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Volume 7, September

Diseases, Volume 7, Issue 4 (December 2019) – 6 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Gut dysbiosis is noted in various liver diseases. Alcoholics show high intestinal permeability, intestinal dysmotility and gut dysbiosis. Microbiota and their products modulate intestinal barrier function. Gut dysbiosis causes endotoxemia in alcoholics and NAFLD patients. Gut dysbiosis facilitates energy-producing and pro-inflammatory conditions in the progression of NAFLD. Endotoxemia is related to cirrhotic complications where autochthonous bacteria are decreased and pathogenic bacteria are increased. The gut dysbiosis is associated with early death in cirrhotic patients. Patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis and primary biliary cholangitis also shows gut dysbiosis. Dysbiosis-induced altered bacterial metabolites may induce hepatocarcinogenesis. View this paper.
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Article
Severity of Anaemia Has Corresponding Effects on Coagulation Parameters of Sickle Cell Disease Patients
Diseases 2019, 7(4), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases7040059 - 17 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1383
Abstract
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited condition characterized by chronic haemolytic anaemia. SCD is associated with moderate to severe anaemia, hypercoagulable state and inconsistent platelet count and function. However, studies have yielded conflicting results with regards to the effect of anaemia on [...] Read more.
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited condition characterized by chronic haemolytic anaemia. SCD is associated with moderate to severe anaemia, hypercoagulable state and inconsistent platelet count and function. However, studies have yielded conflicting results with regards to the effect of anaemia on coagulation in SCD. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of anaemia severity on selected coagulation parameters of SCD patients. Four millilitres of venous blood samples were taken from the participants (SCD and non-SCD patients) and used for analysis of full blood count and coagulation parameters. Data was analysed using SPSS version-16. From the results, it was seen that individuals with SCD had a prolonged mean PT, APTT and high platelet count compared to the controls. There was also significant difference in the mean PT (p = 0.039), APTT (p = 0.041) and platelet count (p = 0.010) in HbSS participants with severe anaemia. Mean APTT also showed significant difference (p = 0.044) with severe anaemia in HbSC participants. It can be concluded that SCD patients have prolonged PT, APTT and increased platelet count which might predispose them to bleeding episodes and thrombocytosis. Significant difference was also seen between severity of anaemia and mean PT, APTT and platelet count in HbSS individuals. Full article
Review
Role of Gut Dysbiosis in Liver Diseases: What Have We Learned So Far?
Diseases 2019, 7(4), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases7040058 - 12 Nov 2019
Cited by 41 | Viewed by 5918
Abstract
Accumulating evidence supports that gut dysbiosis may relate to various liver diseases. Alcoholics with high intestinal permeability had a decrease in the abundance of Ruminnococcus. Intestinal dysmotility, increased gastric pH, and altered immune responses in addition to environmental and genetic factors are [...] Read more.
Accumulating evidence supports that gut dysbiosis may relate to various liver diseases. Alcoholics with high intestinal permeability had a decrease in the abundance of Ruminnococcus. Intestinal dysmotility, increased gastric pH, and altered immune responses in addition to environmental and genetic factors are likely to cause alcohol-associated gut microbial changes. Alcohol-induced dysbiosis may be associated with gut barrier dysfunction, as microbiota and their products modulate barrier function by affecting epithelial pro-inflammatory responses and mucosal repair functions. High levels of plasma endotoxin are detected in alcoholics, in moderate fatty liver to advanced cirrhosis. Decreased abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, an anti-inflammatory commensal, stimulating IL-10 secretion and inhibiting IL-12 and interferon-γ expression. Proteobacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, and Escherichia were reported to be increased in NAFLD (nonalcoholic fatty liver disease) patients. Increased abundance of fecal Escherichia to elevated blood alcohol levels in these patients and gut microbiota enriched in alcohol-producing bacteria produce more alcohol (alcohol hypothesis). Some undetermined pathological sequences related to gut dysbiosis may facilitate energy-producing and proinflammatory conditions for the progression of NAFLD. A shortage of autochthonous non-pathogenic bacteria and an overgrowth of potentially pathogenic bacteria are common findings in cirrhotic patients. The ratio of the amounts of beneficial autochthonous taxa (Lachnospiraceae + Ruminococaceae + Veillonellaceae + Clostridiales Incertae Sedis XIV) to those of potentially pathogenic taxa (Enterobacteriaceae + Bacteroidaceae) was low in those with early death and organ failure. Cirrhotic patients with decreased microbial diversity before liver transplantation were more likely to develop post-transplant infections and cognitive impairment related to residual dysbiosis. Patients with PSC had marked reduction of bacterial diversity. Enterococcus and Lactobacillus were increased in PSC patients (without liver cirrhosis.) Treatment-naive PBC patients were associated with altered composition and function of gut microbiota, as well as a lower level of diversity. As serum anti-gp210 antibody has been considered as an index of disease progression, relatively lower species richness and lower abundance of Faecalibacterium spp. in gp210-positive patients are interesting. The dysbiosis-induced altered bacterial metabolites such as a hepatocarcinogenesis promotor DCA, together with a leaky gut and bacterial translocation. Gut protective Akkermansia and butyrate-producing genera were decreased, while genera producing-lipopolysaccharide were increased in early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiome and Human Diseases)
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Review
Histone Deacetylases and Their Inhibitors in Cancer Epigenetics
Diseases 2019, 7(4), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases7040057 - 01 Nov 2019
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 2306
Abstract
Histone deacetylases (HDAC) and histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have greatly impacted the war on cancer. Their role in epigenetics has significantly altered the development of anticancer drugs used to treat the most rare, persistent forms of cancer. During transcription, HDAC and HDACi are [...] Read more.
