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J. Mar. Sci. Eng., Volume 11, Issue 5 (May 2023) – 208 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The durability of tidal stream turbines in a marine environment presents a significant challenge, largely due to the potential impact of biofouling. While anti-corrosive materials can be used to minimize corrosion, the management of biofouling is much more complex. It is then essential to develop a specific biofouling management and monitoring strategy that includes regular assessments and adjustments to maintain the desired level of biofouling control and ensure optimal turbine performance. Essentially, the strategy should aim to identify when the effects of fouling become significant enough to warrant removal and prevent degradation of tidal stream turbine performance over time. We propose a machine learning pathway for this purpose, where recent developments and challenges are covered, as well as several promising prospects for biofouling detection and estimation. View this paper
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20 pages, 1384 KiB  
Article
Probability of Atlantic Salmon Post-Smolts Encountering a Tidal Turbine Installation in Minas Passage, Bay of Fundy
by Brian G. Sanderson, Richard H. Karsten, Cameron C. Solda, David C. Hardie and Daniel J. Hasselman
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(5), 1095; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11051095 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1542
Abstract
Tidal stream energy is a renewable energy resource that might be developed to offset carbon emissions. A tidal energy demonstration (TED) area has been designated in Minas Passage, Bay of Fundy, for testing and installing marine hydrokinetic (MHK) turbines. Regulations require quantification of [...] Read more.
Tidal stream energy is a renewable energy resource that might be developed to offset carbon emissions. A tidal energy demonstration (TED) area has been designated in Minas Passage, Bay of Fundy, for testing and installing marine hydrokinetic (MHK) turbines. Regulations require quantification of the potential for MHK turbine installations to harm local populations of marine animals. Here, we use acoustic telemetry to quantify the probability that post-smolt inner Bay of Fundy salmon encounter a turbine installation at the TED area. Previous work has quantified the detection efficiency of Innovasea HR acoustic tags as a function of the current speed and range from a moored HR2 receiver and also demonstrated that drifters carrying HR tags will be effectively detected when the drifter track crosses the array of HR2 receivers in Minas Passage. Salmon smolts were tagged and released in Gaspereau and Stewiacke Rivers, Nova Scotia, in order that the HR2 receiver array could monitor seaward migration of the post-smolts through Minas Passage and particularly through the TED area. Presently, we formulate and apply a method by which tag signals detected by the HR2 array can be used to estimate the expected number of times that a post-smolt would encounter a single near-surface MHK turbine installation during its seaward migration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interface between Offshore Renewable Energy and the Environment)
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14 pages, 4241 KiB  
Article
Numerical Investigations of Undrained Shear Strength of Sensitive Clay Using Miniature Vane Shear Tests
by Jiayi Shen, Xinyi Wang, Qian Chen, Zhaoyi Ye, Qiaoling Gao and Jiawang Chen
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(5), 1094; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11051094 - 22 May 2023
Viewed by 2125
Abstract
The laboratory miniature vane shear test (MVST) has been widely used to measure the undrained shear strength of marine sediments in offshore engineering. However, the transfer of the soil sample in tube samplers from the seabed to the laboratory releases the in situ [...] Read more.
The laboratory miniature vane shear test (MVST) has been widely used to measure the undrained shear strength of marine sediments in offshore engineering. However, the transfer of the soil sample in tube samplers from the seabed to the laboratory releases the in situ confining stress acting on the soil and will decrease the soil strength. In this research, in order to investigate the effects of confining stress on the undrained shear strength of marine sediments, the Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian (CEL) approach in ABAQUS is used to model the three-dimensional standard and miniature vane shear tests to estimate the undrained shear strength of sensitive clay with different sensitivities under various stress conditions. Based on the numerical simulation results, a linear strength model that not only considers confining stress effects but also can eliminate the size effects caused by vane blades of MVST is proposed. The proposed model can be used to estimate the undrained shear strength of the sensitive clay under shallow seabed surfaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Marine Geotechnical Engineering)
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25 pages, 26488 KiB  
Article
The Study of Fishing Vessel Behavior Identification Based on AIS Data: A Case Study of the East China Sea
by Bowen Xing, Liang Zhang, Zhenchong Liu, Hengjiang Sheng, Fujia Bi and Jingxiang Xu
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(5), 1093; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11051093 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2153
Abstract
The goal of this paper is to strengthen the supervision of fishing behavior in the East China Sea and effectively ensure the sustainable development of fishery resources. Based on AIS data, this paper analyzes three types of fishing boats (purse seine operation, gill [...] Read more.
The goal of this paper is to strengthen the supervision of fishing behavior in the East China Sea and effectively ensure the sustainable development of fishery resources. Based on AIS data, this paper analyzes three types of fishing boats (purse seine operation, gill net operation and trawl operation) and uses the cubic spline interpolation algorithm to optimize the ship trajectory and construct high-dimensional features. It proposes a new coding method for fishing boat trajectory sequences. This method uses the Geohash algorithm to divide the East China Sea into grids and generate corresponding numbers. Then, the ship trajectory is mapped to the grid, the fishing boat trajectory points are associated with the divided grid, and the ship trajectory ID is extracted from the corresponding grid. The extracted complete trajectory sequence passes through the CBOW (continuous bag of words) model, and the correlation of trajectory points is fully learned. Finally, the fishing boat trajectory is converted from coordinate sequence to trajectory vector, and the processed trajectory sequence is trained by the LightGBM algorithm. In order to obtain the optimal classification effect, the optimal superparameter combination is selected. We put forward a LightGBM algorithm based on the Bayesian optimization algorithm, and obtained the classification results of three kinds of fishing boats. The final result was evaluated using the F1_score. Experimental results show that the F1_score trained with the proposed trajectory vectorization method is the highest, with a training accuracy of 0.925. Compared to XgBoost and CatBoost, the F1_score increased by 1.8% and 1.2%, respectively. The results show that this algorithm demonstrates strong applicability and effectiveness in fishery area evaluations and is significant for strengthening fishery resource management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
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15 pages, 5505 KiB  
Article
Cascade Control of Active Heave Compensation Nonlinear System for Marine Crane
by Jianan Xu, Yiming Wang, Junling Ma and Yong Zhan
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(5), 1092; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11051092 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1347
Abstract
During the rough marine environment, heave compensation is used to offset the heave motion of the vessel when a marine crane lifts and lands the load. Thus, load motion and vessel motion are realized decoupled. In previous studies, the interference items such as [...] Read more.
