Next Issue
Volume 13, July
Previous Issue
Volume 13, May
 
 

Resources, Volume 13, Issue 6 (June 2024) – 17 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
31 pages, 2110 KiB  
Article
Experience in Processing Alternative Crude Oils to Replace Design Oil in the Refinery
by Dicho Stratiev, Ivelina Shiskova, Vesislava Toteva, Georgi Georgiev, Rosen Dinkov, Iliyan Kolev, Ivan Petrov, Georgi Argirov, Veselina Bureva, Simeon Ribagin, Krassimir Atanassov, Svetoslav Nenov, Sotir Sotirov, Radoslava Nikolova and Anife Veli
Resources 2024, 13(6), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources13060086 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 213
Abstract
A comprehensive investigation of a highly complex petroleum refinery (Nelson complexity index of 10.7) during the processing of 11 crude oils and an imported atmospheric residue replacing the design Urals crude oil was performed. Various laboratory oil tests were carried out to characterize [...] Read more.
A comprehensive investigation of a highly complex petroleum refinery (Nelson complexity index of 10.7) during the processing of 11 crude oils and an imported atmospheric residue replacing the design Urals crude oil was performed. Various laboratory oil tests were carried out to characterize both crude oils, and their fractions. The results of oil laboratory assays along with intercriteria and regression analyses were employed to find quantitative relations between crude oil mixture quality and refining unit performance. It was found that the acidity of petroleum cannot be judged by its total acid number, and acid crudes with lower than 0.5 mg KOH/g and low sulphur content required repeated caustic treatment enhancement and provoked increased corrosion rate and sodium contamination of the hydrocracking catalyst. Increased fouling in the H-Oil hydrocracker was observed during the transfer of design Urals crude oil to other petroleum crudes. The vacuum residues with higher sulphur, lower nitrogen contents, and a lower colloidal instability index provide a higher conversion rate and lower fouling rate in the H-Oil unit. The regression equations developed in this work allow quantitative assessment of the performance of crucial refining units like the H-Oil, fluid catalytic cracker, naphtha reformer, and gas oil hydrotreatment based on laboratory oil test results. Full article
14 pages, 1593 KiB  
Article
Nature-Based Options for Improving Urban Environmental Quality: Using Black Poplar Trees for Monitoring Heavy Metals Pollution in Urbanized Contexts
by Gilda Perri, Domenico Gargano, Luciana Randazzo, Sergio Calabrese, Lorenzo Brusca, Ilaria Fuoco, Carmine Apollaro and Mauro Francesco La Russa
Resources 2024, 13(6), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources13060085 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 208
Abstract
Several researchers recognize the importance of plants as effective tools for environmental biomonitoring. The black poplar (Populus nigra L.) often emerges as a useful bioindicator of air quality in urban environments, where this tree species is widely employed for urban areas. Here, [...] Read more.
Several researchers recognize the importance of plants as effective tools for environmental biomonitoring. The black poplar (Populus nigra L.) often emerges as a useful bioindicator of air quality in urban environments, where this tree species is widely employed for urban areas. Here, we used ICP-MS analysis to assess the presence and concentration of trace elements, with a special focus on heavy metals (HMs), in black poplar leaves and soil samples from three urbanized sites showing varying degrees of environmental quality. Specifically, the foliar concentrations of Zn (173.3 ppm), Cd (0.7 ppm), Co (1.1 ppm) and As (0.2 ppm) exceeded reference values for unpolluted sites, indicating potential environmental hazards. Additionally, we correlated the foliar concentrations of HMs with those quantified in soil and with air quality data provided by the regional air quality-monitoring network. Subsequently, we estimated the values of foliar fluctuating asymmetry, and evaluated their relationships with HM concentrations in both leaves and soil. Our results suggest that element concentrations in black poplar leaves are related to soil contamination and atmospheric quality, and the extent depends on the proximity to relevant pollution sources. Furthermore, the study species showed a pronounced accumulation capacity for some HMs (i.e., Zn, Cd) commonly found in particulate matter. The extent of foliar fluctuating asymmetry is related to atmospheric quality and HM soil concentration, possibly because of the growth anomalies induced by this kind of environmental contamination. Overall, our data indicate the study species can supply an effective biomonitoring service in urbanized contexts, offering valuable insights into the occurrence and biological implications of heavy metal contamination. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 4030 KiB  
Article
Hg Pollution in Groundwater of Andean Region of Ecuador and Human Health Risk Assessment
by Irene Passarelli, Demmy Mora-Silva, Mirian Jimenez-Gutierrez, Santiago Logroño-Naranjo, Damaris Hernández-Allauca, Rogelio Ureta Valdez, Victor Gabriel Avalos Peñafiel, Luis Patricio Tierra Pérez, Marcelo Sanchez-Salazar, María Gabriela Tobar Ruiz, Katherin Carrera-Silva, Salvatore Straface and Carlos Mestanza-Ramón
Resources 2024, 13(6), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources13060084 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 250
Abstract
In Ecuador, illegal gold mining has led to significant environmental impacts, with the release of harmful elements such as mercury (Hg) into the environment. Mercury, due to its physical–chemical characteristics and the transport elements involved between different environmental matrices, can easily percolate through [...] Read more.