Histone deacetylases (HDAC) and histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have greatly impacted the war on cancer. Their role in epigenetics has significantly altered the development of anticancer drugs used to treat the most rare, persistent forms of cancer. During transcription, HDAC and HDACi are used to regulate the genetic mutations found in cancerous cells by removing and/or preventing the removal of the acetyl group on specific histones. This activity determines the relaxed or condensed conformation of the nucleosome, changing the accessibility zones for transcription factors. These modifications lead to other biological processes for the cell, including cell cycle progression, proliferation, and differentiation. Each HDAC and HDACi class or group has a distinctive mechanism of action that can be utilized to halt the progression of cancerous cell growth. While the use of HDAC- and HDACi-derived compounds are relatively new in treatment of cancers, they have a proven efficacy when the appropriately utilized. This following manuscript highlights the mechanisms of action utilized by HDAC and HDACi in various cancer, their role in epigenetics, current drug manufacturers, and the impact predicative modeling systems have on cancer therapeutic drug discovery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epigenetics and Disease)
Review
HIV Capsid Inhibitors Beyond PF74
Diseases 2019, 7(4), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases7040056 - 30 Oct 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4903
Abstract
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) capsid plays important roles at multiple stages of viral replication. At the initial stages, controlled uncoating (disassembly) of the capsid ensures efficient reverse transcription of the single-stranded RNA genome, into the double-stranded DNA. Whereas at later stages, a proper [...] Read more.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) capsid plays important roles at multiple stages of viral replication. At the initial stages, controlled uncoating (disassembly) of the capsid ensures efficient reverse transcription of the single-stranded RNA genome, into the double-stranded DNA. Whereas at later stages, a proper assembly of capsid ensures the formation of a mature infectious virus particle. Hence, the inhibition of capsid assembly and/or disassembly has been recognized as a potential therapeutic strategy, and several capsid inhibitors have been reported. Of these, PF-3450074 (PF74) has been extensively studied. Recently reported GS-CA inhibitors (GS-CA1 and GS-6207), have shown a strong potential and appear to contain a PF74 scaffold. The location of resistance mutations and the results of structural studies further suggest that GS-CA compounds and PF74 share the same binding pocket, which is located between capsid monomers. Additionally, phenylalanine derivatives containing the PF74 scaffold show slightly enhanced capsid inhibiting activity. A comparison of capsid structures in complex with host factors and PF74, reveals the presence of common chemical entities at topologically equivalent positions. Here we present the status of capsid inhibitors that contain PF74 scaffolds and propose that the PF74 scaffold may be used to develop strong and safe capsid inhibitors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Infectious Disease)
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Case Report
Rapid Induction and Maintenance of Remission in Refractory Ulcerative Colitis with Ustekinumab
Diseases 2019, 7(4), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases7040055 - 28 Sep 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2035
Abstract
Ulcerative colitis is a chronic debilitating disease characterized by relapsing in intestinal inflammation and ulcers with no available cure. This is a clinical case report of a 52-year-old female patient with 30 years history of left-sided chronic ulcerative colitis controlled with standard of [...] Read more.
Ulcerative colitis is a chronic debilitating disease characterized by relapsing in intestinal inflammation and ulcers with no available cure. This is a clinical case report of a 52-year-old female patient with 30 years history of left-sided chronic ulcerative colitis controlled with standard of care (mesalamine and azathioprine) which subsequently relapsed and developed into active refractory ulcerative colitis. The patient became unresponsive to her medications including different forms of mesalamines and did not respond favorably to any of the other current therapies. Numerous attempts to stabilize her condition with immunosuppressants, steroids, probiotics, antibiotics, mesalamines, and various biologic agents failed to improve her clinical symptoms, and the patient was being considered for colectomy. As the last resort, modified therapy was prescribed with ustekinumab, a non-selective, anti-IL12/23 p40 monoclonal antibody. This medication has not been yet approved for use in ulcerative colitis patients. In this clinical case we report the efficacy of ustekinumab to rapidly induce and maintain remission of the severe chronic ulcerative colitis in the patient. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of utilizing ustakinamub therapy for rapid induction in an active refractory ulcerative colitis patient resulting in complete remission for over one year. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Inflammatory and Infectious Diseases)
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Communication
Pathology is Always Around Us: Apophenia in Pathology, a Remarkable Unreported Phenomenon
Diseases 2019, 7(4), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases7040054 - 25 Sep 2019
Viewed by 1176
Abstract
People often wonder, “How do pathologists identify the patterns that lead to a diagnosis [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnostic and Therapeutic Challenges in Oral Medicine)
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