grid-based cellular automata, demonstrating efficient support for massive parallel simulation. The parallel efficiency of the two models is above 0.7 and remains nearly stable in our experiments. Full article
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Open AccessProject Report
Data Management in Collaborative Interdisciplinary Research Projects—Conclusions from the Digitalization of Research in Sustainable Manufacturing
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(4), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5040041 - 23 Mar 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2246
Abstract
As research topics become increasingly complex, large scale interdisciplinary research projects are commonly established to foster cross-disciplinary cooperation and to utilize potential synergies. In the case of the Collaborative Research Center (CRC) 1026, 19 individual projects from different disciplines are brought together to [...] Read more.
As research topics become increasingly complex, large scale interdisciplinary research projects are commonly established to foster cross-disciplinary cooperation and to utilize potential synergies. In the case of the Collaborative Research Center (CRC) 1026, 19 individual projects from different disciplines are brought together to investigate perspectives and solutions for sustainable manufacturing. Beside overheads regarding the coordination of activities and communication, such interdisciplinary projects are also facing challengs regarding data management. For exchange and combination of research results, data from individual projects have to be stored systematically, categorized, and linked according to the logical interrelations of the involved disciplinary knowledge domains. In the CRC 1026, the project for information infrastructure observed and analysed collaboration practices and developed IT-supported solutions to facilitate and foster research collaboration. Data management measures in this period were mainly focused on building a shared conceptual framework, and the organization of task related data. For the former aspect, an ontology basesd apporach was developed and prototypically implemented. For the latter aspect, a message board integrated task management system was developed and applied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Data Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Research Data Management Training for Geographers: First Impressions
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(4), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5040040 - 23 Mar 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2564
Abstract
Sharing and secondary analysis of data have become increasingly important for research. Especially in geography, the collection of digital data has grown due to technological changes. Responsible handling and proper documentation of research data have therefore become essential for funders, publishers and higher [...] Read more.
Sharing and secondary analysis of data have become increasingly important for research. Especially in geography, the collection of digital data has grown due to technological changes. Responsible handling and proper documentation of research data have therefore become essential for funders, publishers and higher education institutions. To achieve this goal, universities offer support and training in research data management. This article presents the experiences of a pilot workshop in research data management, especially for geographers. A discipline-specific approach to research data management training is recommended. The focus of this approach increases researchers’ interest and allows for more specific guidance. The instructors identified problems and challenges of research data management for geographers. In regards to training, the communication of benefits and reaching the target groups seem to be the biggest challenges. Consequently, better incentive structures as well as communication channels have to be established. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Data Management)
Open AccessEditorial
Editorial for the IJGI Special Issue on “Geo-Information Fostering Innovative Solutions for Smart Cities”
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(4), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5040039 - 23 Mar 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1517
Abstract
In 2008, for the first time in history, more people in the world lived in cities than in rural areas.[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geo-Information Fostering Innovative Solutions for Smart Cities)
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