In Ecuador, illegal gold mining has led to significant environmental impacts, with the release of harmful elements such as mercury (Hg) into the environment. Mercury, due to its physical–chemical characteristics and the transport elements involved between different environmental matrices, can easily percolate through the soil and reach groundwater. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mercury concentration levels in the Andean region in order to perform a human health risk assessment. For this purpose, 175 water samples were analyzed, of which 9.71% exceeded the maximum permissible limit (MPL) established for drinking water in accordance with Ecuadorian regulations. The risk analysis was conducted by applying two approaches: deterministic and probabilistic. The deterministic approach involves a specific analysis based on the calculation of the risk quotient (HQ) and risk index (HI) for both receptors (adults and children) and scenarios (residential and recreational) considered; the probabilistic approach is based on the use of stochastic simulation techniques. The results obtained from the two approaches show a discrepancy, with the deterministic analysis providing more conservative results; however, they coincide in showing higher risk for the child population; decision-makers could use these results to identify areas to be monitored and plan more detailed investigation plans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mine Ecological Restoration)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 12902 KiB  
Article
Geophysical Assessment of Structurally Controlled Mineral Resources at Wadi El-Nakheel, Eastern Desert, Egypt
by Mohamed Al Deep, Arwa Sameer Ibrahim and Ahmed Saleh
Resources 2024, 13(6), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources13060083 - 18 Jun 2024
Viewed by 361
Abstract
It is of great importance to evaluate simple methods to identify mineral occurrence for the future development of society. Applying a reconnaissance magnetic data analysis can help detect the main structural trends mounted to the occurrence of minerals. In this study, geological and [...] Read more.
It is of great importance to evaluate simple methods to identify mineral occurrence for the future development of society. Applying a reconnaissance magnetic data analysis can help detect the main structural trends mounted to the occurrence of minerals. In this study, geological and geophysical data were analyzed to evaluate the main structural trends affecting mineralization in the area of Wadi El-Nakheel. Geomagnetic data were processed to remove the earth’s magnetic field and reduce the magnetic pole. Some mathematical filters related to detecting and enhancing boundaries between rock units, depending on their magnetization affinity, were applied, including the first vertical derivative, the analytic signal, and 3D Euler deconvolution. After structural analysis of these data, we reached the following findings: The main structural trends from the surface and subsurface estimations were the northwest–southeast trend and the northeast–southwest trend. The orientation and origin of Wadi El-Nakheel are aligned with the main structural trend affecting the area that formed during the Red Sea Rift movement and the Pan-African orogeny. The depth of the deep-seated structure controlling the valley is 1500 m and all mineral occurrence is mainly structurally controlled in the studied area; phosphate ore outcrops are usually aligned with the northwest–southeast geological trend, and metallic ores are related to basement rock succession and the main dominant geological structures in the studied area. Finally, the magnetic method was demonstrated to be a reliable tool for detecting the subsurface boundary between geologic units. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineral Resource Management 2023: Assessment, Mining and Processing)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 2878 KiB  
Article
Contemporary and Future Secondary Copper Reserves of Vietnam
by Thi Van Le, Ryota Yamamoto, Sebastien Michael Rene Dente and Seiji Hashimoto
Resources 2024, 13(6), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources13060082 - 14 Jun 2024
Viewed by 280
Abstract
As ASEAN countries, including Vietnam, approach the living standards of developed countries, their copper demand is set to rise. This study investigates Vietnam’s copper stock and flow from 1995 to 2050, employing dynamic material flow analysis and five socioeconomic pathway scenarios (SSPs). Based [...] Read more.
