To evaluate the effects of airborne particle abrasion (APA) combined with MDP-containing resin cement, a glass-ceramic spray deposition (GCSD) method on the shear bond strengths (SBSs) and durability of 3 mol% yttrium oxide-stabilized zirconia ceramic (3Y-TZP) compared with lithium disilicate glass ceramics (LDGC).
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To evaluate the effects of airborne particle abrasion (APA) combined with MDP-containing resin cement, a glass-ceramic spray deposition (GCSD) method on the shear bond strengths (SBSs) and durability of 3 mol% yttrium oxide-stabilized zirconia ceramic (3Y-TZP) compared with lithium disilicate glass ceramics (LDGC). 3Y-TZP disks were randomly treated as follows: for Group APA+MDP, 3Y-TZP was abrased using 50 μm Al2
particles under 0.1 Mpa and bonded with MDP-containing resin cement; for Group GCSD, 3Y-TZP was treated with the GCSD method, etched by 5% HF for 90 s, silanized and bonded with resin cement without MDP. Group LDGC was bonded as the Group GCSD. X-ray diffraction (XRD), attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDX) were used to analyze the surface chemical and micro-morphological changes of the ceramics before bonding. The bonded ceramic specimens were randomly divided into subgroups, and the SBSs were determined before and after 10,000 thermocycling. The SBSs were analyzed with a one-way ANOVA analysis. Failure modes were determined with optical microscopy and SEM. The XRD, ATR-FTIR and XPS results identified the formation of lithium disilicate and zirconium silicate on 3Y-TZP after GCSD. The SEM micrographs revealed that 3Y-TZP surfaces were roughened by APA, while 3Y-TZP with GCSD and LDGC surfaces could be etched by HF to be porous. The APA treatment combined with MDP-containing resin cement produced the high immediate zirconia shear bond strengths (SBSs: 37.41 ± 13.51 Mpa) that was similar to the SBSs of the LDGC (34.87 ± 11.02 Mpa, p
> 0.05), but, after thermocycling, the former dramatically decreased (24.00 ± 6.86 Mpa, maximum reduction by 35.85%) and the latter exhibited the highest SBSs (30.72 ± 7.97 Mpa, minimum reduction by 11.9%). The 3Y-TZP with GCSD treatment displayed the lower zirconia SBSs before thermocycling (27.03 ± 9.76 Mpa, p
< 0.05), but it was similar to the 3Y-TZP treated with APA and MDP containing resin cement after thermocycling (21.84 ± 7.03 vs. 24.00 ± 6.86 Mpa, p
> 0.05). The APA combined with MDP-containing resin cement could achieve the high immediate zirconia SBSs of those of the LDGC, but it decreased significantly after thermocycling. The GCSD technique could yield the immediate zirconia SBSs similar to those of LDGC before thermocycling, and long-term zirconia SBSs were similar to those of 3Y-TZP treated with APA followed by MDP-containing resin cement after thermocycling. Hence, the GCSD technique could enrich zirconia surface treatments and is an alternative to zirconia surface pretreatment for 3Y-TZP bond durability.