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J. Funct. Biomater., Volume 14, Issue 2 (February 2023) – 67 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Natural hydrogels have been a great matter of interest in recent years. Their biocompatibility, biodegradability, and low toxicity allow them to be used for different biomedical applications, including drug delivery systems, tissue regeneration, 3D printing, and recently, as systems for cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. Polysaccharides represent the polymer group with the longest-standing as well as the widest-ranging experience in the biomedical field. The presence of multi-functional groups in their backbone permits easy chemical modifications to obtain polysaccharide derivatives with unique properties. This review explores different natural hydrogels based on polysaccharides and discusses their application as drug delivery systems with a special focus on cancer treatment. View this paper
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Perspective
Tuning the Extracellular Vesicles Membrane through Fusion for Biomedical Applications
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(2), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14020117 - 19 Feb 2023
Viewed by 997
Abstract
Membrane fusion is one of the key phenomena in the living cell for maintaining the basic function of life. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have the ability to transfer information between cells through plasma membrane fusion, making them a promising tool in diagnostics and therapeutics. [...] Read more.
Membrane fusion is one of the key phenomena in the living cell for maintaining the basic function of life. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have the ability to transfer information between cells through plasma membrane fusion, making them a promising tool in diagnostics and therapeutics. This study explores the potential applications of natural membrane vesicles, EVs, and their fusion with liposomes, EVs, and cells and introduces methodologies for enhancing the fusion process. EVs have a high loading capacity, bio-compatibility, and stability, making them ideal for producing effective drugs and diagnostics. The unique properties of fused EVs and the crucial design and development procedures that are necessary to realize their potential as drug carriers and diagnostic tools are also examined. The promise of EVs in various stages of disease management highlights their potential role in future healthcare. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Applications of Mixed-Charge Nanomaterials)
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Article
One-Piece Zirconia Oral Implants for Single Tooth Replacement: Five-Year Results from a Prospective Cohort Study
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(2), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14020116 - 19 Feb 2023
Viewed by 667
Abstract
The intention of this 5-year prospective cohort investigation was to clinically and radiographically investigate the outcomes of a one-piece zirconia implant system for single tooth replacement. Sixty-five patients received a total of 66 single-tooth implants. All implants immediately received temporary restorations and were [...] Read more.
The intention of this 5-year prospective cohort investigation was to clinically and radiographically investigate the outcomes of a one-piece zirconia implant system for single tooth replacement. Sixty-five patients received a total of 66 single-tooth implants. All implants immediately received temporary restorations and were finally restored with all-ceramic crowns. Follow-ups were performed at the prosthetic delivery, after 1, 3, and 5 years. Peri-implant and dental soft-tissue parameters were evaluated and patient-reported outcomes recorded. To monitor peri-implant bone remodelling, standardised radiographs were taken at the implant insertion and at the 1-, 3-, and 5-year follow-ups. In the course of 5 years, 14 implants were lost, resulting in a cumulative implant survival rate of 78.2%. The mean marginal bone loss from the implant insertion to the 5-year follow-up amounted to 1.12 mm. Probing depth, clinical attachment level, bleeding, and plaque index increased over time. In 91.5% of the implants, the papilla index showed levels of 1 or 2, respectively. At the end of the study, the patient satisfaction was higher compared to the pre-treatment measurements. Due to the low survival rate after five years and the noticeably high frequency of advanced bone loss observed in this study, the implant has not met the launch criteria, as it would have not been recommended for routine clinical use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Biomaterials and Oral Implantology)
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Review
Combinational System of Lipid-Based Nanocarriers and Biodegradable Polymers for Wound Healing: An Updated Review
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(2), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14020115 - 18 Feb 2023
Viewed by 632
Abstract
Skin wounds have imposed serious socioeconomic burdens on healthcare providers and patients. There are just more than 25,000 burn injury-related deaths reported each year. Conventional treatments do not often allow the re-establishment of the function of affected regions and structures, resulting in dehydration [...] Read more.
Skin wounds have imposed serious socioeconomic burdens on healthcare providers and patients. There are just more than 25,000 burn injury-related deaths reported each year. Conventional treatments do not often allow the re-establishment of the function of affected regions and structures, resulting in dehydration and wound infections. Many nanocarriers, such as lipid-based systems or biobased and biodegradable polymers and their associated platforms, are favorable in wound healing due to their ability to promote cell adhesion and migration, thus improving wound healing and reducing scarring. Hence, many researchers have focused on developing new wound dressings based on such compounds with desirable effects. However, when applied in wound healing, some problems occur, such as the high cost of public health, novel treatments emphasizing reduced healthcare costs, and increasing quality of treatment outcomes. The integrated hybrid systems of lipid-based nanocarriers (LNCs) and polymer-based systems can be promising as the solution for the above problems in the wound healing process. Furthermore, novel drug delivery systems showed more effective release of therapeutic agents, suitable mimicking of the physiological environment, and improvement in the function of the single system. This review highlights recent advances in lipid-based systems and the role of lipid-based carriers and biodegradable polymers in wound healing. Full article
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Article
Effectiveness of Hyaluronic Acid Gel Injection with and without PRGF for Management of Interdental Papillary Loss: A Randomized Clinical Trial
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(2), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14020114 - 18 Feb 2023
Viewed by 582
Abstract
Background: To evaluate the effectiveness of hyaluronic acid (HA) gel injection with and without plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) for the management of interdental papillary loss. Methods: A single blinded randomized clinical trial was carried out on 21 subjects with 34 sites. [...] Read more.