As ASEAN countries, including Vietnam, approach the living standards of developed countries, their copper demand is set to rise. This study investigates Vietnam’s copper stock and flow from 1995 to 2050, employing dynamic material flow analysis and five socioeconomic pathway scenarios (SSPs). Based on this, the secondary copper reserves of Vietnam were assessed. The results showed that the domestic copper demand is expected to grow to 526–1062 kt, resulting in a rapid increase in scrap generation. In 2022, Vietnam’s secondary copper reserves stood at 2.2 Mt and are projected to reach 6.8–8.6 Mt by 2050 under the SSP2 scenario. This corresponds to 3.6–4.6 times the 1.8 Mt primary copper reserve of Vietnam. However, these primary and secondary reserves cannot meet the cumulated demand by 2050. On the other hand, a large amount of copper, 8.9 Mt to 10 Mt, will become difficult-to-recover resources, such as waste in landfill sites, dissipated materials, or mixed metal loss. To promote the sustainable use of copper in Vietnam, we recommend increased geological expedition and mining investment, and improved waste management systems related to secondary resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineral Resource Management 2023: Assessment, Mining and Processing)
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 966 KiB  
Review
Biosurfactants: An Overview of Their Properties, Production, and Application in Mineral Flotation
by Carolina Rossini Simões, Matheus Willian Pereira da Silva, Rodrigo Fernandes Magalhães de Souza, Ronald Roja Hacha, Antônio Gutierrez Merma, Maurício Leonardo Torem and Flávia Paulucci Cianga Silvas
Resources 2024, 13(6), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources13060081 - 14 Jun 2024
Viewed by 394
Abstract
The quest for sustainable mining processes has directed research towards environmentally friendly alternatives to conventional beneficiation practices, with biosurfactants emerging as a viable option due to their lower environmental impact. This study reviews the application of biosurfactants as bioreagents in mineral flotation, exploring [...] Read more.
The quest for sustainable mining processes has directed research towards environmentally friendly alternatives to conventional beneficiation practices, with biosurfactants emerging as a viable option due to their lower environmental impact. This study reviews the application of biosurfactants as bioreagents in mineral flotation, exploring their production, their mechanisms of action, and the sustainability benefits they offer. Methods include a decade-long text mining analysis of relevant literature, utilizing software tools like Zotero on platforms like Web of Science to extract and analyze data. The results underscore the growing interest in biosurfactants over the last ten years, highlighting their increasing relevance in industrial applications such as mineral flotation, where they replace synthetic surfactants. Particularly, biosurfactants have shown effectiveness in enhancing the froth flotation process, leading to more efficient mineral recovery while mitigating environmental harm. In conclusion, the adoption of biosurfactants in mineral processing not only aligns with sustainability goals but also demonstrates potential improvements in operational efficiency, offering a dual benefit of environmental protection and enhanced resource recovery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineral Resource Management 2023: Assessment, Mining and Processing)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 3005 KiB  
Article
Disintegrated Waste-Activated Sludge (NO2/FNA Method) as a Source of Carbon for Denitrification in the Mainstream of a WWTP
by Dorota Szypulska, Kamil Janiak, Bartosz Zięba, Anna Wizimirska, Marek Mołczan, Sławomir Szerzyna and Renata Tomczak-Wandzel
Resources 2024, 13(6), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources13060080 - 10 Jun 2024
Viewed by 357
Abstract
The deficiency of readily biodegradable organic carbon can be a significant limitation to effective nitrogen removal during wastewater denitrification. Waste-activated sludge (WAS) is a source of carbon produced directly at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Raw WAS has a large molecular weight and complex [...] Read more.
