Next Article in Journal
Utilization of Recycled Material Sources for Wood-Polypropylene Composites: Effect on Internal Composite Structure, Particle Characteristics and Physico-Mechanical Properties
Previous Article in Journal
Preparation of Chitosan-Coated Poly(L-Lactic Acid) Fibers for Suture Threads
Article Menu
Issue 4 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Fibers 2018, 6(4), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib6040085

Microwave Assisted Preparation of Flame Resistant Cotton Using Economic Inorganic Materials

Southern Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, 1100 Robert E. Lee Blvd., New Orleans, LA 70124, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 September 2018 / Revised: 17 October 2018 / Accepted: 3 November 2018 / Published: 6 November 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [2893 KB, uploaded 6 November 2018]   |  

Abstract

Innovative approaches for preparing flame retardant cotton fabrics were employed by utilizing a microwave-assisted technique with a minimum amount of co-solvent. Our attempts at flame retardant cotton fabrics treated with low cost inorganic formulations, such as urea and diammonium phosphate, were done successfully. The evidence of flame retardant chemical penetrations or surface modification of cotton fabrics was confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the treated cotton fabrics were evaluated by flammability tests, such as 45° angle (clothing textiles test), vertical flame (clothing textile test) and limiting oxygen index (LOI). For formulations with urea only, LOI values of treated fabrics were 21.0–22.0% after add-on values for the formulation were 5.16–18.22%. For formulations comprising urea with diammonium phosphate, LOI values were greater than 29.0% after add-on values for the formulation were 1.85–7.73%. With the formulation comprising urea and diammonium phosphate, all treated fabrics passed the vertical flame test for add-on values 5.34–7.73%. Their char lengths were less than half the length of the original fabric and after-flame and after-glow times were less than 3.2 s. Additional thermal properties of desired products will be discussed using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and microscale combustion calorimeter (MCC). View Full-Text
Keywords: microwave; cotton fabrics; flame retardant; vertical flammability test; thermal degradation; limiting oxygen index microwave; cotton fabrics; flame retardant; vertical flammability test; thermal degradation; limiting oxygen index
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Chang, S.; Condon, B.; Smith, J. Microwave Assisted Preparation of Flame Resistant Cotton Using Economic Inorganic Materials. Fibers 2018, 6, 85.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Fibers EISSN 2079-6439 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top