Background: To evaluate the effectiveness of hyaluronic acid (HA) gel injection with and without plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) for the management of interdental papillary loss. Methods: A single blinded randomized clinical trial was carried out on 21 subjects with 34 sites. Patients within the age group 18–45 years who had Class I and II papillary recession in the maxillary anterior region were selected. The sites involved were randomly assigned to Group HA alone and Group HA + PRGF. The patients were recalled 4 weeks after receiving supragingival and subgingival instrumentation. HA or HA + PRGF was injected into the defective papilla at baseline and at 3 and 6 weeks. Image based measurements of Papillary Width (PW), Papillary Deficient Height (PDH), Deficient Area (DA), Deficient Volume (DV) were registered at baseline, 3 weeks, 6 weeks and 12 weeks. A vernier caliper was used to measure the papillary depth in the impression made using additional silicone impression material pre- and post-intervention. Results: There was a significant improvement in the within-group comparison of PW, PDH, DA and DV in both the groups. Group HA + PRGF showed significantly greater improvement in comparison to Group HA alone in terms of PDH, DA and DV at 6 and 12 weeks. Conclusions: Even though HA gel has already been established as a promising injectable agent in the minimally invasive treatment of interdental papillary deficiency, PRGF may also have a significant adjuvant effect when used along with HA. Further clinical studies with longer follow up duration, larger sample size and standardization of the tooth shape are required for a better understanding of the adjuvant effect of PRGF when used along with HA. Full article
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Article
Effect of Interbody Implants on the Biomechanical Behavior of Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion: A Finite Element Study
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(2), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14020113 - 17 Feb 2023
Viewed by 449
Abstract
Porous titanium interbody scaffolds are growing in popularity due to their appealing advantages for bone ingrowth. This study aimed to investigate the biomechanical effects of scaffold materials in both normal and osteoporotic lumbar spines using a finite element (FE) model. Four scaffold materials [...] Read more.
Porous titanium interbody scaffolds are growing in popularity due to their appealing advantages for bone ingrowth. This study aimed to investigate the biomechanical effects of scaffold materials in both normal and osteoporotic lumbar spines using a finite element (FE) model. Four scaffold materials were compared: Ti6Al4V (Ti), PEEK, porous titanium of 65% porosity (P65), and porous titanium of 80% porosity (P80). In addition, the range of motion (ROM), endplate stress, scaffold stress, and pedicle screw stress were calculated and compared. The results showed that the ROM decreased by more than 96% after surgery, and the solid Ti scaffold provided the lowest ROM (1.2–3.4% of the intact case) at the surgical segment among all models. Compared to solid Ti, PEEK decreased the scaffold stress by 53–66 and the endplate stress by 0–33%, while porous Ti decreased the scaffold stress by 20–32% and the endplate stress by 0–32%. Further, compared with P65, P80 slightly increased the ROM (<0.03°) and pedicle screw stress (<4%) and decreased the endplate stress by 0–13% and scaffold stress by approximately 18%. Moreover, the osteoporotic lumbar spine provided higher ROMs, endplate stresses, scaffold stresses, and pedicle screw stresses in all motion modes. The porous Ti scaffolds may offer an alternative for lateral lumbar interbody fusion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Manufacturing and Surface Technology)
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Article
Synthesis and Spectral Characterisation of Fabricated Cerium-Doped Magnesium Oxide Nanoparticles: Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Potential and Its Membranolytic Activity through Large Unilamellar Vesicles
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(2), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14020112 - 17 Feb 2023
Viewed by 474
Abstract
Considerable attention has been given to Magnesium oxide nanoparticles lately due to their antimicrobial potential, low toxicity to humans, high thermal stability, biocompatibility, and low cost of production. However, their successful transformation into sustainable drugs is limited due to their low membrane permeability, [...] Read more.
Considerable attention has been given to Magnesium oxide nanoparticles lately due to their antimicrobial potential, low toxicity to humans, high thermal stability, biocompatibility, and low cost of production. However, their successful transformation into sustainable drugs is limited due to their low membrane permeability, which reduces their bioavailability in target cells. Herein we propose Cerium-doped magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgOCeNPs) as a powerful solution to above mentioned limitations and are compared with MgO NPs for their membrane permeability and antimicrobial activity. Both pure and Ce-doped were characterized by various spectroscopic and microscopic techniques, in which an X-ray diffraction (XRD) examination reveals the lattice patterns for doped nanoparticles. Furthermore, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) revealed the three-dimensional (3D) structure and height of the nanoparticle. The crystal structure (FCC) of MgO did not change with Ce doping. However, microstructural properties like lattice parameter, crystallite size and biological activity of MgO significantly changed with Ce doping. In order to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of MgOCeNPs in comparison to MgO NPs and to understand the underlying mechanisms, the antibacterial activity was investigated against human pathogenic bacteria E. coli and P. aeruginosa, and antifungal activity against THY-1, a fungal strain. MgOCeNPs were studied by several methods, which resulted in a strong antibacterial and antifungal activity in the form of an elevated zone of inhibition, reduced growth curve, lower minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC80) and enhanced cytotoxicity in both bacterial and fungal strain as compared to MgO nanoparticles. The study of the growth curve showed early and prolonged stationary phase and early decline log phase. Both bacterial and fungal strains showed dose-dependent cytotoxicity with enhancement in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and formation of pores in the membrane when interacting with egg-phosphatidylcholine model Large Unilamellar Vesicles (LUVs). The proposed mechanism of MgOCeNPs toxicity evidently is membranolytic activity and induction of ROS production, which may cause oxidative stress-mediated cytotoxicity. These results confirmed that MgOCeNPs are a novel and very potent antimicrobial agent with a great promise of controlling and treating other microbes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Antibacterial Biomaterials)
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Article
Effectiveness of BMP-2 and PDGF-BB Adsorption onto a Collagen/Collagen-Magnesium-Hydroxyapatite Scaffold in Weight-Bearing and Non-Weight-Bearing Osteochondral Defect Bone Repair: In Vitro, Ex Vivo and In Vivo Evaluation
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(2), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14020111 - 16 Feb 2023
Viewed by 587
Abstract
Despite promising clinical results in osteochondral defect repair, a recently developed bi-layered collagen/collagen-magnesium-hydroxyapatite scaffold has demonstrated less optimal subchondral bone repair. This study aimed to improve the bone repair potential of this scaffold by adsorbing bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and/or platelet-derived growth [...] Read more.
