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Universe, Volume 4, Issue 11 (November 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Quantum gravity provides a concrete mechanism to describe the final stage of black-hole life, [...] Read more.
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Collider Searches for Dark Matter (ATLAS + CMS)
Universe 2018, 4(11), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe4110131
Received: 5 November 2018 / Revised: 15 November 2018 / Accepted: 15 November 2018 / Published: 20 November 2018
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Abstract
Several searches for dark matter have been performed by the CMS and ATLAS collaborations, using proton-proton collisions with a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV produced by the Large Hadron Collider. Different signatures may highlight the presence of dark matter: the imbalance in the
[...] Read more.
Several searches for dark matter have been performed by the CMS and ATLAS collaborations, using proton-proton collisions with a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV produced by the Large Hadron Collider. Different signatures may highlight the presence of dark matter: the imbalance in the transverse momentum in an event due to the presence of undetectable dark matter particles, produced together with one Standard Model particle, a bump in the di-jet or di-lepton invariant mass distributions, or an excess of events in the di-jet angular distribution, produced by a dark matter mediator. No significant discrepancies with respect to the Standard Model predictions have been found in data, so that limits on the dark matter couplings to ordinary matter, or limits on the dark matter particles and mediators masses have been set. The results are also re-interpreted as limits on the dark matter interaction cross-section with baryonic matter, so that a comparison with direct detection experiments is allowed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle First Results on the Rare Decay K+π+νν from the NA62 Experiment at CERN
Universe 2018, 4(11), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe4110130
Received: 12 October 2018 / Revised: 16 November 2018 / Accepted: 17 November 2018 / Published: 20 November 2018
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Abstract
The NA62 experiment at CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) is currently taking data to measure the ultra-rare decay K+π+νν¯. This decay, whose Branching Ratio (BR) is predicted with high precision within the Standard Model (SM),
[...] Read more.
The NA62 experiment at CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) is currently taking data to measure the ultra-rare decay K + π + ν ν ¯ . This decay, whose Branching Ratio (BR) is predicted with high precision within the Standard Model (SM), is one of the best candidates to reveal the indirect effects of New Physics (NP) at the highest mass scales. The NA62 experiment is designed to measure BR ( K + π + ν ν ¯ ) with a decay-in-flight technique, novel for this channel. NA62 took data in 2016, 2017 and 2018; statistics collected in 2016 allows NA62 to reach the SM sensitivity for this decay, reaching the single event sensitivity (SES) and showing the proof of principle of the experiment. The preliminary result on BR ( K + π + ν ν ¯ ) from the analysis of the 2016 data set is described. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Pre-Big-Bang Black-Hole Remnants and Past Low Entropy
Universe 2018, 4(11), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe4110129
Received: 3 October 2018 / Revised: 9 November 2018 / Accepted: 12 November 2018 / Published: 18 November 2018
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Abstract
Dark matter could be composed by black-hole remnants formed before the big-bang era in a bouncing cosmology. This hypothetical scenario has implications on the issue of the arrow of time: it upsets a common attribution of past low entropy to the state of
[...] Read more.
Dark matter could be composed by black-hole remnants formed before the big-bang era in a bouncing cosmology. This hypothetical scenario has implications on the issue of the arrow of time: it upsets a common attribution of past low entropy to the state of the geometry and suggests a possible realisation of the perspectival interpretation of past low entropy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bounce Cosmology)
Open AccessArticle The Pierre Auger Observatory: Review of Latest Results and Perspectives
Universe 2018, 4(11), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe4110128
Received: 27 October 2018 / Revised: 13 November 2018 / Accepted: 14 November 2018 / Published: 17 November 2018
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Abstract
The Pierre Auger Observatory is the world’s largest operating detection system for the observation of ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs), with energies above 1017 eV. The detector allows detailed measurements of the energy spectrum, mass composition and arrival directions of primary
[...] Read more.