The deficiency of readily biodegradable organic carbon can be a significant limitation to effective nitrogen removal during wastewater denitrification. Waste-activated sludge (WAS) is a source of carbon produced directly at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Raw WAS has a large molecular weight and complex chemical structure molecules that are not easily available for microorganisms. In this study, easily biodegradable organic fractions were released using pH control and/or nitrites and nitric acid (NO2/FNA). The obtained results indicated that WAS can be a sufficient carbon source for denitrification in WWTPs that are at risk of minor effluent violations. The implementation of WAS disintegration with the use of pH control and NO2/FNA allowed for the denitrification of an additional 0.5 and 0.8 mgN-NO3/L. WAS disintegration, besides being a source of carbon generation, reduces the volume of sludge and leads to the implementation of a closed-loop system. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

29 pages, 3181 KiB  
Article
From Linear to Circular Economy: Embracing Digital Innovations for Sustainable Agri-Food Waste Management among Farmers and Retailers
by Siraphat Padthar, Phaninee Naruetharadhol, Wutthiya Aekthanate Srisathan and Chavis Ketkaew
Resources 2024, 13(6), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources13060079 - 7 Jun 2024
Viewed by 514
Abstract
Food waste is an issue throughout the food supply chain from production to consumption, especially in the later stages, such as retailing and final consumption. For the future of the developing world, changes in farming and retail practices are crucial. This study introduces [...] Read more.
Food waste is an issue throughout the food supply chain from production to consumption, especially in the later stages, such as retailing and final consumption. For the future of the developing world, changes in farming and retail practices are crucial. This study introduces a digital system for managing agricultural waste in Thailand that aims to encourage farmers and food retailers to sell their excess agricultural materials. The study’s objectives are as follows: (1) to explore factors that affect users’ behavioral intention to utilize an agriculture waste trading platform; (2) to compare the behavioral differences between farmers and retailers regarding their intention to use a digital platform for sustainable agriculture. Data were gathered from 570 fruit and vegetable sellers and farmers across five provinces in the northeastern region of Thailand. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to analyze the relationships between constructs based on the modified Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT2), and multigroup analysis (MGA) was employed to analyze differences in path coefficients across groups. The key findings revealed that social influence (SI) had a more significant impact on retailers compared to farmers, while facilitating conditions (FC), habits (HB), and privacy (PR) were necessary for both groups. Unlike retailers, farmers were also motivated by hedonic motivation (HM) from using the platform. Explicitly, retailers’ behavioral intentions were influenced by a more significant number of factors than those of farmers. This research suggests that policymakers should develop targeted marketing campaigns leveraging social influence for retailers, improve platform usability and security, and create incentives for habitual use to enhance platform adoption. Additionally, policymakers should promote engaging features for farmers, provide comprehensive education and training, and advocate for supportive policies and financial incentives. Strategic actions to facilitate the transition toward a circular economy will improve the environmental sustainability and economic resilience of the agri-food sector. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 10421 KiB  
Article
Production of Synthetic Carbonate Rocks Using Limestone Mining Waste: Mineralogical, Petrophysical and Geomechanical Characterization
by Yago Ryan Pinheiro dos Santos, Igor Gomes, Analice Lima, José Barbosa, Osvaldo Correia Filho, Antonio Celso Dantas Antonino, Daniel Duarte and Marcos Rodrigues
Resources 2024, 13(6), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources13060078 - 7 Jun 2024
Viewed by 390
Abstract
Carbonate rocks are important for the petroleum industry, as they contribute significantly to hydrocarbon reserves, although their analysis is complex due to the high cost of core sampling and their high heterogeneity; for this, synthetic rocks aim to provide relatively homogeneous samples with [...] Read more.