Despite promising clinical results in osteochondral defect repair, a recently developed bi-layered collagen/collagen-magnesium-hydroxyapatite scaffold has demonstrated less optimal subchondral bone repair. This study aimed to improve the bone repair potential of this scaffold by adsorbing bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and/or platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) onto said scaffold. The in vitro release kinetics of BMP-2/PDGF-BB demonstrated that PDGF-BB was burst released from the collagen-only layer, whereas BMP-2 was largely retained in both layers. Cell ingrowth was enhanced by BMP-2/PDFG-BB in a bovine osteochondral defect ex vivo model. In an in vivo semi-orthotopic athymic mouse model, adding BMP-2 or PDGF-BB increased tissue repair after four weeks. After eight weeks, most defects were filled with bone tissue. To further investigate the promising effect of BMP-2, a caprine bilateral stifle osteochondral defect model was used where defects were created in weight-bearing femoral condyle and non-weight-bearing trochlear groove locations. After six months, the adsorption of BMP-2 resulted in significantly less bone repair compared with scaffold-only in the femoral condyle defects and a trend to more bone repair in the trochlear groove. Overall, the adsorption of BMP-2 onto a Col/Col-Mg-HAp scaffold reduced bone formation in weight-bearing osteochondral defects, but not in non-weight-bearing osteochondral defects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women in Science: Functional Biomaterials)
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Article
Evaluation of Enamel Surfaces after Different Techniques of Interproximal Enamel Reduction
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(2), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14020110 - 16 Feb 2023
Viewed by 537
Abstract
According to the literature, interproximal enamel reduction (IER) has become a consolidated technique used in orthodontic treatments to gain space in particular situations such as dental crowding, non-extractive therapies, tooth-size discrepancies, and prevention of dental relapse. There are different methods to realize stripping, [...] Read more.
According to the literature, interproximal enamel reduction (IER) has become a consolidated technique used in orthodontic treatments to gain space in particular situations such as dental crowding, non-extractive therapies, tooth-size discrepancies, and prevention of dental relapse. There are different methods to realize stripping, and enamel surfaces resulting after this procedure can be analyzed with SEM. The aim of this study was to analyze how different devices of IER leave the surface of the teeth. One hundred and sixty freshly extracted, intact human lower incisors were included in the study, fixed in a plaster support, and then processed with four different techniques of enamel reduction and finishing. Then, they were divided randomly into eight groups (A1–A2, B1–B2, C1–C2, D, and E), each containing twenty teeth. The A, B, and C groups were divided into two subgroups and then all the teeth were observed at SEM. Each digital image acquired by SEM showed that there were streaks on the surfaces, due to the cutter used. The results of this study showed that only group C2 (tungsten carbide bur followed by twelve steps of medium–fine–ultrafine 3M Soft Lex disks) has a few line, which is very similar to group E (untreated group), while the other groups have a lot of lines and show a rougher final surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials and Technologies in Orthodontics)
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Article
Fluoride and Calcium Release from Alkasite and Glass Ionomer Restorative Dental Materials: In Vitro Study
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(2), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14020109 - 15 Feb 2023
Viewed by 485
Abstract
This study evaluated the effect of pH and temperature on the ion (F and Ca2+) release of a resin-based material containing alkaline fillers and a self-setting high-viscous glass ionomer cement. Disks were prepared according to manufacturers’ instructions for both materials: [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the effect of pH and temperature on the ion (F and Ca2+) release of a resin-based material containing alkaline fillers and a self-setting high-viscous glass ionomer cement. Disks were prepared according to manufacturers’ instructions for both materials: the EF group (Equia Forte HT filling, GC) and the CN group (Cention N, Ivoclar). Specimens were immersed in 50 mL buffer solution with three different pHs (4.8, 6.8, and 8.8), and stored at 0°, 18°, 37°, and 44 °C. After 24 h, 7 d, and 28 d, cumulative F and Ca2+ releases were analyzed by chromatography and mass spectrometry, and pH was measured. Both materials showed minimal changes in pH with final values after 28 d of 5.17 ± 0.56 for CN and 5.12 ± 0.24 for EF. In all experimental conditions, the percentages of ion release were higher for EF than for CF. In particular, both materials showed a significant difference in temperature in F release. Regardless of the pH values, the highest Ca2+ ion release was after 28 days, with a significant difference in temperature for CN and EF. Within the limit of this study, the temperature storage influenced ion release and the high-viscous glass ionomer showed the maximum values. Full article
Article
Structural Integrity of Anterior Ceramic Resin-Bonded Fixed Partial Denture: A Finite Element Analysis Study
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(2), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14020108 - 15 Feb 2023
Viewed by 560
Abstract
This study was conducted as a means to evaluate the stress distribution patterns of anterior ceramic resin-bonded fixed partial dentures derived from different materials and numerous connector designs that had various loading conditions imposed onto them through the utilization of the finite element [...] Read more.
This study was conducted as a means to evaluate the stress distribution patterns of anterior ceramic resin-bonded fixed partial dentures derived from different materials and numerous connector designs that had various loading conditions imposed onto them through the utilization of the finite element method. A finite element model was established on the basis of the cone beam computed tomography image of a cantilevered resin-bonded fixed partial denture with a central incisor as an abutment and a lateral incisor as a pontic. Sixteen finite element models representing different conditions were simulated with lithium disilicate and zirconia. Connector height, width, and shape were set as the geometric parameters. Static loads of 100 N, 150 N, and 200 N were applied at 45 degrees to the pontic. The maximum equivalent stress values obtained for all finite element models were compared with the ultimate strengths of their materials. Higher load exhibited greater maximum equivalent stress in both materials, regardless of the connector width and shape. Loadings of 200 N and 150 N that were correspondingly simulated on lithium disilicate prostheses of all shapes and dimensions resulted in connector fractures. On the contrary, loadings of 200 N, 150 N, and 100 N with rectangular-shaped connectors correspondingly simulated on zirconia were able to withstand the loads. However, two of the trapezoidal-shaped zirconia connectors were unable to withstand the loads and resulted in fractures. It can be deduced that material type, shape, and connector dimensions concurrently influenced the integrity of the bridge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State of the Art in Dental Materials)
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Article
Cadaveric Identification through Macroscopic Analysis of Dental Implants Subjected to High Temperatures—An Experimental Model
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(2), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14020107 - 14 Feb 2023
Viewed by 361
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of identifying a dental implant through the measurement of the apical width and the interspiral distance in a periapical radiograph after being subjected to high temperatures for certain lengths of time. In total, [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of identifying a dental implant through the measurement of the apical width and the interspiral distance in a periapical radiograph after being subjected to high temperatures for certain lengths of time. In total, 11 fresh human anatomical models were selected, in which 137 implants were placed. Previous periapical radiographs were performed using parallelizers in each implant. Subsequently, the anatomical models were introduced into a crematory oven at different temperatures and for various durations: 500 °C/15 min, 500 °C/30 min, 700 °C/15 min, 800 °C/15 min, 800 °C/45 min, 500 °C/15 min, 700 °C/15 min, and finally, 1000 °C/120 min. After this, X-rays were taken via a parallel technique, and the apical width and interspiral distance were measured. The implants were disinserted, and the coronal width was used to calculate magnification or possible distortion. All data were analyzed by the Mann–Whitney U test. There were no statistically significant differences for the apical width parameter, except when the temperature was raised to 700 °C/15 min and to 800 °C/45 min. For the interspiral distance parameter, there were no statistically significant differences, except when the implants were subjected to 800 °C/15 min and 1000 °C/120 min. It was determined that there were changes in some groups based on the increase in temperature and exposure time. Neither of the two parameters were completely useful for the identification because some of the groups studied in both variables presented differences, which makes them difficult to identify correctly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dental Biomaterials)
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Article
Metal–Peptide Complexes with Antimicrobial Potential for Cotton Fiber Protection
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(2), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14020106 - 14 Feb 2023
Viewed by 502
Abstract
A study of the formation of copper (II) complexes with hemorphin peptide motifs in alkalic water solutions is presented. The effect of the peptide ligand on the complexing properties of the Cu (II) ion was quantified by giving the stoichiometry and stability of [...] Read more.