The Pierre Auger Observatory is the world’s largest operating detection system for the observation of ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs), with energies above 10 17 eV. The detector allows detailed measurements of the energy spectrum, mass composition and arrival directions of primary cosmic rays in the energy range above 10 17 eV. The data collected at the Auger Observatory over the last decade show the suppression of the cosmic ray flux at energies above 4 × 10 19 eV. However, it is still unclear if this suppression is caused by the energy limitation of their sources or by the Greisen–Zatsepin–Kuzmin (GZK) cut-off. In such a case, UHECRs would interact with the microwave background (CMB), so that particles traveling long intergalactic distances could not have energies greater than 5 × 10 19 eV. The other puzzle is the origin of UHECRs. Some clues can be drawn from studying the distribution of their arrival directions. The recently observed dipole anisotropy has an orientation that indicates an extragalactic origin of UHECRs. The Auger surface detector array is also sensitive to showers due to ultra high energy neutrinos of all flavors and photons, and recent neutrino and photon limits provided by the Auger Observatory can constrain models of the cosmogenic neutrino production and exotic scenarios of the UHECRs origin, such as the decays of super heavy, non-standard-model particles. In this paper, the recent results on measurements of the energy spectrum, mass composition and arrival directions of cosmic rays, as well as future prospects are presented. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Small Black/White Hole Stability and Dark Matter
Universe 2018, 4(11), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe4110127
Received: 3 October 2018 / Revised: 9 November 2018 / Accepted: 12 November 2018 / Published: 17 November 2018
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Abstract
We show that the expected lifetime of white holes formed as remnants of evaporated black holes is consistent with their production at reheating. We give a simple quantum description of these objects and argue that a quantum superposition of black and white holes
[...] Read more.
We show that the expected lifetime of white holes formed as remnants of evaporated black holes is consistent with their production at reheating. We give a simple quantum description of these objects and argue that a quantum superposition of black and white holes with large interiors is stable, because it is protected by the existence of a minimal eigenvalue of the area, predicted by Loop Quantum Gravity. These two results support the hypothesis that a component of dark matter could be formed by small black hole remnants. Full article
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Open AccessConference Report Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics with the JUNO Detector
Universe 2018, 4(11), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe4110126
Received: 12 October 2018 / Revised: 7 November 2018 / Accepted: 13 November 2018 / Published: 16 November 2018
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Abstract
The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) is a 20 kton liquid scintillator multi-purpose underground detector, under construction near the Chinese city of Jiangmen, with data collection expected to start in 2021. The main goal of the experiment is the neutrino mass hierarchy determination,
[...] Read more.
The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) is a 20 kton liquid scintillator multi-purpose underground detector, under construction near the Chinese city of Jiangmen, with data collection expected to start in 2021. The main goal of the experiment is the neutrino mass hierarchy determination, with more than three sigma significance, and the high-precision neutrino oscillation parameter measurements, detecting electron anti-neutrinos emitted from two nearby (baseline of about 53 km) nuclear power plants. Besides, the unprecedented liquid scintillator-type detector performance in target mass, energy resolution, energy calibration precision, and low-energy threshold features a rich physics program for the detection of low-energy astrophysical neutrinos, such as galactic core-collapse supernova neutrinos, solar neutrinos, and geo-neutrinos. Full article
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Open AccessReview Conformal Symmetry in Field Theory and in Quantum Gravity
Universe 2018, 4(11), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe4110125
Received: 29 August 2018 / Revised: 8 November 2018 / Accepted: 9 November 2018 / Published: 15 November 2018
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Abstract
Conformal symmetry always played an important role in field theory (both quantum and classical) and in gravity. We present construction of quantum conformal gravity and discuss its features regarding scattering amplitudes and quantum effective action. First, the long and complicated story of UV-divergences
[...] Read more.
