We present a low-power CMOS active-resistance-capacitance (active-RC) complex bandpass filter (BPF) with tunable gain, bandwidth, center frequency, quality factor, and passband flatness for Bluetooth applications. A transfer function analysis for a cross-coupled Tow-Thomas biquad structure is presented to prove that the flatness profile of the passband gain can be effectively controlled by independently tuning two cross-coupling resistors. The proposed biquad-based complex BPF was employed to realize a fourth-order baseband analog processor for a low intermediate frequency (low-IF) RF receiver. The baseband analog processor was composed of two complex biquad filters and three first-order variable-gain amplifiers. It was fabricated in a 65-nm RF CMOS and achieved wide tuning capabilities, such as a gain of −15.6 to 50.6 dB, a bandwidth of 1.4–3.9 MHz, a center frequency of 1.5–4.1 MHz, and a passband flatness of −1 to 1 dB. It also achieved an image rejection ratio of 40.3–53.3 dB across the entire gain tuning range. It consumed 1.4 mA from a 1 V supply and occupied an area of 0.19 mm2
on the silicon substrate. The implementation results prove that the proposed complex BPF was able to effectively enhance the signal processing performances through the flexible and wide-range tunability of the passband flatness, as well as that of the gain, bandwidth, center frequency, and quality factor.
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