A study of the formation of copper (II) complexes with hemorphin peptide motifs in alkalic water solutions is presented. The effect of the peptide ligand on the complexing properties of the Cu (II) ion was quantified by giving the stoichiometry and stability of the complex compounds in the medium in which they are formed using voltammetric (cyclic) and spectral (UV-Vis and fluorimetric) analytical techniques. The resulting complexes were examined via IR spectroscopy to detect M-N and M-O oscillations and using the EPR approach in solution and in the solid phase to view the coordination and ligand binding regime. The possibility of the synergistic action of copper ions in the antivirus protection processes of cotton fibers coated in the same solvent with the newly obtained complex compounds was also investigated. One of the advantages is the formation of the complexes in an environment where the immobilization takes place, which contributes to increasing the efficiency of the process. The obtained results may serve as an aid for future more detailed biological studies of structure–activity relationships (SARs). Full article
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Article
Development of Neovasculature in Axially Vascularized Calcium Phosphate Cement Scaffolds
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(2), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14020105 - 14 Feb 2023
Viewed by 638
Abstract
Augmenting the vascular supply to generate new tissues, a crucial aspect in regenerative medicine, has been challenging. Recently, our group showed that calcium phosphate can induce the formation of a functional neo-angiosome without the need for microsurgical arterial anastomosis. This was a preclinical [...] Read more.
Augmenting the vascular supply to generate new tissues, a crucial aspect in regenerative medicine, has been challenging. Recently, our group showed that calcium phosphate can induce the formation of a functional neo-angiosome without the need for microsurgical arterial anastomosis. This was a preclinical proof of concept for biomaterial-induced luminal sprouting of large-diameter vessels. In this study, we investigated if sprouting was a general response to surgical injury or placement of an inorganic construct around the vessel. Cylindrical biocement scaffolds of differing chemistries were placed around the femoral vein. A contrast agent was used to visualize vessel ingrowth into the scaffolds. Cell populations in the scaffold were mapped using immunohistochemistry. Calcium phosphate scaffolds induced 2.7–3 times greater volume of blood vessels than calcium sulphate or magnesium phosphate scaffolds. Macrophage and vSMC populations were identified that changed spatially and temporally within the scaffold during implantation. NLRP3 inflammasome activation peaked at weeks 2 and 4 and then declined; however, IL-1β expression was sustained over the course of the experiment. IL-8, a promoter of angiogenesis, was also detected, and together, these responses suggest a role of sterile inflammation. Unexpectedly, the effect was distinct from an injury response as a result of surgical placement and also was not simply a foreign body reaction as a result of placing a rigid bioceramic next to a vein, since, while the materials tested had similar microstructures, only the calcium phosphates tested elicited an angiogenic response. This finding then reveals a potential path towards a new strategy for creating better pro-regenerative biomaterials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functionalized Biomimetic Calcium Phosphates 2.0)
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Article
A Novel Dressing Composed of Adipose Stem Cells and Decellularized Wharton’s Jelly Facilitated Wound Healing and Relieved Lymphedema by Enhancing Angiogenesis and Lymphangiogenesis in a Rat Model
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(2), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14020104 - 14 Feb 2023
Viewed by 623
Abstract
Lymphedema causes tissue swelling due to the accumulation of lymphatic fluid in the tissue, which delays the process of wound-healing. Developing effective treatment options of lymphedema is still an urgent issue. In this study, we aim to fabricate tissue-engineered moist wound dressings with [...] Read more.
Lymphedema causes tissue swelling due to the accumulation of lymphatic fluid in the tissue, which delays the process of wound-healing. Developing effective treatment options of lymphedema is still an urgent issue. In this study, we aim to fabricate tissue-engineered moist wound dressings with adipose stem cells (ASCs) and decellularized Wharton’s jelly (dWJ) from the human umbilical cord in order to ameliorate lymphedema. Rat ASCs were proliferated and an apparent layer was observed on dWJ at day 7 and 14. A rat tail lymphedema model was developed to evaluate the efficacy of the treatment. Approximately 1 cm of skin near the base of the rat tail was circularly excised. The wounds were treated by secondary healing (control) (n = 5), decellularized Wharton’s jelly (n = 5) and ASC-seeded dWJ (n = 5). The wound-healing rate and the tail volume were recorded once a week from week one to week five. Angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis were assessed by immunochemistry staining with anti-CD31 and anti-LYVE1. The results showed that the wound-healing rate was faster and the tail volume was lesser in the ASC-seeded dWJ group than in the control group. More CD31+ and LYVE-1+ cells were observed at the wound-healing area in the ASC-seeded dWJ group than in the control group. This proves that tissue-engineered moist wound dressings can accelerate wound-healing and reduce lymphedema by promoting angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. Full article
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Review
Functional Approaches in Promoting Vascularization and Angiogenesis in Bone Critical-Sized Defects via Delivery of Cells, Growth Factors, Drugs, and Particles
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(2), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14020099 - 13 Feb 2023
Viewed by 612
Abstract
Critical-sized bone defects, or CSDs, are defined as bone defects that cannot be regenerated by themselves and require surgical intervention via employing specific biomaterials and a certain regenerative strategy. Although a variety of approaches can be used to treat CSDs, poor angiogenesis and [...] Read more.