Conformal symmetry always played an important role in field theory (both quantum and classical) and in gravity. We present construction of quantum conformal gravity and discuss its features regarding scattering amplitudes and quantum effective action. First, the long and complicated story of UV-divergences is recalled. With the development of UV-finite higher derivative (or non-local) gravitational theory, all problems with infinities and spacetime singularities might be completely solved. Moreover, the non-local quantum conformal theory reveals itself to be ghost-free, so the unitarity of the theory should be safe. After the construction of UV-finite theory, we focused on making it manifestly conformally invariant using the dilaton trick. We also argue that in this class of theories conformal anomaly can be taken to vanish by fine-tuning the couplings. As applications of this theory, the constraints of the conformal symmetry on the form of the effective action and on the scattering amplitudes are shown. We also remark about the preservation of the unitarity bound for scattering. Finally, the old model of conformal supergravity by Fradkin and Tseytlin is briefly presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gravity, Black Holes and Cosmology XXI)
Open AccessArticle QCD at High Energies and Yangian Symmetry
Universe 2018, 4(11), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe4110124
Received: 7 October 2018 / Revised: 25 October 2018 / Accepted: 1 November 2018 / Published: 13 November 2018
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Abstract
Yangian symmetric correlators provide a tool to investigate integrability features of QCD at high energies. We discuss the kernel of the equation of perturbative Regge asymptotics, the kernels of the evolution equation of parton distributions, Born scattering amplitudes and coupling renormalization. Full article
Open AccessReview Quantum No-Scale Regimes and String Moduli
Universe 2018, 4(11), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe4110123
Received: 14 October 2018 / Revised: 3 November 2018 / Accepted: 4 November 2018 / Published: 10 November 2018
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Abstract
We review that in no-scale models in perturbative string theory, flat, homogeneous and isotropic cosmological evolutions found at the quantum level can enter into “quantum no-scale regimes” (QNSRs). When this is the case, the quantum effective potential is dominated by the classical kinetic
[...] Read more.
We review that in no-scale models in perturbative string theory, flat, homogeneous and isotropic cosmological evolutions found at the quantum level can enter into “quantum no-scale regimes” (QNSRs). When this is the case, the quantum effective potential is dominated by the classical kinetic energies of the no-scale modulus, dilaton and moduli not involved in the supersymmetry breaking. As a result, the evolutions approach the classical ones, where the no-scale structure is exact. When the one-loop potential is positive, a global attractor mechanism forces the initially expanding solutions to enter the QNSR describing a flat, ever-expanding universe. On the contrary, when the potential can reach negative values, the internal moduli induce in most cases some kind of instability of the growing universe. The latter stops expanding and eventually collapses, unless the initial conditions are tuned in a tiny region of the phase space. Finally, in QNSR, no gauge instability takes place, regardless of the details of the potential. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Spacetime Continuity and Quantum Information Loss
Universe 2018, 4(11), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe4110122
Received: 30 September 2018 / Revised: 2 November 2018 / Accepted: 8 November 2018 / Published: 9 November 2018
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Abstract
Continuity across the shock wave of two regions in the metric during the formation of a black hole can be relaxed in order to achieve information preservation. A Planck scale sized spacetime discontinuity leads to unitarity (a constant asymptotic entanglement entropy) by restricting
[...] Read more.
Continuity across the shock wave of two regions in the metric during the formation of a black hole can be relaxed in order to achieve information preservation. A Planck scale sized spacetime discontinuity leads to unitarity (a constant asymptotic entanglement entropy) by restricting the origin of coordinates (moving mirror) to be timelike. Moreover, thermal equilibration occurs and total evaporation energy emitted is finite. Full article
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Open AccessConference Report Total and Differential Cross Sections for Higgs and Top-Quark Production
Universe 2018, 4(11), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe4110121
Received: 24 September 2018 / Revised: 24 October 2018 / Accepted: 6 November 2018 / Published: 9 November 2018
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Abstract
I present theoretical calculations for Higgs-boson and top-quark production, including high-order soft-gluon corrections. I discuss charged-Higgs production in association with a top quark or a W boson, as well as single-top and top-antitop production. Total cross sections as well as transverse-momentum and rapidity
[...] Read more.
I present theoretical calculations for Higgs-boson and top-quark production, including high-order soft-gluon corrections. I discuss charged-Higgs production in association with a top quark or a W boson, as well as single-top and top-antitop production. Total cross sections as well as transverse-momentum and rapidity distributions of the top quark or the Higgs boson are presented for various LHC energies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Supersymmetric and Conformal Features of Hadron Physics
Universe 2018, 4(11), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe4110120
Received: 15 October 2018 / Revised: 6 November 2018 / Accepted: 6 November 2018 / Published: 8 November 2018
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Abstract
The QCD Lagrangian is based on quark and gluonic fields—not squarks nor gluinos. However, one can show that its hadronic eigensolutions conform to a representation of superconformal algebra, reflecting the underlying conformal symmetry of chiral QCD. The eigensolutions of superconformal algebra provide a
[...] Read more.
The QCD Lagrangian is based on quark and gluonic fields—not squarks nor gluinos. However, one can show that its hadronic eigensolutions conform to a representation of superconformal algebra, reflecting the underlying conformal symmetry of chiral QCD. The eigensolutions of superconformal algebra provide a unified Regge spectroscopy of meson, baryon, and tetraquarks of the same parity and twist as equal-mass members of the same 4-plet representation with a universal Regge slope. The predictions from light-front holography and superconformal algebra can also be extended to mesons, baryons, and tetraquarks with strange, charm and bottom quarks. The pion q q ¯ eigenstate has zero mass for m q = 0 . A key tool is the remarkable observation of de Alfaro, Fubini, and Furlan (dAFF) which shows how a mass scale can appear in the Hamiltonian and the equations of motion while retaining the conformal symmetry of the action. When one applies the dAFF procedure to chiral QCD, a mass scale κ appears which determines universal Regge slopes, hadron masses in the absence of the Higgs coupling. One also predicts the form of the nonperturbative QCD running coupling: α s ( Q 2 ) e Q 2 / 4 κ 2 , in agreement with the effective charge determined from measurements of the Bjorken sum rule. One also obtains viable predictions for spacelike and timelike hadronic form factors, structure functions, distribution amplitudes, and transverse momentum distributions. The combination of conformal symmetry, light-front dynamics, its holographic mapping to AdS 5 space, and the dAFF procedure thus provide new insights, not only into the physics underlying color confinement, but also the nonperturbative QCD coupling and the QCD mass scale. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Search for Exotic Particles at the NA62 Experiment
Universe 2018, 4(11), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe4110119
Received: 12 October 2018 / Revised: 2 November 2018 / Accepted: 4 November 2018 / Published: 7 November 2018
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Abstract
The NA62 experiment at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) is currently taking data to measure the ultra-rare decay K+π+νν¯. The high-intensity setup, trigger flexibility, detector performance and high-efficiency vetoes make NA62 also suitable for
[...] Read more.
The NA62 experiment at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) is currently taking data to measure the ultra-rare decay K + π + ν ν ¯ . The high-intensity setup, trigger flexibility, detector performance and high-efficiency vetoes make NA62 also suitable for direct searches of long-lived, beyond-the-Standard-Model particles, such as Heavy Neutral Leptons (HNLs), Axion-Like Particles (ALPs) and Dark Photons (DPs); moreover, many rare and forbidden decays are studied at NA62. The status of all these searches is reviewed, together with prospects for future data taking at NA62 after the CERN Long Shutdown 2 (LS2). Full article
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Open AccessArticle Solar Neutrinos Spectroscopy with Borexino Phase-II
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Universe 2018, 4(11), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe4110118
Received: 18 October 2018 / Revised: 31 October 2018 / Accepted: 1 November 2018 / Published: 7 November 2018
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Abstract
Solar neutrinos have played a central role in the discovery of the neutrino oscillation mechanism. They still are proving to be a unique tool to help investigate the fusion reactions that power stars and further probe basic neutrino properties. The Borexino neutrino observatory
[...] Read more.
Solar neutrinos have played a central role in the discovery of the neutrino oscillation mechanism. They still are proving to be a unique tool to help investigate the fusion reactions that power stars and further probe basic neutrino properties. The Borexino neutrino observatory has been operationally acquiring data at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso in Italy since 2007. Its main goal is the real-time study of low energy neutrinos (solar or originated elsewhere, such as geo-neutrinos). The latest analysis of experimental data, taken during the so-called Borexino Phase-II (2011-present), will be showcased in this talk—yielding new high-precision, simultaneous wide band flux measurements of the four main solar neutrino components belonging to the “pp” fusion chain (pp, pep, 7 Be, 8 B), as well as upper limits on the remaining two solar neutrino fluxes (CNO and hep). Full article
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Open AccessConference Report Ions, Protons, and Photons as Signatures of Monopoles
Universe 2018, 4(11), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe4110117
Received: 8 October 2018 / Revised: 31 October 2018 / Accepted: 1 November 2018 / Published: 7 November 2018
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Abstract
Magnetic monopoles have been a subject of interest since Dirac established the relationship between the existence of monopoles and charge quantization. The Dirac quantization condition bestows the monopole with a huge magnetic charge. The aim of this study was to determine whether this
[...] Read more.
Magnetic monopoles have been a subject of interest since Dirac established the relationship between the existence of monopoles and charge quantization. The Dirac quantization condition bestows the monopole with a huge magnetic charge. The aim of this study was to determine whether this huge magnetic charge allows monopoles to be detected by the scattering of charged ions and protons on matter where they might be bound. We also analyze if this charge favors monopolium (monopole–antimonopole) annihilation into many photons over two photon decays. Full article
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Open AccessConference Report First Model Independent Results from DAMA/LIBRA–Phase2
Universe 2018, 4(11), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe4110116
Received: 3 October 2018 / Revised: 29 October 2018 / Accepted: 1 November 2018 / Published: 6 November 2018
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Abstract
The first results obtained by the DAMA/LIBRA–phase2 experiment are presented. The data have been collected over six independent annual cycles corresponding to a total exposure of 1.13 ton × year, deep underground at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory. The DAMA/LIBRA–phase2 apparatus, about 250
[...] Read more.
The first results obtained by the DAMA/LIBRA–phase2 experiment are presented. The data have been collected over six independent annual cycles corresponding to a total exposure of 1.13 ton × year, deep underground at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory. The DAMA/LIBRA–phase2 apparatus, about 250 kg highly radio-pure NaI(Tl), profits from a second generation high quantum efficiency photomultipliers and of new electronics with respect to DAMA/LIBRA–phase1. The improved experimental configuration has also allowed to lower the software energy threshold. The DAMA/LIBRA–phase2 data confirm the evidence of a signal that meets all the requirements of the model independent Dark Matter annual modulation signature, at 9.5 σ C.L. in the energy region (1–6) keV. In the energy region between 2 and 6 keV, where data are also available from DAMA/NaI and DAMA/LIBRA–phase1, the achieved C.L. for the full exposure (2.46 ton × year) is 12.9 σ . Full article
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Open AccessArticle Parameter Estimation of Wormholes beyond the Heisenberg Limit
Universe 2018, 4(11), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe4110115
Received: 23 October 2018 / Revised: 30 October 2018 / Accepted: 31 October 2018 / Published: 6 November 2018
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Abstract
We propose to exploit the quantum properties of nonlinear media to estimate the parameters of massless wormholes. The spacetime curvature produces a change in length with respect to Minkowski spacetime that can be estimated in principle with an interferometer. We use quantum metrology
[...] Read more.
We propose to exploit the quantum properties of nonlinear media to estimate the parameters of massless wormholes. The spacetime curvature produces a change in length with respect to Minkowski spacetime that can be estimated in principle with an interferometer. We use quantum metrology techniques to show that the sensitivity is improved with nonlinear media and propose a nonlinear Mach–Zehnder interferometer to estimate the parameters of massless wormholes that scales beyond the Heisenberg limit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wormholes in Space-Time: Theory and Facts)
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Open AccessArticle Non-Projected Supermanifolds and Embeddings in Super Grassmannians
Universe 2018, 4(11), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe4110114
Received: 28 August 2018 / Revised: 28 October 2018 / Accepted: 1 November 2018 / Published: 5 November 2018
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Abstract
In this paper we give a brief account of the relations between non-projected supermanifolds and projectivity in supergeometry. Following the general results (L. Sergio et al., 2018), we study an explicit example of non-projected and non-projective supermanifold over the projective plane and show
[...] Read more.
In this paper we give a brief account of the relations between non-projected supermanifolds and projectivity in supergeometry. Following the general results (L. Sergio et al., 2018), we study an explicit example of non-projected and non-projective supermanifold over the projective plane and show how to embed it into a super Grassmannian. The geometry of super Grassmannians is also reviewed in detail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Super Geometry for Super Strings)
Open AccessArticle On Testing Frame-Dragging with LAGEOS and a Recently Announced Geodetic Satellite
Universe 2018, 4(11), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe4110113
Received: 24 August 2018 / Revised: 17 October 2018 / Accepted: 22 October 2018 / Published: 29 October 2018
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Abstract
Recently, Ciufolini and coworkers announced the forthcoming launch of a new cannonball geodetic satellite in 2019. It should be injected in an essentially circular path with the same semimajor axis a of LAGEOS (Laser Geodynamics Satellite), in orbit since 1976, and an inclination
[...] Read more.