During the rough marine environment, heave compensation is used to offset the heave motion of the vessel when a marine crane lifts and lands the load. Thus, load motion and vessel motion are realized decoupled. In previous studies, the interference items such as hydraulic cylinder friction, underwater drag force and nonlinear friction in the active heave compensation system of a marine hydraulic crane are compensated as a concentrated interference force to be estimated. In this paper, we disassembled the interference items; the disturbance observer and adaptive rate are designed to estimate unmodeled disturbance force and system uncertain parameters, respectively; and we designed an active heave compensator with the adaptive nonlinear cascade controller which has the disturbance observer (DOB-ANCC). For the heave compensation of load displacement, this paper derived the control law of the nonlinear system model based on the backstepping method. The outer loop control is displacement control and the inner loop control is pressure control. The simulation verifies the effectiveness of the control strategy proposed in this paper and the availability of heave displacement compensation for a marine crane hoisting load. The compensation efficiency of the designed controller (DOB-ANCC) for the heave motion of the load can reach more than 95%, and the maximum displacement tracking error of the controller can reach ± 0.035 m. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
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17 pages, 4498 KiB  
Article
Advanced Marine Craft Model Identification via Multi-Kernel Weighted Least Square Support Vector Machine and Characteristic Model Techniques
by Tianqi Pei, Caoyang Yu, Yiming Zhong, Junjun Cao and Lian Lian
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(5), 1091; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11051091 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1159
Abstract
This paper combines the piecewise Cubic Hermite (CH) interpolation algorithm and the weighted least square support vector machine (WLS-SVM) to improve identification accuracy for marine crafts built based on the characteristic model. The characteristic model is first used to describe the heading dynamics [...] Read more.
This paper combines the piecewise Cubic Hermite (CH) interpolation algorithm and the weighted least square support vector machine (WLS-SVM) to improve identification accuracy for marine crafts built based on the characteristic model. The characteristic model is first used to describe the heading dynamics of marine crafts and is a superior model to the traditional response model in both accuracy and complexity. Especially in order to improve identification accuracy, a CH-based data preprocessing strategy is utilized to densify and smooth data for further accurate identification. Subsequently, the combination of the linear kernel function and the Gaussian kernel function is introduced in the conventional WLS-SVM method, which renders global and local performance improvements compared with the conventional WLS-SVM method. Finally, informative maneuvers composed of Zigzag and Sine are carried out to test the performance of the improved identification method. Compared to the conventional LS-SVM method based on the response model, the root mean square error of the proposed CH-MK-WLS-SVM method based on the characteristic model is reduced by an order of magnitude in the presence of sensor noise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimal Maneuvering and Control of Ships)
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18 pages, 23296 KiB  
Article
Visualization and Parametric Study on Vortex Shedding Suppression of Cylindrical Structures in Offshore Engineering Using Large Eddy Simulation
by Hongwu Zhao and Yeon-Won Lee
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(5), 1090; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11051090 - 22 May 2023
Viewed by 1344
Abstract
Cylindrical structures are widely used in offshore and marine engineering, but they may suffer from vortex-induced vibration under the influence of ocean or wave currents, which can lead to severe fatigue damage. In this study, we applied the open-source software Open-Source Field Operation [...] Read more.
Cylindrical structures are widely used in offshore and marine engineering, but they may suffer from vortex-induced vibration under the influence of ocean or wave currents, which can lead to severe fatigue damage. In this study, we applied the open-source software Open-Source Field Operation and Manipulation (OpenFOAM) to investigate the characteristics of fluid flow around offshore cylindrical structures, taking into account the effect of helical strake parameters, such as pitch and strake number. The aim of this study is to explore the possibility of suppressing vortex shedding with different helical strake parameters. Numerical simulation results demonstrated that attaching a helical strake to the bare cylinder destroyed vortex shedding in offshore cylindrical structures. The vortex visualization showed that the helical strake destroyed the three-dimensional vortex structures. Moreover, the lift coefficient data showed that the vibration frequency of the cylinder decreased after attaching the helical strake, indicating that the vortex-induced vibrations on the wake flow tended to fade. The results suggest that the helical strake is a promising option for suppressing the wake vortex shedding of cylindrical structures in offshore engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Marine Applications of Computational Fluid Dynamics)
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19 pages, 10349 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Mechanism of Strong-Pressure Fluctuation under Partial Load in the Turbine Mode of Pump Turbines for Hydro and Marine Power Storage
by Jiahao Lu, Wei Yan, Ran Tao, Zhengwei Wang and Di Zhu
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(5), 1089; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11051089 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1245
Abstract
As a core component of pumped storage power plants for hydro and marine power storage, this paper investigates the mechanism of pressure pulsation fluctuations under different load conditions to improve the efficiency and operational stability of the storage units. The results of a [...] Read more.
As a core component of pumped storage power plants for hydro and marine power storage, this paper investigates the mechanism of pressure pulsation fluctuations under different load conditions to improve the efficiency and operational stability of the storage units. The results of a combination of experiments and numerical simulations showed that the pressure pulsation fluctuations in the pump turbine under strong and weak loads were significantly different at different monitoring points. The three-dimensional flow lines diagram of the pump turbine unit from the CFD numerical simulation showed that the flow line of the pump turbine was relatively chaotic and the vortex existed under weak load conditions. Pressure clouds and flow lines in the cross-section and longitudinal section of the pump turbine are shown. Both showed high-pressure values and a chaotic flow line with a vortex under weak load conditions. To a certain extent, it revealed the pressure pulsation fluctuation mechanism of the pump turbine and provides some guidance for solving practical problems in engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancement in the Multiphase Flow in Fluid Machinery)
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20 pages, 7023 KiB  
Article
Climatic Trend of Wind Energy Resource in the Antarctic
by Kai-Shan Wang, Di Wu, Tao Zhang, Kai Wu, Chong-Wei Zheng, Cheng-Tao Yi and Yue Yu
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(5), 1088; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11051088 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1203
Abstract
Wind energy resource is an important support for the sustainable development of Antarctica. The evaluation of wind energy potential determines the feasibility and economy of wind power generation in Antarctica, among which mastering the variation rule of wind energy resource is the key [...] Read more.