Carbonate rocks are important for the petroleum industry, as they contribute significantly to hydrocarbon reserves, although their analysis is complex due to the high cost of core sampling and their high heterogeneity; for this, synthetic rocks aim to provide relatively homogeneous samples with analogous characteristics to natural rocks. In this research, synthetic carbonate rocks were produced by mixing a fixed ratio between limestone powder, obtained from limestone mining waste, and epoxy resin as a cementing material, using compaction energy for consolidation. The work aimed to produce homogeneous samples with high strength, reproducing the intergranular pore system for future applications in rock–fluid interaction analysis. The characteristics and structure of the samples were investigated through X-ray computed microtomography, petrographic images, petrophysical, chemical and geomechanical tests. Results showed a direct increasing relationship between porosity and permeability and a tendency for mechanical strength (UCS) to decrease with increasing porosity. When compared with the natural carbonate rocks, these presented similarities in their mechanical properties and petrophysical measurements, showing that the methodology can be considered as an alternative for the obtention of a realistic material that can be used for future experiments regarding rock mechanics and rock–fluid interaction for prediction of carbonate rocks’ behavior. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

29 pages, 1547 KiB  
Systematic Review
Systematic Literature Review of Land Use Conflicts in Northern Sweden—Lessons Learned and Ways Forward
by Jerbelle Elomina and Ivana Živojinović
Resources 2024, 13(6), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources13060077 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 329
Abstract
Land use conflicts are intensifying in Northern Sweden due to the increasing global demand for resources coupled with the green transition. In line with this, a thorough understanding of land use conflicts in the area is becoming necessary as economic activities expand and [...] Read more.
Land use conflicts are intensifying in Northern Sweden due to the increasing global demand for resources coupled with the green transition. In line with this, a thorough understanding of land use conflicts in the area is becoming necessary as economic activities expand and newer ones are developed. Hence, this paper aims to provide a systematic literature review of research on land use conflicts specific to Northern Sweden, focusing on various economic activities such as forestry, mining, tourism, energy sector and reindeer husbandry. Additionally, we aim to determine lessons learned and suggested ways forward based on a systematic review. We used Scopus and Web of Science on June 2023 and through descriptive statistical analysis of 33 articles, we summarized research trends and gaps. We found three main typologies of conflicts and five main themes of suggested ways forward. Recommendations agree that there should be a broader understanding of the underlying interests of the stakeholders; and there should be an inclusive, more participatory approach to discussing potential solutions, not to create an agreement but to come to an understanding. Beyond academic insights, the findings hold practical relevance for shaping effective land use policies. This paper offers valuable lessons that extend beyond the local context, informing broader discussions and policy considerations for sustainable land management in the larger Arctic setting, where similar challenges and resource demands are unfolding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Minerals and Land-Use Planning: Sustainable Narratives and Practices)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 3299 KiB  
Article
Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Resources and Waste Quantities from Buildings (as Urban Mining Potential) Generated by the European Metropolis of Lille: A Methodology Coupling Data from Construction and Demolition Permits with Geographic Information Systems
by Cédric Mpié Simba and Emmanuel Lemelin
Resources 2024, 13(6), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources13060076 - 3 Jun 2024
Viewed by 346
Abstract
The aim of this article was to conduct a spatial and territorial analysis of the urban mining potential of the European Metropolis of Lille (MEL), which had 1,174,273 inhabitants in 2018. This involved quantifying construction and demolition waste (CDW) deposits and analyzing their [...] Read more.
