Next Article in Journal
Metabolomics: Bridging the Gap between Pharmaceutical Development and Population Health
Next Article in Special Issue
Deciphering the Duality of Clock and Growth Metabolism in a Cell Autonomous System Using NMR Profiling of the Secretome
Previous Article in Journal
Detection of Volatile Metabolites of Garlic in Human Breast Milk
Open AccessArticle

Complex Mixture Analysis of Organic Compounds in Yogurt by NMR Spectroscopy

Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jun Kikuchi
Metabolites 2016, 6(2), 19;
Received: 26 April 2016 / Revised: 8 June 2016 / Accepted: 13 June 2016 / Published: 16 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenging Biochemical Complexities by NMR)
PDF [1562 KB, uploaded 16 June 2016]


NMR measurements do not require separation and chemical modification of samples and therefore rapidly and directly provide non-targeted information on chemical components in complex mixtures. In this study, one-dimensional (1H, 13C, and 31P) and two-dimensional (1H-13C and 1H-31P) NMR spectroscopy were conducted to analyze yogurt without any pretreatment. 1H, 13C, and 31P NMR signals were assigned to 10 types of compounds. The signals of α/β-lactose and α/β-galactose were separately observed in the 1H NMR spectra. In addition, the signals from the acyl chains of milk fats were also successfully identified but overlapped with many other signals. Quantitative difference spectra were obtained by subtracting the diffusion ordered spectroscopy (DOSY) spectra from the quantitative 1H NMR spectra. This method allowed us to eliminate interference on the overlaps; therefore, the correct intensities of signals overlapped with those from the acyl chains of milk fat could be determined directly without separation. Moreover, the 1H-31P HMBC spectra revealed for the first time that N-acetyl-d-glucosamine-1-phosphate is contained in yogurt. View Full-Text
Keywords: NMR; assignment; yogurt; complex mixture analysis; existing state; DOSY; quantification NMR; assignment; yogurt; complex mixture analysis; existing state; DOSY; quantification

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Lu, Y.; Hu, F.; Miyakawa, T.; Tanokura, M. Complex Mixture Analysis of Organic Compounds in Yogurt by NMR Spectroscopy. Metabolites 2016, 6, 19.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Metabolites EISSN 2218-1989 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top