Wind energy resource is an important support for the sustainable development of Antarctica. The evaluation of wind energy potential determines the feasibility and economy of wind power generation in Antarctica, among which mastering the variation rule of wind energy resource is the key to realizing the effective utilization of polar wind energy. Based on the 6-h ERA-5 reanalysis data of ECMWF from January 1981 to December 2020, this paper systematically analyzed the long-term variation trend of Antarctic wind energy resource by using the climate statistical analysis method and the least square fitting, with the comprehensive consideration of a series of key indicators such as Wind Power Density, Effective Wind Speed Occurrence, Energy Level Occurrence, and Stability. The results show that it indicates a positive trend for wind power density (0.5~2 W × m−2 × a−1), effective wind speed occurrence (2~3%/a), energy level occurrence (0.1~0.2%/a), and coefficient of variation (−0.005/a) in the South Pole—Kunlun station and the central region of Queen Maud land. The westerly belt exhibits a decreasing index (−0.5%/a) in terms of stability trend, indicating a positive potential. Kemp Land, the Ross Island—Balleny Islands waters show shortages in all indicators. The wind power density in the Antarctic region is stronger in spring and summer than in autumn and winter, with the weakest in autumn. Based on the above indicators, the variation trend in the East Antarctic coast, Wilhelm II Land—Wilkes Land, the South Pole—Kunlun station, and the westerlies is generally superior. Full article
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11 pages, 2984 KiB  
Article
Unusual Mooring Oscillations: Apparent Foucault–Wheatstone Device in the Deep Ocean?
by Hans van Haren
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(5), 1087; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11051087 - 22 May 2023
Viewed by 1165
Abstract
A pressure sensor, located for four months in the middle of a 1275 m-long taut deep-ocean mooring in 2380 m water depth above a seamount with sub-surface top-buoys and seafloor anchor-weight, demonstrates narrow-band spectral peaks of deterministic well-predictable signals with equivalent 0.5 m [...] Read more.
A pressure sensor, located for four months in the middle of a 1275 m-long taut deep-ocean mooring in 2380 m water depth above a seamount with sub-surface top-buoys and seafloor anchor-weight, demonstrates narrow-band spectral peaks of deterministic well-predictable signals with equivalent 0.5 m amplitudes at uncommon sub-harmonic frequencies f*/4, f*/2, 3f*/4 of the local near-inertial frequency f* = 1.085f, where f denotes the Coriolis parameter. None of these sub-harmonics can be associated with oceanographic motions, which are dominated by super-inertial internal waves that are more broadband and less predictable. No corresponding peaks are found in spectra of other observables like current velocity (differences), temperature, and pressure in the top buoy of the mooring. The mid-cable pressure sensor was mounted on a nearly 1 kN weighing non-swiveled frame. Its data are hypothesized to reflect a resonant mechanical oscillation of the high-tensioned elastic steel mooring cable under repeated short-scale Strouhal cable vibrations induced by vortex-shedding due to water-flow drag and/or possibly by tidal baroclinic motions that are about 50% larger near the sloping seafloor of the seamount than mid-depth thereby modifying the mooring-cable in a helical shape. Cable dynamics and mooring-motion considerations yield inconclusive results to explain the observations. Hypothesizing, the observations suggest, cable dynamically, sub-harmonic drainage of helix-shape source at non-tidal semidiurnal center-frequency (M2 + S2)/2 = 3f*/2, physically, the measurement of Earth rotation thereby mimicking a Foucault–Wheatstone device, and, oceanographically, the relative vortex-rotation ζ/2 = 0.085f being possibly induced by water-flow interacting quasi-permanently with the nearby seamount by a topographic obstruction, so that total local near-inertial frequency f* = f + ζ/2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Oceanography)
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18 pages, 4217 KiB  
Article
Low-Resource Generation Method for Few-Shot Dolphin Whistle Signal Based on Generative Adversarial Network
by Huiyuan Wang, Xiaojun Wu, Zirui Wang, Yukun Hao, Chengpeng Hao, Xinyi He and Qiao Hu
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(5), 1086; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11051086 - 22 May 2023
Viewed by 1425
Abstract
Dolphin signals are effective carriers for underwater covert detection and communication. However, the environmental and cost constraints terribly limit the amount of data available in dolphin signal datasets are often limited. Meanwhile, due to the low computational power and resource sensitivity of Unmanned [...] Read more.
Dolphin signals are effective carriers for underwater covert detection and communication. However, the environmental and cost constraints terribly limit the amount of data available in dolphin signal datasets are often limited. Meanwhile, due to the low computational power and resource sensitivity of Unmanned Underwater Vehicles (UUVs), current methods for real-time generation of dolphin signals with favorable results are still subject to several challenges. To this end, a Masked AutoEncoder Generative Adversarial Network (MAE-GAN) model is hereby proposed. First, considering the few-shot condition, the dataset is extended by using data augmentation techniques. Then, to meet the low arithmetic constraint, a denoising autoencoder with a mask is used to obtain latent codes through self-supervised learning. These latent codes are then utilized in Conditional Wasserstein Generative Adversarial Network-Gradient Penalty (CWGAN-GP) to generate a whistle signal model for the target dataset, fully demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed method for enhancing dolphin signal generation in data-limited scenarios. The whistle signals generated by the MAE-GAN and baseline models are compared with actual dolphin signals, and the findings indicate that the proposed approach achieves a discriminative score of 0.074, which is 28.8% higher than that of the current state-of-the-art techniques. Furthermore, it requires only 30.2% of the computational resources of the baseline model. Overall, this paper presents a novel approach to generating high-quality dolphin signals in data-limited situations, which can also be deployed on low-resource devices. The proposed MAE-GAN methods provide a promising solution to address the challenges of limited data and computational power in generating dolphin signals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Acoustics and Digital Signal Processing)
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16 pages, 5853 KiB  
Article
Structural Model Test for Strength Performance Evaluation of Disconnectable Mooring Apparatuses Installed on Floating-Type Offshore Wind Turbine
by Kangsu Lee and Chang-Yong Song
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(5), 1085; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11051085 - 21 May 2023
Viewed by 1799
Abstract
The destructive power of typhoons has been continuously increasing due to the influence of global warming. In a situation where the installation of floating wind turbines is increasing around the world, concerns about huge losses and collapses of floating offshore wind turbines due [...] Read more.