Critical-sized bone defects, or CSDs, are defined as bone defects that cannot be regenerated by themselves and require surgical intervention via employing specific biomaterials and a certain regenerative strategy. Although a variety of approaches can be used to treat CSDs, poor angiogenesis and vascularization remain an obstacle in these methods. The complex biological healing of bone defects depends directly on the function of blood flow to provide sufficient oxygen and nutrients and the removal of waste products from the defect site. The absence of vascularization can lead to non-union and delayed-union defect development. To overcome this challenge, angiogenic agents can be delivered to the site of injury to stimulate vessel formation. This review begins by introducing the treatment methods for CSDs. The importance of vascularization in CSDs is subsequently highlighted. Delivering angiogenesis agents, including relevant growth factors, cells, drugs, particles, cell secretion substances, their combination, and co-delivery to CSDs are fully explored. Moreover, the effects of such agents on new bone formation, followed by vessel formation in defect areas, are evaluated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women in Science: Functional Biomaterials)
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Review
Global Trends and Future Research Directions for Temporomandibular Disorders and Stem Cells
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(2), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14020103 - 13 Feb 2023
Viewed by 608
Abstract
Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is an umbrella term used to describe various conditions that affect temporomandibular joints, masticatory muscles, and associated structures. Although the most conservative and least invasive treatment is preferable, more invasive therapies should be employed to refractory patients. Tissue engineering has [...] Read more.
Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is an umbrella term used to describe various conditions that affect temporomandibular joints, masticatory muscles, and associated structures. Although the most conservative and least invasive treatment is preferable, more invasive therapies should be employed to refractory patients. Tissue engineering has been presented as a promising therapy. Our study aimed to investigate trends and point out future research directions on TMD and stem cells. A comprehensive search was carried out in the Web of Science Core Collection (WoS-CC) in October 2022. The bibliometric parameters were analyzed through descriptive statistics and graphical mapping. Thus, 125 papers, published between 1992 and 2022 in 65 journals, were selected. The period with the highest number of publications and citations was between 2012 and 2022. China has produced the most publications on the subject. The most frequently used keywords were “cartilage”, “temporomandibular joint”, “mesenchymal stem cells”, and “osteoarthritis”. Moreover, the primary type of study was in vivo. It was noticed that using stem cells to improve temporomandibular joint repair and regeneration is a significant subject of investigation. Nonetheless, a greater understanding of the biological interaction and the benefits of using these cells in patients with TMD is required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bone Regeneration and Repair Materials)
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Article
The Fluoride Ion Release from Ion-Releasing Dental Materials after Surface Loading by Topical Treatment with Sodium Fluoride Gel
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(2), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14020102 - 13 Feb 2023
Viewed by 529
Abstract
The study aimed to investigate the rechargeability of ion-releasing dental material specimens immersed in distilled water for 25 months, which depleted their ion-releasing ability. Four restorative dental materials (alkasite composite, giomer, glass-ionomer, and composite material) presented with 24 specimens were studied after topical [...] Read more.
The study aimed to investigate the rechargeability of ion-releasing dental material specimens immersed in distilled water for 25 months, which depleted their ion-releasing ability. Four restorative dental materials (alkasite composite, giomer, glass-ionomer, and composite material) presented with 24 specimens were studied after topical treatment with a concentrated fluoride gel. The effect of resin coating on the ion uptake and release was investigated on additional 42 specimens of restorative dental materials with coatings. The composite materials were coated with two adhesive systems, whereas the glass-ionomer was coated with the special coating resin. After topical fluoride exposure, ion release and specimen mass were measured at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 14-day intervals using an ion-selective electrode and an analytical balance, respectively. The cumulative fluoride levels for the uncoated specimens of alkasite composite were significantly higher than those of giomer and glass-ionomer cement, with no statistically significant difference between the latter two materials. The conventional composite had the lowest cumulative concentration of fluoride ions (p < 0.05). The adhesive systems affected the fluoride recharge and reduced the ion concentrations absorbed by the specimens. Specimens coated with universal adhesive showed significantly higher ion release compared to universal fluoride-releasing adhesive or special coating resin for glass-ionomers (p < 0.05). No statistically significant change in specimen mass was observed during the 14-day period. Surface coating with adhesive systems as well as special coating resin for glass-ionomers affects the fluoride recharge process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dental Biomaterials)
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Review
Review on Bioinspired Design of ECM-Mimicking Scaffolds by Computer-Aided Assembly of Cell-Free and Cell Laden Micro-Modules
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(2), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14020101 - 13 Feb 2023
Viewed by 687
Abstract
Tissue engineering needs bioactive drug delivery scaffolds capable of guiding cell biosynthesis and tissue morphogenesis in three dimensions. Several strategies have been developed to design and fabricate ECM-mimicking scaffolds suitable for directing in vitro cell/scaffold interaction, and controlling tissue morphogenesis in vivo. Among [...] Read more.
Tissue engineering needs bioactive drug delivery scaffolds capable of guiding cell biosynthesis and tissue morphogenesis in three dimensions. Several strategies have been developed to design and fabricate ECM-mimicking scaffolds suitable for directing in vitro cell/scaffold interaction, and controlling tissue morphogenesis in vivo. Among these strategies, emerging computer aided design and manufacturing processes, such as modular tissue unit patterning, promise to provide unprecedented control over the generation of biologically and biomechanically competent tissue analogues. This review discusses recent studies and highlights the role of scaffold microstructural properties and their drug release capability in cell fate control and tissue morphogenesis. Furthermore, the work highlights recent advances in the bottom-up fabrication of porous scaffolds and hybrid constructs through the computer-aided assembly of cell-free and/or cell-laden micro-modules. The advantages, current limitations, and future challenges of these strategies are described and discussed. Full article
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Article
Inter-Laboratory Study on Measuring the Surface Charge of Electrically Polarized Hydroxyapatite
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(2), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14020100 - 12 Feb 2023
Viewed by 398
Abstract
Surface charges on implants improve integration into bone and so require a clear protocol for achieving a surface charge and comparable results from different laboratories. This study sintered hydroxyapatite (HAp) at one laboratory to remove the influence of the microstructure on surface charge [...] Read more.