The aim of this article was to conduct a spatial and territorial analysis of the urban mining potential of the European Metropolis of Lille (MEL), which had 1,174,273 inhabitants in 2018. This involved quantifying construction and demolition waste (CDW) deposits and analyzing their spatial distribution. The chosen quantification approach utilized building and demolition permits as input data, along with waste diagnostics for Construction and Building Materials Products (CBMPs) obtained from stakeholders in the building sector. Waste quantities were estimated using the production rate calculation method (GRC). Specifically, the calculation based on surface area combined with GIS geographic information systems. CDW quantities were categorized by demolition rehabilitation and construction; by type (hazardous non-hazardous inert); and by urban fabric. For the MEL area, the findings revealed that building sites covered the largest surface area, with over 8 million m² being constructed between 2013 and 2022. The construction activity, including renovation, is expected to constitute approximately 20% of the MEL’s building stock from 2013 to 2022. During the same period, 5.51% of the MEL’s building stock was demolished. This corresponds to nearly 6 million tons of CDW being generated during this period, averaging 661318 tons per year. Demolition sites contributed 73% of the total CDW production, compared to 22% for new construction and 4% for renovation sites. Inert waste continued to dominate the composition of waste, accounting for 90% of the total with 9% for non-hazardous waste and 1% for hazardous waste. Semi-detached and grouped houses business fabrics and townhouses or collective fabrics were identified as the primary type of waste-producing urban fabrics. Furthermore, our GIS-based methodology enabled the analysis of CDW quantity distribution by municipality, providing essential data for understanding the urban mining potential and the disparity between construction material requirements for new buildings and resources derived from building demolition. This approach facilitates the assessment of (1) a geographical area’s reliance on construction materials, and (2) the significance of reusing and recycling products equipment materials and waste (PEMW) in new construction to achieve circular economy objectives and to comply with the Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) channel initiated in France in 2023. Over the period from 2013 to 2022, annual construction material requirements remained significantly higher than resources from building demolition and rehabilitation, ranging between 29% and 35%. Additionally, the analysis indicated a potential 41% rate of substitution of new construction materials with secondary primary materials in the MEL, varying by municipality and typology, with higher rates in rural communities and lower rates in urban communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineral Resource Management 2023: Assessment, Mining and Processing)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 18402 KiB  
Article
Post-Recycling Sodium Polyacrylate with Nanostructural Halloysite Additive as the Basic Components of the New Hybrid Soil Modifier—The Circular Economy Rules for SAP in Agriculture
by Piotr Sakiewicz, Krzysztof Piotrowski, Mariola Rajca and Szczepan Cieślak
Resources 2024, 13(6), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources13060075 - 31 May 2024
Viewed by 394
Abstract
Post-recycling sodium polyacrylate (SPA) derived from the selective recycling of personal hygiene products was tested as a potential key component of soil modifiers. Recycled SPA in combination with layered aluminosilicate (halloysite) with the sorption capacity of fertilizers allows for the creation of a [...] Read more.
Post-recycling sodium polyacrylate (SPA) derived from the selective recycling of personal hygiene products was tested as a potential key component of soil modifiers. Recycled SPA in combination with layered aluminosilicate (halloysite) with the sorption capacity of fertilizers allows for the creation of a fully functional, original system responsible for both water retention in soil and controlled dosing of fertilizers. The use of post-recycling SPA (possibly partially supplemented with virgin SPA) is advantageous for the natural environment. The results of different water types retention in post-recycling SPA (deionized water, rainwater, tap water) are discussed. The most beneficial effects of R-SPA swelling and water accumulation are achieved when it comes into contact with rainwater. The clear impact of Mg2+ ions on the sorption capacity of R-SPA introduces the need for a technological compromise between the solution composition (N, P, K or N, P, K, Mg) affecting its fertilization value and the possibility of obtaining maximum R-SPA swelling. The sorption capacity of R-SPA can be slightly increased by using R-SPA/V-SPA mixtures, but R-SPA still plays a decisive role in this system. The possibility of technological adjustment of the leaching rate of fertilizer components under dynamic conditions using different combinations of (R-SPA/V-SPA)/HAL was demonstrated by column tests. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 2815 KiB  
Article
Growth of Clones of Eucalyptus urophylla in Two Contrasting Soil Conditions in Plantations of Southeastern Mexico
by Secundino Torres-Lamas, Pablo Martínez-Zurimendi, Marynor Elena Ortega-Ramírez, Manuel Jesús Cach-Pérez and Marivel Domínguez-Domínguez
Resources 2024, 13(6), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources13060074 - 30 May 2024
Viewed by 544
Abstract
Eucalyptus urophylla is important for the establishment of commercial forest plantations in Mexico. Genetic improvement programs are currently being implemented to increase timber productivity. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the adaptability and growth stability of 26 clonal lines of E. [...] Read more.