The destructive power of typhoons has been continuously increasing due to the influence of global warming. In a situation where the installation of floating wind turbines is increasing around the world, concerns about huge losses and collapses of floating offshore wind turbines due to strong typhoons are deepening. Regarding the safe operation of floating offshore wind turbines, the development of a new type of disconnectable mooring system is required. The newly developed disconnectable mooring apparatuses, such as fairlead chain stoppers (FCS) and submersible mooring pulleys (SMP), considered in this study are devised to more easily attach or detach the floating offshore wind turbine with mooring lines compared to other disconnectable mooring systems. In order to investigate the structural safety of the initial design of FCS and SMP that can be applied to MW class floating-type offshore wind turbines, scaled-down structural models were produced using a 3-D printer, and structural tests were performed on those models. For the structural tests of the scaled-down models, tensile specimens of the acrylonitrile butadiene styrene material used in the 3-D printing process were prepared, and the material properties were evaluated by performing tensile tests. Finite element analyses of FCS and SMP were performed by applying the material properties obtained from the tensile tests and the same load and boundary conditions as in the scaled-down model structural tests. Through the finite element analyses, the weak structural parts of FCS and SMP were reviewed. The structural model tests were performed considering the main load conditions of the fairlead chain stopper, and the test results were compared to the finite element analyses. Through the results of this study, it was possible to experimentally verify the structural safety of the initial design of disconnectable mooring apparatuses. Furthermore, the study results can be used to improve the structural strength of FCS and SMP in a detailed design stage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Designs for Ship and Offshore Structures)
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18 pages, 2229 KiB  
Review
Expert Systems for Farmed Fish Disease Diagnosis: An Overview and a Proposal
by Ioannis Hatzilygeroudis, Konstantinos Dimitropoulos, Konstantinos Kovas and John A. Theodorou
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(5), 1084; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11051084 - 21 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2459
Abstract
The expert system approach, although quite old, is still quite effective in scientific areas where experts are required to make diagnoses and predictions. One of those areas is fish disease diagnosis. It is an application domain that currently employs complicated processes, which require [...] Read more.
The expert system approach, although quite old, is still quite effective in scientific areas where experts are required to make diagnoses and predictions. One of those areas is fish disease diagnosis. It is an application domain that currently employs complicated processes, which require high level skills for making accurate diagnoses. On the other hand, complete datasets for full diagnosis to be able to use machine learning techniques are not available. Therefore, in aquaculture, now more than ever, fish farmers do not have the required expertise or equipment to accurately diagnose a fish disease. For that reason, expert systems that can help in the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases have been developed. In this paper, we attempt to give an overview of the expert system approaches for fish disease diagnosis developed in the last two decades. Based on the analysis of their technical and non-technical characteristics, we propose an expert system architecture and a fish disease diagnosis process aiming at improving the deficiencies of the existing systems. The proposed system can handle all types of fish diseases based on image and non-image data as well as on molecular test results and can provide explanations. The diagnosis process goes through four consecutive levels, where each next level considers an additional category of parameters and provides diagnoses with a higher certainty. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Fish and Invertebrate Aquaculture)
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16 pages, 11063 KiB  
Article
ENSO Impact on Summer Precipitation and Moisture Fluxes over the Mexican Altiplano
by José P. Vega-Camarena, Luis Brito-Castillo, Luis F. Pineda-Martínez and Luis M. Farfán
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(5), 1083; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11051083 - 20 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2076
Abstract
In the warm season, El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) causes periods with more rain in Northern Mexico during its positive phase, while less rainfall is recorded in the southern regions during the negative phase. This research study evaluates the variability of summer (July–September) precipitation [...] Read more.
In the warm season, El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) causes periods with more rain in Northern Mexico during its positive phase, while less rainfall is recorded in the southern regions during the negative phase. This research study evaluates the variability of summer (July–September) precipitation and moisture fluxes under different ENSO scenarios in the Mexican Altiplano and coast of the state of Nayarit. The catchment of Rio San Pedro-Mezquital (SPM-RB) connects both regions. Using the Oceanic Niño Index (ONI), the years that signal change from El Niño to La Niña (1998), neutral conditions (2005), and strong (moderate) La Niña (1999) were selected to get an insight of ENSO impact on summer precipitation. For anomalies in the Altiplano, two additional contrasting years were analyzed—2006 (mostly dry) and 2010 (wet)—to determine moisture sources. Summer rainfall conditions in 1998 and 1999 had an opposite behavior between coastal Nayarit (wet) and the Altiplano (dry), while in 2005, rainfall deficits were observed in both regions. The moisture fluxes showed large divergence areas over central Mexico and the Southeastern United States in years of intense drought (1998 and 1999) caused by two high-pressure cells at middle levels of the troposphere (500 hPa). The moisture transport mechanisms into the Altiplano were related to atmospheric circulation at the upper level (200 hPa). The variations of the moisture fluxes from 2006 to 2010 are less strong at middle levels. The Eastern Pacific moisture convergence along the western coast of Mexico favors above-average rainfall anomalies in the coastal region but below-average anomalies in the Altiplano. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Oceanography)
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22 pages, 774 KiB  
Article
Wind Speed Prediction Based on VMD-BLS and Error Compensation
by Xuguo Jiao, Daoyuan Zhang, Dongran Song, Dongdong Mu, Yanbing Tian and Haotian Wu
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(5), 1082; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11051082 - 20 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1388
Abstract
As one of the fastest-growing new energy sources, wind power technology has attracted widespread attention from all over the world. In order to improve the quality of wind power generation, wind speed prediction is an indispensable task. In this paper, an error correction-based [...] Read more.