Surface charges on implants improve integration into bone and so require a clear protocol for achieving a surface charge and comparable results from different laboratories. This study sintered hydroxyapatite (HAp) at one laboratory to remove the influence of the microstructure on surface charge and then polarized/depolarized the pellets at two different laboratories (in Tokyo and Riga). Surface charges on HAp pellets induced by electric polarization at 400 °C in a 5 kV/cm DC electric field were measured by the thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) method as 6–9 µC/cm2. The surface charge results were comparable between laboratories and also agreed with previously documented values. Recommendations describe conditions for polarization and depolarization to generate a surface charge and repeatedly achieve a comparable outcome. A visual display of the polarization mechanisms and the contribution to surface charge point to further aspects that need further development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bone Biomaterials)
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Article
Antibacterial Activity and Cell Viability of Biomimetic Magnesian Calcite Coatings on Biodegradable Mg
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(2), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14020098 - 10 Feb 2023
Viewed by 789
Abstract
Mg is a material of choice for biodegradable implants. The main challenge for using Mg in temporary implants is to provide protective surfaces that mitigate its rapid degradation in biological fluids and also confer sufficient cytocompatibility and bacterial resistance to Mg-coated surfaces. Even [...] Read more.
Mg is a material of choice for biodegradable implants. The main challenge for using Mg in temporary implants is to provide protective surfaces that mitigate its rapid degradation in biological fluids and also confer sufficient cytocompatibility and bacterial resistance to Mg-coated surfaces. Even though carbonate mineralization is the most important source of biominerals, such as the skeletons and shells of many marine organisms, there has been little success in the controlled growth of carbonate layers by synthetic processes. We present here the formation mechanism, antibacterial activity, and cell viability of magnesian calcite biomimetic coatings grown on biodegradable Mg via a green, one-step route. Cell compatibility assessment showed cell viability higher than 80% after 72 h using fibroblast cells (NCTC, clone L929) and higher than 60% after 72 h using human osteoblast-like cells (SaOS-2); the cells displayed a normal appearance and a density similar to the control sample. Antimicrobial potential evaluation against both Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923)) and Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853)) strains demonstrated that the coated samples significantly inhibited bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation compared to the untreated control. Calcite coatings grown on biodegradable Mg by a single coating process showed the necessary properties of cell compatibility and bacterial resistance for application in surface-modified Mg biomaterials for temporary implants. Full article
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Review
Towards Point of Care CRISPR-Based Diagnostics: From Method to Device
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(2), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14020097 - 10 Feb 2023
Viewed by 813
Abstract
Rapid, accurate, and portable on-site detection is critical in the face of public health emergencies. Infectious disease control and public health emergency policymaking can both be aided by effective and trustworthy point of care tests (POCT). A very promising POCT method appears to [...] Read more.
Rapid, accurate, and portable on-site detection is critical in the face of public health emergencies. Infectious disease control and public health emergency policymaking can both be aided by effective and trustworthy point of care tests (POCT). A very promising POCT method appears to be the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and associated protein (CRISPR/Cas)-based molecular diagnosis. For on-site detection, CRISPR/Cas-based detection can be combined with multiple signal sensing methods and integrated into smart devices. In this review, sensing methods for CRISPR/Cas-based diagnostics are introduced and the advanced strategies and recent advances in CRISPR/Cas-based POCT are reviewed. Finally, the future perspectives of CRISPR and POCT are summarized and prospected. Full article
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Article
3D-Printed GelMA/PEGDA/F127DA Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(2), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14020096 - 09 Feb 2023
Viewed by 609
Abstract
Tissue-engineered scaffolds are an effective method for the treatment of bone defects, and their structure and function are essential for bone regeneration. Digital light processing (DLP) printing technology has been widely used in bone tissue engineering (BTE) due to its high printing resolution [...] Read more.
Tissue-engineered scaffolds are an effective method for the treatment of bone defects, and their structure and function are essential for bone regeneration. Digital light processing (DLP) printing technology has been widely used in bone tissue engineering (BTE) due to its high printing resolution and gentle printing process. As commonly used bioinks, synthetic polymers such as polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) and Pluronic F127 diacrylate (F127DA) have satisfactory printability and mechanical properties but usually lack sufficient adhesion to cells and tissues. Here, a compound BTE scaffold based on PEGDA, F127DA, and gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) was successfully prepared using DLP printing technology. The scaffold not only facilitated the adhesion and proliferation of cells, but also effectively promoted the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in an osteoinductive environment. Moreover, the bone tissue volume/total tissue volume (BV/TV) of the GelMA/PEGDA/F127DA (GPF) scaffold in vivo was 49.75 ± 8.50%, higher than the value of 37.10 ± 7.27% for the PEGDA/F127DA (PF) scaffold and 20.43 ± 2.08% for the blank group. Therefore, the GPF scaffold prepared using DLP printing technology provides a new approach to the treatment of bone defects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bone Regeneration and Repair Materials)
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Article
Effects of Organic Elicitors on the Recycled Production of Ginkgolide B in Immobilized Cell Cultures of Ginkgo biloba
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(2), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14020095 - 09 Feb 2023
Viewed by 377
Abstract
Ginkgo biloba is a medicinal plant used in complementary and alternative medicines. Ginkgo biloba extracts contain many compounds with medical functions, of which the most critical is ginkgolide B (GB). The major role that GB plays is to function as an antagonist to [...] Read more.
Ginkgo biloba is a medicinal plant used in complementary and alternative medicines. Ginkgo biloba extracts contain many compounds with medical functions, of which the most critical is ginkgolide B (GB). The major role that GB plays is to function as an antagonist to the platelet-activating factor, which is one of the causes of thrombosis and cardiovascular diseases. Currently, GB is obtained mainly through extraction and purification from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba; however, the yield of GB is low. Alternatively, the immobilized cultivation of ginkgo calluses with biomaterial scaffolds and the addition of organic elicitors to activate the cell defense mechanisms were found to stimulate increases in GB production. The aim of this study was to use Ginkgo biloba calluses for immobilized cultures with different elicitors to find a more suitable method of ginkgolide B production via a recycling process. Full article
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Article
Surface Modified β-Ti-18Mo-6Nb-5Ta (wt%) Alloy for Bone Implant Applications: Composite Characterization and Cytocompatibility Assessment
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(2), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14020094 - 09 Feb 2023
Viewed by 494
Abstract
Commercially available titanium alloys such as Ti-6Al-4V are established in clinical use as load-bearing bone implant materials. However, concerns about the toxic effects of vanadium and aluminum have prompted the development of Al- and V-free β-Ti alloys. Herein, a new alloy composed of [...] Read more.