Eucalyptus urophylla is important for the establishment of commercial forest plantations in Mexico. Genetic improvement programs are currently being implemented to increase timber productivity. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the adaptability and growth stability of 26 clonal lines of E. urophylla in Acrisol and Fluvisol soils and to identify the most suitable genotypes for each soil type. Tree survival, diameter at breast height, and total height were measured annually for six years. These variables were used to estimate individual volume, volume per hectare, and mean annual (MAIv) and current annual (CAIv) volume increment. Survival ranged from 14 to 100% in the Acrisol soil and from 0 to 89% in the Fluvisol soil. Volume per hectare ranged from 65.3 to 488.7 m3, MAIv from 11.1 to 83.1 m3 ha−1 year−1, and CAIv from 2.4 to 134.7 m3 ha−1 year−1. Individual heritability (Hi2) was moderate (0.29–0.49) while the mean heritability of the cloned lines was high (0.73–0.90), indicating that growth is subject to high genetic control. Diameter, height, and volume presented no genotype × environment interaction effects, demonstrating stability in the growth of the clonal lines in both soil types. Full article
17 pages, 5032 KiB  
Article
Element Cycling at Thermally Active Coal-Waste Dumps: A Case Study of Calamagrostis epigejos and Solidago canadensis
by Anna K. Abramowicz and Oimahmad Rahmonov
Resources 2024, 13(6), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources13060073 - 30 May 2024
Viewed by 292
Abstract
Coal-waste dumps in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin are usually colonized by tall grass Calamagrostis epigejos and Solidago canadensis, which influence the direction of vegetation formation and the soil chemistry. The aim of this study is to analyze and determine the content [...] Read more.
Coal-waste dumps in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin are usually colonized by tall grass Calamagrostis epigejos and Solidago canadensis, which influence the direction of vegetation formation and the soil chemistry. The aim of this study is to analyze and determine the content of major elements (Fe, Ca, P, Mg, Al, Na, K, S) and trace elements (Mo, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Co, Mn, Sr, Cd, Cr) in aboveground and underground parts of the plants and the soil at the thermally active coal-waste dump. Analysis of the heavy metal concentrations reveals that they are higher in plant materials than in soil materials within the root zone of the plants. Environmental indicator analysis (geoaccumulation index, enrichment factor, translocation factor) shows that the studied species exhibit varying degrees of pollution, with cadmium and zinc showing the highest accumulation rates. The content of elements in the analyzed species, both in washed and unwashed specimens, does not show significant differences, which is confirmed by the enrichment factor. Statistical analysis shows a positive correlation between the amount of microelements in plants (roots, aerial part) and soil samples in both thermally active and inactive zones. These findings broaden the scientific inquiry and hold practical significance for the reclamation of post-industrial areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineral Resource Management 2023: Assessment, Mining and Processing)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 2459 KiB  
Article
Mediterranean Wild Pear Fruits as a Neglected but Valuable Source of Phenolic Compounds
by Maria Giovanna Molinu, Federico Sanna, Guy D’hallewin, Giovanni Antonio Re, Leonardo Sulas and Giovanna Piluzza
Resources 2024, 13(6), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources13060072 - 30 May 2024
Viewed by 330
Abstract
The genus Pyrus has a long history in Sardinia (Italy), where two wild pear species (P. spinosa Forssk. and P. pyraster (L.) Burgsd.) and Pyrus communis L. cultivars are extensively distributed. Even if neglected, these taxa represent well-adapted key resources for redesigning [...] Read more.
The genus Pyrus has a long history in Sardinia (Italy), where two wild pear species (P. spinosa Forssk. and P. pyraster (L.) Burgsd.) and Pyrus communis L. cultivars are extensively distributed. Even if neglected, these taxa represent well-adapted key resources for redesigning sustainable farming systems. This report aims at shedding light on the phenolic fingerprint and antioxidant properties of wild pear fruits and comparing their traits with those of the studied pear cultivar germplasm (PCG). Fruits of wild pear species were collected, and flesh, peel, and core subsamples were analyzed. Moreover, available data from previous research on PCG were analyzed. The contents of total phenolics (TotP), total flavonoids (TotF), and condensed tannins (CT), as well as the antioxidant capacity, were similar in the flesh of the two wild species. However, P. spinosa had significantly higher values of TotP (89 g GAE kg−1 DM) and CT (33 g DE kg−1 DM) in the peel. Eleven individual phenolic compounds were identified and quantified in the fruit flesh, 14 in both peel and core. For both wild species, arbutin and chlorogenic acid were the main phenolic compounds, followed by the quercetin glycosides. Comparing the antioxidant capacity and TotF fruit flesh values of wild pears with those of PCG, the latter resulted up to 15-fold lower. The wild types showed unique metabolite profiles. Results support novel insights on the phytochemicals of wild pear fruits. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 7322 KiB  
Article
Why Do Small Earth Dams Deteriorate: Insights from Physical Investigations in the West African Sahel
by Mamadou Pousga Junior Kaboré, Abdou Lawane, Roland Yonaba, Angelbert Chabi Biaou, Abdoulaye Nadjibou and Anne Pantet
Resources 2024, 13(6), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources13060071 - 29 May 2024
Viewed by 497
Abstract
In West Africa, the construction of small earth dams is common against water scarcity. Burkina Faso, an inland country in West Africa, is home to 1001 dams that serve agricultural and pastoral needs. These embankments are predominantly made of compacted laterite, a cost-effective [...] Read more.