As one of the fastest-growing new energy sources, wind power technology has attracted widespread attention from all over the world. In order to improve the quality of wind power generation, wind speed prediction is an indispensable task. In this paper, an error correction-based Variational Mode Decomposition and Broad Learning System (VMD-BLS) hybrid model is proposed for wind speed prediction. First, the wind speed is decomposed into multiple components by the VMD algorithm, and then an ARMA model is established for each component to find the optimal number of sequence divisions. Second, the BLS model is used to predict each component, and the prediction results are summed to obtain the wind speed forecast value. However, in some traditional methods, there is always time lag, which will reduce the forecast accuracy. To deal with this, a novel error correction technique is developed by utilizing BLS. Through verification experiment with actual data, it proves that the proposed method can reduce the phenomenon of prediction lag, and can achieve higher prediction accuracy than traditional approaches, which shows our method’s effectiveness in practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Marine Energy)
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12 pages, 2396 KiB  
Article
Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Mycobiont Extract of Parmotrema austrosinense (Zahlbr.) Hale in a Zebrafish Model
by Kalidoss Rajendran, Ponmurugan Karuppiah, Ponmurugan Ponnusamy, Mohammed Rafi Shaik, Mujeeb Khan, Tae Hwan Oh and Baji Shaik
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(5), 1081; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11051081 - 20 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1236
Abstract
Thousands of different kinds of lichen metabolites are being examined for their biological activities, including anticancer properties. In this context, the present study aims to assess the anti-inflammatory activity of the acetone extract of Parmotrema austrosinense mycobiont. A lipid peroxidation assay was performed [...] Read more.
Thousands of different kinds of lichen metabolites are being examined for their biological activities, including anticancer properties. In this context, the present study aims to assess the anti-inflammatory activity of the acetone extract of Parmotrema austrosinense mycobiont. A lipid peroxidation assay was performed with the acetone extracts of P. austrosinense mycobiont, which was further used to evaluate its anti-inflammatory efficacy using a zebrafish model. Furthermore, the histopathological study was also carried out with muscle tissues and amplification of its inflammation marker. The results revealed that the lichen compound (i.e., lecanoric acid) in the acetone extract of P. austrosinense possesses anti-inflammatory activity. Histopathology studies confirmed the decreased numbers of neutrophil cells in the 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced zebrafishes, as confirmed by changes in the fishes’ weight before and after the sample treatment, prompted by TNBS inflammation. The present results also demonstrated a dose-dependent decrease in the lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels in the muscle tissues of zebrafishes. Gene amplification studies suggested that the lichen compound might perform dose-dependent downregulation of the inflammatory gene marker of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α gene; this further confirms that the extract should possess anti-inflammatory activity. As per the literature, this study is one of the most complete, comprehensive in vivo anti-inflammatory analyses in which inflammation was induced in zebrafish by using 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Particularly, this study successfully identified a bioactive compound isolated from the lichen P. austrosinense, and which exhibited decent anti-inflammatory activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Challenges in Marine Aquaculture Research)
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17 pages, 2701 KiB  
Article
Risk Estimation of Typhoon Disaster Based on Three-Dimensional Information Diffusion Method
by Guilin Liu, Jingyi Yin, Shichun Song, Wenjin Yang, Yuhang Tian, Liping Wang and Yu Xu
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(5), 1080; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11051080 - 19 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1428
Abstract
In the context of the increasing frequency and intensity of natural disasters, assessing the risk of typhoon disasters can provide significant assistance for risk control and emergency management of typhoon disasters. In this paper, based on the three-dimensional information diffusion method, the formal [...] Read more.
In the context of the increasing frequency and intensity of natural disasters, assessing the risk of typhoon disasters can provide significant assistance for risk control and emergency management of typhoon disasters. In this paper, based on the three-dimensional information diffusion method, the formal expected loss model is transformed into a computable typhoon risk assessment model. The fuzzy information in the small sample data is deeply mined, and the typhoon disaster risk assessment with the expected loss as the connotation is carried out, and the probability density distribution estimation of disaster-causing factors at different levels and the functional relationship identification between disaster-causing factors at different levels and direct economic loss rate are realized by using the information matrix. At the same time, combined with the frequency of typhoon occurrence, the annual risk of disasters is predicted to make up for the problem of insufficient marine environmental data and improve the calculation accuracy of risk assessment models. Taking Guangdong Province as an example, a typhoon risk assessment was conducted, estimating the probability distribution, direct economic loss rate distribution, and annual loss expectation of typhoon disasters under different wind speed scales and extreme wave heights. The results indicate that the risk estimation value of the three-dimensional information diffusion model is higher than that of the traditional model, which weakens the limitations of the low-dimensional information diffusion model and makes the evaluation results more reasonable and reliable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Marine Hazards)
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19 pages, 6255 KiB  
Article
Airborne and Underwater Noise Produced by a Hovercraft in the North Caspian Region: Pressure and Particle Motion Measurements
by Alexandr I. Vedenev, Oleg Yu. Kochetov, Andrey A. Lunkov, Andrey S. Shurup and Saltanat S. Kassymbekova
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(5), 1079; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11051079 - 19 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1675
Abstract
The measurements of airborne and underwater noise radiated by a Griffon BHT130 hovercraft were conducted in the Ural-Caspian Channel and in the North Caspian Sea. This type of hovercraft is being used for all-season cargo and crew transportation to oil and gas platforms [...] Read more.
The measurements of airborne and underwater noise radiated by a Griffon BHT130 hovercraft were conducted in the Ural-Caspian Channel and in the North Caspian Sea. This type of hovercraft is being used for all-season cargo and crew transportation to oil and gas platforms within the environmentally sensitive area of the Ural River estuary known for its abundant bird and fish fauna. Several field campaigns were organized from 2017 to 2022 to measure and analyze acoustic noise levels simultaneously in the air and underwater at various sites and hovercraft speeds. Airborne noise levels were estimated according to ISO 2922:2020, 2021. Underwater noise study included not only acoustic pressure recordings but also particle velocity measurements with a self-designed pressure gradient sensor (PGS), which is important since the hearing of the majority of fish perceives the sound in terms of particle motion. This study is the first to report the particle velocity levels formed underwater during hovercraft passages. The minimum levels of underwater noise, 100 dB re 1 µPa (pressure), 45 dB re 1 nm/s (particle velocity), and airborne noise, 93 dBA re 20 µPa (pressure), normalized to a distance of 25 m were observed for the hovercraft passages at a cruising speed of 7–15 m/s. Thus, this speed interval can be recommended as an optimum to minimize an acoustic impact on ornitho- and fish fauna. The directivity of the hovercraft noise was estimated for the first time and utilized for noise mapping of the Ural-Caspian Channel. The possible hydrodynamic effect of a passing hovercraft is discussed. Full article
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15 pages, 8120 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Model Characteristics in the North Atlantic Simulated by the NEMO Model with Data Assimilation
by Konstantin Belyaev, Andrey Kuleshov and Ilya Smirnov
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(5), 1078; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11051078 - 19 May 2023
Viewed by 1044
Abstract
The main aim of this work is to study the spatial–temporal variability of the model’s physical and spectral characteristics in the process of assimilation of observed ocean surface height data from the AVISO (Archiving, Validating and Interpolation Satellite Observation) archive in combination with [...] Read more.