Commercially available titanium alloys such as Ti-6Al-4V are established in clinical use as load-bearing bone implant materials. However, concerns about the toxic effects of vanadium and aluminum have prompted the development of Al- and V-free β-Ti alloys. Herein, a new alloy composed of non-toxic elements, namely Ti-18Mo-6Nb-5Ta (wt%), has been fabricated by arc melting. The resulting single β-phase alloy shows improved mechanical properties (Young’s modulus and hardness) and similar corrosion behavior in simulated body fluid when compared with commercial Ti-6Al-4V. To increase the cell proliferation capability of the new biomaterial, the surface of Ti-18Mo-6Nb-5Ta was modified by electrodepositing calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramic layers. Coatings with a Ca/P ratio of 1.47 were obtained at pulse current densities, −jc, of 1.8–8.2 mA/cm2, followed by 48 h of NaOH post-treatment. The thickness of the coatings has been measured by scanning electron microscopy from an ion beam cut, resulting in an average thickness of about 5 μm. Finally, cytocompatibility and cell adhesion have been evaluated using the osteosarcoma cell line Saos-2, demonstrating good biocompatibility and enhanced cell proliferation on the CaP-modified Ti-18Mo-6Nb-5Ta material compared with the bare alloy, even outperforming their CaP-modified Ti-6-Al-4V counterparts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Scaffolds and Implants for Bone Regeneration)
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Article
The Local Release of Teriparatide Incorporated in 45S5 Bioglass Promotes a Beneficial Effect on Osteogenic Cells and Bone Repair in Calvarial Defects in Ovariectomized Rats
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(2), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14020093 - 09 Feb 2023
Viewed by 539
Abstract
With the increase in the population’s life expectancy, there has also been an increase in the rate of osteoporosis, which has expanded the search for strategies to regenerate bone tissue. The ultrasonic sonochemical technique was chosen for the functionalization of the 45S5 bioglass. [...] Read more.
With the increase in the population’s life expectancy, there has also been an increase in the rate of osteoporosis, which has expanded the search for strategies to regenerate bone tissue. The ultrasonic sonochemical technique was chosen for the functionalization of the 45S5 bioglass. The samples after the sonochemical process were divided into (a) functionalized bioglass (BG) and (b) functionalized bioglass with 10% teriparatide (BGT). Isolated mesenchymal cells (hMSC) from femurs of ovariectomized rats were differentiated into osteoblasts and submitted to in vitro tests. Bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) and sham ovariectomy (Sham) surgeries were performed in fifty-five female Wistar rats. After a period of 60 days, critical bone defects of 5.0 mm were created in the calvaria of these animals. For biomechanical evaluation, critical bone defects of 3.0 mm were performed in the tibias of some of these rats. The groups were divided into the clot (control) group, the BG group, and the BGT group. After the sonochemical process, the samples showed modified chemical topographic and morphological characteristics, indicating that the surface was chemically altered by the functionalization of the particles. The cell environment was conducive to cell adhesion and differentiation, and the BG and BGT groups did not show cytotoxicity. In addition, the experimental groups exhibited characteristics of new bone formation with the presence of bone tissue in both periods, with the BGT group and the OVX group statistically differing from the other groups (p < 0.05) in both periods. Local treatment with the drug teriparatide in ovariectomized animals promoted positive effects on bone tissue, and longitudinal studies should be carried out to provide additional information on the biological performance of the mutual action between the bioglass and the release of the drug teriparatide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bone Regeneration and Repair Materials)
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Review
Gelatin Matrix as Functional Biomaterial for Immobilization of Nanoparticles of Metal-Containing Compounds
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(2), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14020092 - 08 Feb 2023
Viewed by 489
Abstract
The data concerning the synthesis and physicochemical characteristics of specific functional biomaterials—biopolymer-immobilized matrix systems based on gelatin as an array and chemical compounds, which include atoms of various metal elements—are systematized and discussed. The features of this biopolymer which determine the specific properties [...] Read more.
The data concerning the synthesis and physicochemical characteristics of specific functional biomaterials—biopolymer-immobilized matrix systems based on gelatin as an array and chemical compounds, which include atoms of various metal elements—are systematized and discussed. The features of this biopolymer which determine the specific properties of the immobilized matrix systems formed by it and their reactivity, are noted. Data on gelatin-immobilized systems in which immobilized substances are elemental metals and coordination compounds formed as a result of redox processes, nucleophilic/electrophilic substitution reactions, and self-assembly (template synthesis), are presented. The possibilities of the practical use of metal-containing gelatin-immobilized systems are promising for the future; in particular, their potential in medicine and pharmacology as a vehicle for “targeted” drug delivery to various internal organs/tissues of the body, and, also, as potential biosensors is noted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Biosynthesis of Nanomaterials for Biomedical Applications)
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Article
Differential Effects of Extracellular Matrix Glycoproteins Fibronectin and Laminin-5 on Dental Pulp Stem Cell Phenotypes and Responsiveness
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(2), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14020091 - 08 Feb 2023
Viewed by 440
Abstract
Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with the potential to differentiate in a limited number of other tissue types. Some evidence has suggested the modulation of DPSC growth may be mediated, in part, by exogenous extracellular matrix (ECM) glycoproteins, [...] Read more.
Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with the potential to differentiate in a limited number of other tissue types. Some evidence has suggested the modulation of DPSC growth may be mediated, in part, by exogenous extracellular matrix (ECM) glycoproteins, including fibronectin (FN) and laminin-5 (LN5). Although preliminary research suggests that some ECM glycoproteins may work as functional biomaterials to modulate DPSC growth responses, the primary goal of this project is to determine the specific effects of FN and LN5 on DPSC growth and viability. Using an existing DPSC repository, n = 16 DPSC isolates were cultured and 96-well growth assays were performed, which revealed FN, LN5 and the combination of these were sufficient to induce statistically significant changes in growth among five (n = 5) DPSC isolates. In addition, the administration of FN (either alone or in combination) was sufficient to induce the expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), while LN5 induced the expression of ALP only, suggesting differential responsiveness among DPSCs. Moreover, these responses appeared to correlate with the expression of MSC biomarkers NANOG, Oct4 and Sox2. These results add to the growing body of evidence suggesting that functional biomaterials, such as ECM glycoproteins FN and LN5, are sufficient to induce phenotypic and differentiation-specific effects in a specific subset of DPSC isolates. More research will be needed to determine which biomarkers or additional factors are necessary and sufficient to induce the differentiation and development of DPSCs ex vivo and in vitro for biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Dental Implants and Biomaterials - Volume II)
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Article
Fluorescent Carbon Dots from Food Industry By-Products for Cell Imaging
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(2), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14020090 - 07 Feb 2023
Viewed by 586
Abstract
Herein, following a circular economy approach, we present the synthesis of luminescent carbon dots via the thermal treatment of chestnut and peanut shells, which are abundant carbon-rich food industry by-products. As-synthesized carbon dots have excellent water dispersibility thanks to their negative surface groups, [...] Read more.