Recently, Ciufolini and coworkers announced the forthcoming launch of a new cannonball geodetic satellite in 2019. It should be injected in an essentially circular path with the same semimajor axis a of LAGEOS (Laser Geodynamics Satellite), in orbit since 1976, and an inclination I of its orbital plane supplementary with respect to that of its existing cousin. According to their proponents, the sum of the satellites’ precessions of the longitudes of the ascending nodes Ω should allow one to test the general relativistic Lense–Thirring effect to a ≃0.2% accuracy level, with a contribution of the mismodeling in the even zonal harmonics J , = 2 , 4 , 6 , of the geopotential to the total error budget as little as 0.1 % . Actually, such an ambitious goal seems to be hardly attainable because of the direct and indirect impact of, at least, the first even zonal J 2 . On the one hand, the lingering scatter of the estimated values of such a key geophysical parameter from different recent GRACE/GOCE-based (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment/Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer) global gravity field solutions is representative of an uncertainty which may directly impact the summed Lense–Thirring node precessions at a ≃70–80% in the worst scenarios, and to a ≃3–10% level in other, more favorable cases. On the other hand, the phenomenologically measured secular decay a ˙ of the semimajor axis of LAGEOS (and, presumably, of the other satellite as well), currently known at a σ a ˙ 0.03 m yr 1 level after more than 30 yr, will couple with the sum of the J 2 -induced node precessions yielding an overall bias as large as ≃20–40% after 5–10 yr. A further systematic error of the order of ≃2–14% may arise from an analogous interplay of the secular decay of the inclination I ˙ with the oblateness-driven node precessions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Universe: Feature Papers 2018 - Gravitational Physics)
Open AccessLetter Linear Potentials in Galaxy Halos by Asymmetric Wormholes
Universe 2018, 4(11), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe4110112
Received: 14 August 2018 / Revised: 15 October 2018 / Accepted: 25 October 2018 / Published: 29 October 2018
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Abstract
A spherically symmetric space-time solution for a diffusive two measures theory is studied. An asymmetric wormhole geometry is obtained where the metric coefficients has a linear term for galactic distances and the analysis of Mannheim and collaborators, can then be used to describe
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A spherically symmetric space-time solution for a diffusive two measures theory is studied. An asymmetric wormhole geometry is obtained where the metric coefficients has a linear term for galactic distances and the analysis of Mannheim and collaborators, can then be used to describe the galactic rotation curves. For cosmological distances a de-Sitter space-time is realized. Center of gravity coordinates for the wormhole are introduced which are the most suitable for the collective motion of a wormhole. The wormholes connect universes with different vacuum energy densities which may represent different universes in a “landscape scenario”. The metric coefficients depend on the asymmetric wormhole parameters. The coefficient of the linear potential is proportional to both the mass of the wormhole and the cosmological constant of the observed universe. Similar results are also expected in other theories like k-essence theories, that may support wormholes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wormholes in Space-Time: Theory and Facts)
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Open AccessArticle Cosmic-Ray Extremely Distributed Observatory: Status and Perspectives
Universe 2018, 4(11), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe4110111
Received: 8 October 2018 / Revised: 22 October 2018 / Accepted: 23 October 2018 / Published: 24 October 2018
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Abstract
The Cosmic-Ray Extremely Distributed Observatory (CREDO) is a project dedicated to global studies of extremely extended cosmic-ray phenomena, the cosmic-ray ensembles (CRE), beyond the capabilities of existing detectors and observatories. Up to date, cosmic-ray research has been focused on detecting single air showers,
[...] Read more.
The Cosmic-Ray Extremely Distributed Observatory (CREDO) is a project dedicated to global studies of extremely extended cosmic-ray phenomena, the cosmic-ray ensembles (CRE), beyond the capabilities of existing detectors and observatories. Up to date, cosmic-ray research has been focused on detecting single air showers, while the search for ensembles of cosmic-rays, which may overspread a significant fraction of the Earth, is a scientific terra incognita. Instead of developing and commissioning a completely new global detector infrastructure, CREDO proposes approaching the global cosmic-ray analysis objectives with all types of available detectors, from professional to pocket size, merged into a worldwide network. With such a network it is possible to search for evidences of correlated cosmic-ray ensembles. One of the observables that can be investigated in CREDO is a number of spatially isolated events collected in a small time window which could shed light on fundamental physics issues. The CREDO mission and strategy requires active engagement of a large number of participants, also non-experts, who will contribute to the project by using common electronic devices (e.g., smartphones). In this note, the status and perspectives of the project are presented. Full article
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