The main aim of this work is to study the spatial–temporal variability of the model’s physical and spectral characteristics in the process of assimilation of observed ocean surface height data from the AVISO (Archiving, Validating and Interpolation Satellite Observation) archive in combination with the NEMO (Nucleus for European Modeling of the Ocean) ocean circulation model for a period of two months. For data assimilation, the GKF (Generalized Kalman filter) method, previously developed by the authors, is used. The purpose of this work is to study the spatial–temporal structure of the simulated characteristics using decomposition into eigenvalues and eigenvectors (Karhunen–Loeve decomposition method). The feature of the GKF method is the fact that the constructed Kalman weight matrix multiplied by the vector of observational data can be represented as a weighted sum of eigenvectors and eigenvalues (spectral characteristics of the matrix), which describe the spatial and temporal structure of corrections to the model. The main investigations are focused on the North Atlantic. Their variability in time and space is estimated in this study. Calculations of the main ocean characteristics, such as the surface height, temperature, salinity, and the current velocities on the surface and in the depths, both with and without assimilation of observational data, over a time interval of 60 days, were performed by using a high-performance computing system. The calculation results have shown that the main spatial variability of characteristics after data assimilation is consistent with the localization of the currents in the North Atlantic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Oceanography)
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16 pages, 5816 KiB  
Article
Impacts of the Establishment of Biofoulants on Greek Aquaculture: Farmers’ Expert Knowledge
by Dimitrios Tsotsios, Dimitrios K. Moutopoulos, Athanasios Lattos, Basile Michaelidis and John A. Theodorou
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(5), 1077; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11051077 - 19 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1146
Abstract
Ascidians’ bioaccumulation is frequently responsible for the massive growth of certain species, causing detrimental effects on aquaculture facilities. The goal of this study is to provide, for the first time in the Eastern Mediterranean, information on biofoulant species in Greek mussel farms over [...] Read more.
Ascidians’ bioaccumulation is frequently responsible for the massive growth of certain species, causing detrimental effects on aquaculture facilities. The goal of this study is to provide, for the first time in the Eastern Mediterranean, information on biofoulant species in Greek mussel farms over a long time scale and to describe the best management strategies that will reduce costs while preventing and controlling these biofoulants. An interview survey was conducted to assess mussel farmers’ expert judgment on non-endemic ascidians as well as their opinions on the magnitude of the invasion’s impacts. The results show that ascidians and, to a lesser extent, sponges exhibited the highest intensities in mussel farm units during the last 20 years, whereas gastropod invasion was limited and observed after 2015. Ascidians exhibited the most significant impact on the final product, whereas sponges showed a moderately negative impact, with reduced amounts of flesh being the most important effect. The cost of farming management only rose with ascidians and sponges and was mostly impacted by damages to maintenance and labor and, to a lesser extent, fuel. All invasive species affected the operational cost of production at a rate of 21–50%, which peaked from July to September. The above problems are increasingly aggravating in cases where farm units undergo production shutdown due to plankton bloom. Preventive management action against the establishment of biofoulants in Greek mussel aquaculture is of paramount importance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Fish and Invertebrate Aquaculture)
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52 pages, 19027 KiB  
Review
An Overview of Natural Fiber Composites for Marine Applications
by Omar El Hawary, Luca Boccarusso, Martin P. Ansell, Massimo Durante and Fulvio Pinto
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(5), 1076; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11051076 - 19 May 2023
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 5186
Abstract
Environmental emergency awareness has been gaining momentum in recent years in the composite manufacturing industry, with a new generation of composite materials minimizing their harmful environmental impacts by employing more sustainable manufacturing processes and, where possible, replacing synthetic materials with more sustainable bio-based [...] Read more.
Environmental emergency awareness has been gaining momentum in recent years in the composite manufacturing industry, with a new generation of composite materials minimizing their harmful environmental impacts by employing more sustainable manufacturing processes and, where possible, replacing synthetic materials with more sustainable bio-based materials, thus more efficiently using energy and material resources. In this context, natural fiber composites are proposed as appealing candidates to replace or reduce the use of synthetic fibers for reinforcing polymers in several industrial fields, such as the marine sector, where composite usage has been extensively studied in recent years. This review aims to present a thorough overview of the usage of natural fiber composites for marine applications, discussing the most relevant criteria required for applications where water exposure is expected. For this purpose, the review outlines the natural fibers and matrices used, analyzes the resultant composites’ mechanical properties, and presents the fiber treatments required before manufacturing, as well as the main manufacturing processes adopted for natural fiber composite production. The advantages and disadvantages of natural fibers compared to synthetic fibers are also presented, including economic and environmental credentials. Finally, a list of marine components with natural fiber reinforcements developed in recent years is reported. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications, Properties and Manufacturing of Marine Composites)
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22 pages, 5534 KiB  
Article
Hydrodynamics and Sediment-Transport Pathways along a Mixed-Energy Spit-Inlet System: A Modeling Study at Chincoteague Inlet (Virginia, USA)
by Ioannis Y. Georgiou, Francesca Messina, Md Mohiuddin Sakib, Shan Zou, Madeline Foster-Martinez, Martijn Bregman, Christopher J. Hein, Michael S. Fenster, Justin L. Shawler, Kaitlyn McPherran and Arthur C. Trembanis
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(5), 1075; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11051075 - 18 May 2023
Viewed by 1792
Abstract
Tidal-inlet systems are dynamic features that respond to short-term (e.g., storms) and longer-term processes (e.g., sea-level rise, changes in tidal prism). The Chincoteague Inlet system, located along the northern Eastern Shore of Virginia (USA), is a dynamic coastal complex that experiences rapid change [...] Read more.
Tidal-inlet systems are dynamic features that respond to short-term (e.g., storms) and longer-term processes (e.g., sea-level rise, changes in tidal prism). The Chincoteague Inlet system, located along the northern Eastern Shore of Virginia (USA), is a dynamic coastal complex that experiences rapid change associated with sediment redistribution and a shifting inlet throat due to the southern elongation of adjacent Assateague Island. In this study, a numerical model based on Delft3D with coupled flow–waves, multiclass sediment transport, and morphologic feedback was developed to quantify the hydrodynamic and geomorphic controls within this rapidly evolving inlet–spit system and to develop a more comprehensive understanding of regional to local controls on sediment-transport pathways. Model results show that most of the sand transport along southern Assateague Island is sequestered nearshore and proximally in deeper sinks within Fishing Point, and, of that, only finer sand sizes are transported around the spit, confirming previous analysis and hypothesis. The model also showed that sand transport toward the south increases along Wallops Island and quantified spatially explicit transport trends for selected sediment classes, revealing that coarser sediment bypassing is a punctuated process that is proportional to storms. Full article
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19 pages, 2918 KiB  
Article
Research on Seabed Sediment Classification Based on the MSC-Transformer and Sub-Bottom Profiler
by Han Wang, Qingjie Zhou, Shuo Wei, Xiangyang Xue, Xinghua Zhou and Xiaobo Zhang
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(5), 1074; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11051074 - 18 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1443
Abstract
This paper proposed an MSC-Transformer model based on the Transformer’s neural network, which was applied to seabed sediment classification. The data came from about 2900 km2 of seabed area on the northern slope of the South China Sea. Using the submarine backscattering [...] Read more.
This paper proposed an MSC-Transformer model based on the Transformer’s neural network, which was applied to seabed sediment classification. The data came from about 2900 km2 of seabed area on the northern slope of the South China Sea. Using the submarine backscattering intensity and depth data obtained by the sub-bottom profiler, combined with latitude and longitude information, a seabed dataset of the slope area of the South China Sea was constructed. Moreover, using the MSC-Transformer, the accurate identification and judgment of sediment types such as calcareous bio-silt, calcareous bio-clay silt, silty sand, medium sand and gravel sand were realized. Compared with the conventional deep neural network CNN, RNN, etc., the model shows advantages when applied to the sediment dataset of the shallow sea slope region of the South China Sea. This confirms the feasibility and validity of the model and provides a reliable and accurate tool for seabed sediment classification in the field of marine science. The completeness and accuracy of the dataset and the good performance of the model provide a solid foundation for the scientificalness and practicability of the study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geological Oceanography)
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16 pages, 5585 KiB  
Article
The Use of Transport Time Scales as Indicators of Pollution Persistence in a Macro-Tidal Setting
by Guanghai Gao, John J. O’Sullivan, Aisling Corkery, Zeinab Bedri, Gregory M. P. O’Hare and Wim G. Meijer
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(5), 1073; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11051073 - 18 May 2023
Viewed by 1242
Abstract
An understanding of water exchange processes is essential for assessing water quality management issues in coastal bays. This paper evaluates the impact of water exchange processes on pollution persistence in a macro-tidal semi-closed coastal bay through two transport time scales (TTS), namely residence [...] Read more.
An understanding of water exchange processes is essential for assessing water quality management issues in coastal bays. This paper evaluates the impact of water exchange processes on pollution persistence in a macro-tidal semi-closed coastal bay through two transport time scales (TTS), namely residence time and exposure time. The numerical model was calibrated against field-measured data for various tidal conditions. Simulated current speeds and directions were shown to agree well with the field data. By considering different release scenarios of a conservative tracer by the refinement of an integrated hydrodynamic and solute transport model (the EFDC), the two TTS were used for interpreting the water exchange processes in a semi-closed system, and for describing the effects of advective and dispersive processes on the transport and fate of pollutants. The results indicate that the magnitudes of river inflows to the bay, tidal ranges, and tracer release times significantly influence the residence and exposure times. Return coefficients were shown to be variable, confirming the different effects of returning water for the different conditions that were studied. For the tested river flow magnitudes and tide conditions, the exposure times were generally higher than the residence times, but particularly so for neap tide conditions. The results, therefore, highlight the risks associated with pollutants leaving a specified domain on an outgoing tide but re-entering on subsequent incoming tides. The spatial distributions of the exposure and residence times across the model domain confirmed that for the case of Dublin Bay, river inputs have a potentially greater impact on water quality on the northern side of the bay. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Marine Pollution)
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18 pages, 695 KiB  
Article
Wind-Assisted Ship Propulsion: Matching Flettner Rotors with Diesel Engines and Controllable Pitch Propellers
by Veronica Vigna and Massimo Figari
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(5), 1072; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11051072 - 18 May 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2182
Abstract
The harvesting of wind energy and its transformation into a thrust force for ship propulsion are gaining in popularity due to the expected benefit in fuel consumption and emission reductions. To exploit these benefits, a proper matching between the conventional diesel engine-screw propeller [...] Read more.
The harvesting of wind energy and its transformation into a thrust force for ship propulsion are gaining in popularity due to the expected benefit in fuel consumption and emission reductions. To exploit these benefits, a proper matching between the conventional diesel engine-screw propeller propulsion plant and the wind-assisted plant is key. This paper aims to present a method and a code for the preliminary sizing of a ship propulsion plant based on a diesel engine, a controllable pitch propeller, and one or more Flettner rotors. A mathematical model describing the behaviour of the rotor in terms of propulsive thrust and power is proposed. The rotor model has been integrated into an existing diesel propulsion model in order to evaluate the ship’s fuel consumption. The ship’s propulsion model is written in a parametric form with respect to the following design parameters: ship dimensions and resistance-speed curve, propeller diameter, engine power, rotor geometry, and true wind conditions. The methodology helps in evaluating the engine–propeller working points and eventually the total ship propulsive power, including the power required to spin the rotor. It provides a way to compare wind-assisted propulsive solutions in terms of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. A 3000-ton Ro-Ro/Pax ferry has been selected as a case study. Results on the parametric analysis of rotor dimensions and propeller pitch optimization are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
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27 pages, 4056 KiB  
Article
Analytical Solution for Negative Skin Friction in Offshore Wind Power Pile Foundations on Artificial Islands under the Influence of Soil Consolidation
by Chong Jiang, Zexiong Shi and Li Pang
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(5), 1071; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11051071 - 18 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1309
Abstract
The construction of offshore wind power pile foundations on artificial islands is a challenging task due to soil consolidation and additional loads that result in negative skin friction (NSF). In this study, a comprehensive pile–soil interaction model is established to investigate the development [...] Read more.