Herein, following a circular economy approach, we present the synthesis of luminescent carbon dots via the thermal treatment of chestnut and peanut shells, which are abundant carbon-rich food industry by-products. As-synthesized carbon dots have excellent water dispersibility thanks to their negative surface groups, good luminescence, and photo-stability. The excitation–emission behaviour as well as the surface functionalization of these carbon dots can be tuned by changing the carbon source (chestnuts or peanuts) and the dispersing medium (water or ammonium hydroxide solution). Preliminary in vitro biological data proved that the samples are not cytotoxic to fibroblasts and can act as luminescent probes for cellular imaging. In addition, these carbon dots have a pH-dependent luminescence and may, therefore, serve as cellular pH sensors. This work paves the way towards the development of more sustainable carbon dot production for biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Functional Biomaterials in Italy)
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Article
The Effect of Surface Treatments on Zirconia Bond Strength and Durability
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(2), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14020089 - 07 Feb 2023
Viewed by 702
Abstract
To evaluate the effects of airborne particle abrasion (APA) combined with MDP-containing resin cement, a glass-ceramic spray deposition (GCSD) method on the shear bond strengths (SBSs) and durability of 3 mol% yttrium oxide-stabilized zirconia ceramic (3Y-TZP) compared with lithium disilicate glass ceramics (LDGC). [...] Read more.
To evaluate the effects of airborne particle abrasion (APA) combined with MDP-containing resin cement, a glass-ceramic spray deposition (GCSD) method on the shear bond strengths (SBSs) and durability of 3 mol% yttrium oxide-stabilized zirconia ceramic (3Y-TZP) compared with lithium disilicate glass ceramics (LDGC). 3Y-TZP disks were randomly treated as follows: for Group APA+MDP, 3Y-TZP was abrased using 50 μm Al2O3 particles under 0.1 Mpa and bonded with MDP-containing resin cement; for Group GCSD, 3Y-TZP was treated with the GCSD method, etched by 5% HF for 90 s, silanized and bonded with resin cement without MDP. Group LDGC was bonded as the Group GCSD. X-ray diffraction (XRD), attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDX) were used to analyze the surface chemical and micro-morphological changes of the ceramics before bonding. The bonded ceramic specimens were randomly divided into subgroups, and the SBSs were determined before and after 10,000 thermocycling. The SBSs were analyzed with a one-way ANOVA analysis. Failure modes were determined with optical microscopy and SEM. The XRD, ATR-FTIR and XPS results identified the formation of lithium disilicate and zirconium silicate on 3Y-TZP after GCSD. The SEM micrographs revealed that 3Y-TZP surfaces were roughened by APA, while 3Y-TZP with GCSD and LDGC surfaces could be etched by HF to be porous. The APA treatment combined with MDP-containing resin cement produced the high immediate zirconia shear bond strengths (SBSs: 37.41 ± 13.51 Mpa) that was similar to the SBSs of the LDGC (34.87 ± 11.02 Mpa, p > 0.05), but, after thermocycling, the former dramatically decreased (24.00 ± 6.86 Mpa, maximum reduction by 35.85%) and the latter exhibited the highest SBSs (30.72 ± 7.97 Mpa, minimum reduction by 11.9%). The 3Y-TZP with GCSD treatment displayed the lower zirconia SBSs before thermocycling (27.03 ± 9.76 Mpa, p < 0.05), but it was similar to the 3Y-TZP treated with APA and MDP containing resin cement after thermocycling (21.84 ± 7.03 vs. 24.00 ± 6.86 Mpa, p > 0.05). The APA combined with MDP-containing resin cement could achieve the high immediate zirconia SBSs of those of the LDGC, but it decreased significantly after thermocycling. The GCSD technique could yield the immediate zirconia SBSs similar to those of LDGC before thermocycling, and long-term zirconia SBSs were similar to those of 3Y-TZP treated with APA followed by MDP-containing resin cement after thermocycling. Hence, the GCSD technique could enrich zirconia surface treatments and is an alternative to zirconia surface pretreatment for 3Y-TZP bond durability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dental Biomaterials)
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Article
An Assessment of Blood Vessel Remodeling of Nanofibrous Poly(ε-Caprolactone) Vascular Grafts in a Rat Animal Model
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(2), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14020088 - 03 Feb 2023
Viewed by 506
Abstract
The development of an ideal vascular prosthesis represents an important challenge in terms of the treatment of cardiovascular diseases with respect to which new materials are being considered that have produced promising results following testing in animal models. This study focuses on nanofibrous [...] Read more.
The development of an ideal vascular prosthesis represents an important challenge in terms of the treatment of cardiovascular diseases with respect to which new materials are being considered that have produced promising results following testing in animal models. This study focuses on nanofibrous polycaprolactone-based grafts assessed by means of histological techniques 10 days and 6 months following suturing as a replacement for the rat aorta. A novel stereological approach for the assessment of cellular distribution within the graft thickness was developed. The cellularization of the thickness of the graft was found to be homogeneous after 10 days and to have changed after 6 months, at which time the majority of cells was discovered in the inner layer where the regeneration of the vessel wall was found to have occurred. Six months following implantation, the endothelialization of the graft lumen was complete, and no vasa vasorum were found to be present. Newly formed tissue resembling native elastic arteries with concentric layers composed of smooth muscle cells, collagen, and elastin was found in the implanted polycaprolactone-based grafts. Moreover, the inner layer of the graft was seen to have developed structural similarities to the regular aortic wall. The grafts appeared to be well tolerated, and no severe adverse reaction was recorded with the exception of one case of cartilaginous metaplasia close to the junctional suture. Full article
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