In West Africa, the construction of small earth dams is common against water scarcity. Burkina Faso, an inland country in West Africa, is home to 1001 dams that serve agricultural and pastoral needs. These embankments are predominantly made of compacted laterite, a cost-effective material abundant in over 2/3 of the country. However, these dams degrade over time, hindering their functionality. This study aims to establish a catalog of typical degradation occurring on small dams in Burkina Faso, which is virtually non-existent in the region while identifying and analyzing the potential causes. The study uses a diagnostic analysis followed up with technical visits on a representative sample of 24 dams in the Centre and Centre-South regions as a basis for future studies. The results reveal that these dams were constructed between 1965 and 2018, with capacities ranging from 150,000 to 4,740,000 m3. 33% of these dams have undergone total failure, likely attributed to factors such as internal erosion, pore overpressures, settlement, and deformation. Although 67% of the dams remain functional, their structural integrity could be improved. Erosion observed in riprap indicates vulnerability during high flood periods. Additionally, the absence of proper maintenance, as shown by the vegetation development weakening embankments, contributes to deterioration. The analysis also suggests that variability in construction techniques and lateritic material properties across time and regions may further exacerbate degradation. These findings inform infrastructure improvements and policy development for sustainable water resource management in Burkina Faso and similar regions. Full article
24 pages, 5415 KiB  
Review
Plant-Based Extracts as Reducing, Capping, and Stabilizing Agents for the Green Synthesis of Inorganic Nanoparticles
by Zuamí Villagrán, Luis Miguel Anaya-Esparza, Carlos Arnulfo Velázquez-Carriles, Jorge Manuel Silva-Jara, José Martín Ruvalcaba-Gómez, Edward F. Aurora-Vigo, Ernesto Rodríguez-Lafitte, Noé Rodríguez-Barajas, Iván Balderas-León and Fernando Martínez-Esquivias
Resources 2024, 13(6), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources13060070 - 26 May 2024
Viewed by 903
Abstract
The synthesis of inorganic nanoparticles for diverse applications is an active research area that involves physical and chemical methods, which typically are expensive, involve hazardous chemical reagents, use complex equipment and synthesis conditions, and consume large amounts of time and energy. Thus, green [...] Read more.
The synthesis of inorganic nanoparticles for diverse applications is an active research area that involves physical and chemical methods, which typically are expensive, involve hazardous chemical reagents, use complex equipment and synthesis conditions, and consume large amounts of time and energy. Thus, green synthesis methods have emerged as eco-friendly and easy alternatives for inorganic nanoparticle synthesis, particularly the use of plant-based extracts from fruit juice, leaves, seeds, peel, stem, barks, and roots, which act as reducing, capping, and stabilizing agents, contributing to the Sustainable Development Goals and circular economy principles. Therefore, diverse inorganic nanoparticles have been synthesized using plant-based extracts, including gold, silver, titanium dioxide, zinc, copper, platinum, zirconium, iron, selenium, magnesium, nickel, sulfur, cobalt, palladium, and indium nanoparticles, which exhibit different biological activities such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, dye degradation, cytotoxic, analgesic, sedative, wound-healing, skin protection, sensor development, and plant-growth-promoting effects. Therefore, this review summarizes the advantages and limitations of plant-based extracts as reducing, capping, and stabilizing agents for inorganic nanoparticle green synthesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternative Use of Biological Resources)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop