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Metabolites, Volume 6, Issue 2 (June 2016)

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Open AccessArticle Complex Mixture Analysis of Organic Compounds in Yogurt by NMR Spectroscopy
Metabolites 2016, 6(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo6020019
Received: 26 April 2016 / Revised: 8 June 2016 / Accepted: 13 June 2016 / Published: 16 June 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2514 | PDF Full-text (1562 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
NMR measurements do not require separation and chemical modification of samples and therefore rapidly and directly provide non-targeted information on chemical components in complex mixtures. In this study, one-dimensional (1H, 13C, and 31P) and two-dimensional (1H-13
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NMR measurements do not require separation and chemical modification of samples and therefore rapidly and directly provide non-targeted information on chemical components in complex mixtures. In this study, one-dimensional (1H, 13C, and 31P) and two-dimensional (1H-13C and 1H-31P) NMR spectroscopy were conducted to analyze yogurt without any pretreatment. 1H, 13C, and 31P NMR signals were assigned to 10 types of compounds. The signals of α/β-lactose and α/β-galactose were separately observed in the 1H NMR spectra. In addition, the signals from the acyl chains of milk fats were also successfully identified but overlapped with many other signals. Quantitative difference spectra were obtained by subtracting the diffusion ordered spectroscopy (DOSY) spectra from the quantitative 1H NMR spectra. This method allowed us to eliminate interference on the overlaps; therefore, the correct intensities of signals overlapped with those from the acyl chains of milk fat could be determined directly without separation. Moreover, the 1H-31P HMBC spectra revealed for the first time that N-acetyl-d-glucosamine-1-phosphate is contained in yogurt. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenging Biochemical Complexities by NMR)
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Open AccessArticle Detection of Volatile Metabolites of Garlic in Human Breast Milk
Metabolites 2016, 6(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo6020018
Received: 28 April 2016 / Revised: 21 May 2016 / Accepted: 28 May 2016 / Published: 6 June 2016
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4565 | PDF Full-text (1801 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The odor of human breast milk after ingestion of raw garlic at food-relevant concentrations by breastfeeding mothers was investigated for the first time chemo-analytically using gas chromatography−mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O), as well as sensorially using a trained human sensory panel. Sensory evaluation revealed a
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The odor of human breast milk after ingestion of raw garlic at food-relevant concentrations by breastfeeding mothers was investigated for the first time chemo-analytically using gas chromatography−mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O), as well as sensorially using a trained human sensory panel. Sensory evaluation revealed a clear garlic/cabbage-like odor that appeared in breast milk about 2.5 h after consumption of garlic. GC-MS/O analyses confirmed the occurrence of garlic-derived metabolites in breast milk, namely allyl methyl sulfide (AMS), allyl methyl sulfoxide (AMSO) and allyl methyl sulfone (AMSO2). Of these, only AMS had a garlic-like odor whereas the other two metabolites were odorless. This demonstrates that the odor change in human milk is not related to a direct transfer of garlic odorants, as is currently believed, but rather derives from a single metabolite. The formation of these metabolites is not fully understood, but AMSO and AMSO2 are most likely formed by the oxidation of AMS in the human body. The excretion rates of these metabolites into breast milk were strongly time-dependent with large inter-individual differences. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Development of Database Assisted Structure Identification (DASI) Methods for Nontargeted Metabolomics
Metabolites 2016, 6(2), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo6020017
Received: 17 April 2016 / Revised: 26 May 2016 / Accepted: 27 May 2016 / Published: 31 May 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1895 | PDF Full-text (13302 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Metabolite structure identification remains a significant challenge in nontargeted metabolomics research. One commonly used strategy relies on searching biochemical databases using exact mass. However, this approach fails when the database does not contain the unknown metabolite (i.e., for unknown-unknowns). For these
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Metabolite structure identification remains a significant challenge in nontargeted metabolomics research. One commonly used strategy relies on searching biochemical databases using exact mass. However, this approach fails when the database does not contain the unknown metabolite (i.e., for unknown-unknowns). For these cases, constrained structure generation with combinatorial structure generators provides a potential option. Here we evaluated structure generation constraints based on the specification of: (1) substructures required (i.e., seed structures); (2) substructures not allowed; and (3) filters to remove incorrect structures. Our approach (database assisted structure identification, DASI) used predictive models in MolFind to find candidate structures with chemical and physical properties similar to the unknown. These candidates were then used for seed structure generation using eight different structure generation algorithms. One algorithm was able to generate correct seed structures for 21/39 test compounds. Eleven of these seed structures were large enough to constrain the combinatorial structure generator to fewer than 100,000 structures. In 35/39 cases, at least one algorithm was able to generate a correct seed structure. The DASI method has several limitations and will require further experimental validation and optimization. At present, it seems most useful for identifying the structure of unknown-unknowns with molecular weights <200 Da. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioinformatics and Data Analysis)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Metabolic Effect of Estrogen Receptor Agonists on Breast Cancer Cells in the Presence or Absence of Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors
Metabolites 2016, 6(2), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo6020016
Received: 9 March 2016 / Revised: 27 April 2016 / Accepted: 18 May 2016 / Published: 26 May 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1962 | PDF Full-text (5579 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Metabolic shift is one of the major hallmarks of cancer development. Estrogen receptor (ER) activity has a profound effect on breast cancer cell growth through a number of metabolic changes driven by its effect on transcription of several enzymes, including carbonic anhydrases, Stearoyl-CoA
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Metabolic shift is one of the major hallmarks of cancer development. Estrogen receptor (ER) activity has a profound effect on breast cancer cell growth through a number of metabolic changes driven by its effect on transcription of several enzymes, including carbonic anhydrases, Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, and oncogenes including HER2. Thus, estrogen receptor activators can be expected to lead to the modulation of cell metabolism in estrogen receptor positive cells. In this work we have investigated the effect of 17β-estradiol, an ER activator, and ferulic acid, a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, as well as ER activator, in the absence and in the presence of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide on the metabolism of MCF7 cells and MCF7 cells, stably transfected to express HER2 (MCF7HER2). Metabolic profiles were studied using 1D and 2D metabolomic Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) experiments, combined with the identification and quantification of metabolites, and the annotation of the results in the context of biochemical pathways. Overall changes in hydrophilic metabolites were largest following treatment of MCF7 and MC7HER2 cells with 17β-estradiol. However, the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide had the largest effect on the profile of lipophilic metabolites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Metabolomics 2016)
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Open AccessReview Role of Myofibrillar Protein Catabolism in Development of Glucocorticoid Myopathy: Aging and Functional Activity Aspects
Metabolites 2016, 6(2), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo6020015
Received: 1 April 2016 / Revised: 3 May 2016 / Accepted: 10 May 2016 / Published: 13 May 2016
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Abstract
Muscle weakness in corticosteroid myopathy is mainly the result of the destruction and atrophy of the myofibrillar compartment of fast-twitch muscle fibers. Decrease of titin and myosin, and the ratio of nebulin and MyHC in myopathic muscle, shows that these changes of contractile
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Muscle weakness in corticosteroid myopathy is mainly the result of the destruction and atrophy of the myofibrillar compartment of fast-twitch muscle fibers. Decrease of titin and myosin, and the ratio of nebulin and MyHC in myopathic muscle, shows that these changes of contractile and elastic proteins are the result of increased catabolism of the abovementioned proteins in skeletal muscle. Slow regeneration of skeletal muscle is in good correlation with a decreased number of satellite cells under the basal lamina of muscle fibers. Aging causes a reduction of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity as the result of the reduced function of the mitochondrial compartment. AMPK activity increases as a result of increased functional activity. Resistance exercise causes anabolic and anticatabolic effects in skeletal muscle: muscle fibers experience hypertrophy while higher myofibrillar proteins turn over. These changes are leading to the qualitative remodeling of muscle fibers. As a result of these changes, possible maximal muscle strength is increasing. Endurance exercise improves capillary blood supply, increases mitochondrial biogenesis and muscle oxidative capacity, and causes a faster turnover rate of sarcoplasmic proteins as well as qualitative remodeling of type I and IIA muscle fibers. The combination of resistance and endurance exercise may be the fastest way to prevent or decelerate muscle atrophy due to the anabolic and anticatabolic effects of exercise combined with an increase in oxidative capacity. The aim of the present short review is to assess the role of myofibrillar protein catabolism in the development of glucocorticoid-caused myopathy from aging and physical activity aspects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glucocorticoids and Energy Metabolism)
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Open AccessArticle Metabolic Fingerprinting of Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E Strains: Understanding the Influence of Divalent Cations in Adaptation Mechanisms Following Exposure to Toluene
Metabolites 2016, 6(2), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo6020014
Received: 16 February 2016 / Revised: 20 April 2016 / Accepted: 21 April 2016 / Published: 26 April 2016
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Abstract
Pseudomonas putida strains can adapt and overcome the activity of toxic organic solvents by the employment of several resistant mechanisms including efflux pumps and modification to lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in their membranes. Divalent cations such as magnesium and calcium play a crucial role in
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Pseudomonas putida strains can adapt and overcome the activity of toxic organic solvents by the employment of several resistant mechanisms including efflux pumps and modification to lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in their membranes. Divalent cations such as magnesium and calcium play a crucial role in the development of solvent tolerance in bacterial cells. Here, we have used Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy directly on cells (metabolic fingerprinting) to monitor bacterial response to the absence and presence of toluene, along with the influence of divalent cations present in the growth media. Multivariate analysis of the data using principal component-discriminant function analysis (PC-DFA) showed trends in scores plots, illustrating phenotypic alterations related to the effect of Mg2+, Ca2+ and toluene on cultures. Inspection of PC-DFA loadings plots revealed that several IR spectral regions including lipids, proteins and polysaccharides contribute to the separation in PC-DFA space, thereby indicating large phenotypic response to toluene and these cations. Finally, the saturated fatty acid ratio from the FT-IR spectra showed that upon toluene exposure, the saturated fatty acid ratio was reduced, while it increased in the presence of divalent cations. This study clearly demonstrates that the combination of metabolic fingerprinting with appropriate chemometric analysis can result in practicable knowledge on the responses of important environmental bacteria to external stress from pollutants such as highly toxic organic solvents, and indicates that these changes are manifest in the bacterial cell membrane. Finally, we demonstrate that divalent cations improve solvent tolerance in P. putida DOT‑T1E strains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Metabolomics 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Sexual Dimorphism in the Response of Mercurialis annua to Stress
Metabolites 2016, 6(2), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo6020013
Received: 14 January 2016 / Revised: 18 April 2016 / Accepted: 21 April 2016 / Published: 26 April 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1437 | PDF Full-text (2904 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The research presented stemmed from the observations that female plants of the annual dioecious Mercurialis annua outlive male plants. This led to the hypothesis that female plants of M. annua would be more tolerant to stress than male plants. This hypothesis was addressed
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The research presented stemmed from the observations that female plants of the annual dioecious Mercurialis annua outlive male plants. This led to the hypothesis that female plants of M. annua would be more tolerant to stress than male plants. This hypothesis was addressed in a comprehensive way, by comparing morphological, biochemical and metabolomics changes in female and male plants during their development and under salinity. There were practically no differences between the genders in vegetative development and physiological parameters. However, under salinity conditions, female plants produced significantly more new reproductive nodes. Gender-linked differences in peroxidase (POD) and glutathione transferases (GSTs) were involved in anti-oxidation, detoxification and developmental processes in M. annua. 1H NMR metabolite profiling of female and male M. annua plants showed that under salinity the activity of the TCA cycle increased. There was also an increase in betaine in both genders, which may be explainable by its osmo-compatible function under salinity. The concentration of ten metabolites changed in both genders, while ‘Female-only-response’ to salinity was detected for five metabolites. In conclusion, dimorphic responses of M. annua plant genders to stress may be attributed to female plants’ capacity to survive and complete the reproductive life cycle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Metabolism)
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Open AccessArticle Accurate Measurement of the in vivo Ammonium Concentration in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Metabolites 2016, 6(2), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo6020012
Received: 29 February 2016 / Revised: 13 April 2016 / Accepted: 20 April 2016 / Published: 23 April 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1541 | PDF Full-text (498 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Ammonium (NH4+) is the most common N-source for yeast fermentations, and N-limitation is frequently applied to reduce growth and increase product yields. While there is significant molecular knowledge on NH4+ transport and assimilation, there have been few attempts
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Ammonium (NH4+) is the most common N-source for yeast fermentations, and N-limitation is frequently applied to reduce growth and increase product yields. While there is significant molecular knowledge on NH4+ transport and assimilation, there have been few attempts to measure the in vivo concentration of this metabolite. In this article, we present a sensitive and accurate analytical method to quantify the in vivo intracellular ammonium concentration in Saccharomyces cerevisiae based on standard rapid sampling and metabolomics techniques. The method validation experiments required the development of a proper sample processing protocol to minimize ammonium production/consumption during biomass extraction by assessing the impact of amino acid degradation—an element that is often overlooked. The resulting cold chloroform metabolite extraction method, together with quantification using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-isotope dilution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-IDMS), was not only more sensitive than most of the existing methods but also more accurate than methods that use electrodes, enzymatic reactions, or boiling water or boiling ethanol biomass extraction because it minimized ammonium consumption/production during sampling processing and interference from other metabolites in the quantification of intracellular ammonium. Finally, our validation experiments showed that other metabolites such as pyruvate or 2-oxoglutarate (αKG) need to be extracted with cold chloroform to avoid measurements being biased by the degradation of other metabolites (e.g., amino acids). Full article
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