The construction of offshore wind power pile foundations on artificial islands is a challenging task due to soil consolidation and additional loads that result in negative skin friction (NSF). In this study, a comprehensive pile–soil interaction model is established to investigate the development of NSF in artificial islands under the action of self-weight consolidation of fill soil and surcharge load. The one-dimensional consolidation theory and an ideal elastoplastic load transfer model are employed to obtain the analytical solution for skin friction and axial force of the pile with respect to time and depth. The predicted results are in good agreement with the field tests and finite element methods. Finally, a parametric study is conducted to investigate the effect of pile installation time, surcharge load, and pile head load on the development of NSF. Full article
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13 pages, 5712 KiB  
Article
Numerical Simulation-Based Analysis of Seafloor Hydrothermal Plumes: A Case Study of the Wocan-1 Hydrothermal Field, Carlsberg Ridge, Northwest Indian Ocean
by Kanghao Wang, Xiqiu Han, Yejian Wang, Yiyang Cai, Zhongyan Qiu and Xiaoquan Zheng
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(5), 1070; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11051070 - 18 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1423
Abstract
Understanding the dynamics of deep-sea hydrothermal plumes and the depositional pattern of hydrothermal particles is essential for tracking the submarine hydrothermal venting site, prospecting polymetallic sulfide resources, as well as deciphering biogeochemistry cycling of marine elements. In this paper, a numerical model of [...] Read more.
Understanding the dynamics of deep-sea hydrothermal plumes and the depositional pattern of hydrothermal particles is essential for tracking the submarine hydrothermal venting site, prospecting polymetallic sulfide resources, as well as deciphering biogeochemistry cycling of marine elements. In this paper, a numerical model of the deep-sea hydrothermal plume is established based on the topography and long-term current monitoring data of the Wocan-1 hydrothermal field (WHF-1), Carlsberg Ridge, Northwest Indian Ocean. The model allows for a reconstruction of the hydrothermal plume in terms of its structure, velocity field, and temperature field. The relationships between the maximum height of the rising plume and the background current velocity, and between the height of the neutral-buoyancy layer and the background current velocity are established, respectively. The transport patterns of the hydrothermal particles and their controlling factors are revealed. Using hydrothermal particles with a density of ~5000 kg/m3 (i.e., pyrite grains) as an example, it is found that pyrite larger than 1 mm can only be found near the venting site. Those in the size 0.3–0.5 mm can only be found within 137–240 m from the venting site, while those smaller than 0.2 mm can be transported over long distances of more than 1 km. Using the vertical temperature profiling data of WHF-1 obtained during the Jiaolong submersible diving cruise in March 2017, we reconstruct the past current velocity of 10 cm/s, similar to the current data retrieved from the observational mooring system. Our model and the findings contribute to a better understanding of the hydrothermal system of WHF-1, and provide useful information for tracing the hydrothermal vents, prospecting the submarine polymetallic sulfide resources, designing the long-term observation networks, and relevant studies on element cycling and energy budget. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Geological Oceanography II)
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20 pages, 10035 KiB  
Article
Source Apportionment of Soil Heavy Metal(Loid)s in Farmland Using Diverse Models: A Comparative Assessment in the Yellow River Delta
by Wei Huang, Shuhuan Wang, Lu Wang, Yingqiang Song, Yue Zhu, Hao Yang, Yingkai Xie and Yueming Hu
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(5), 1069; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11051069 - 17 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1401
Abstract
The rapid development of industrialization and urbanization has posed serious challenges for coastal farmland ecosystems. Source apportionment of soil heavy metals is an effective way for the detection of non-point source pollution in farmland to help support the high-quality development of coastal agriculture. [...] Read more.
The rapid development of industrialization and urbanization has posed serious challenges for coastal farmland ecosystems. Source apportionment of soil heavy metals is an effective way for the detection of non-point source pollution in farmland to help support the high-quality development of coastal agriculture. To this end, 113 surface soil samples were collected in the coastal delta of China, and the contents of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were determined. A variety of models were integrated to apportion the source of soil heavy metals, including positive matrix factorization (PMF), geographical detector (GD), eXtreme gradient boosting (XGBoost), and structural equation modeling (SEM). The result of PMF models revealed that there was collinearity between various heavy metals, and the same heavy metal may have a mixed source. The XGBoost model analysis indicated that there were significant non-linear relationships between soil heavy metals and source factors. A synergy between air quality and human activity factors was the key source of heavy metal that entered the study area, based on the results of the GD. Furthermore, the input path effect of heavy metals in the soil of the study area was quantified by SEM. The balance of evidence from the above models showed that air quality (SO2 and NO2) and factories in the study area had the greatest impacts on Cd, Cr, and Zn. Natural sources were dominant for Pb, while As, Cu, and Ni were contributed by soil parent material and factories. The above results led to the conclusion that there was a cycle path in the study area that continuously promoted the migration and accumulation of heavy metals in farmland soil; that is, the heavy metals discharged during oil exploitation and smelting entered the atmosphere and then accumulated in the farmland soil through precipitation, atmospheric deposition, and other paths. In this study, it is shown that a variety of models can be used to more comprehensively assess the sources of soil heavy metals. This approach can provide effective support for the rapid prevention and decision-making management of soil heavy metal pollution in coastal areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Changes in Coastal Ecosystems)
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24 pages, 5497 KiB  
Article
Knowledge-Transfer-Based Bidirectional Vessel Monitoring System for Remote and Nearshore Images
by Jiawen Li, Yun Yang, Xin Li, Jiahua Sun and Ronghui Li
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(5), 1068; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11051068 - 17 May 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1413
Abstract
Vessel monitoring technology involves the application of remote sensing technologies to detect and identify vessels in various environments, which is critical for monitoring vessel traffic, identifying potential threats, and facilitating maritime safety and security to achieve real-time maritime awareness in military and civilian [...] Read more.
Vessel monitoring technology involves the application of remote sensing technologies to detect and identify vessels in various environments, which is critical for monitoring vessel traffic, identifying potential threats, and facilitating maritime safety and security to achieve real-time maritime awareness in military and civilian domains. However, most existing vessel monitoring models tend to focus on a single remote sensing information source, leading to limited detection functionality and underutilization of available information. In light of these limitations, this paper proposes a comprehensive ship monitoring system that integrates remote satellite devices and nearshore detection equipment. The system employs ResNet, a deep learning model, along with data augmentation and transfer learning techniques to enable bidirectional detection of satellite cloud images and nearshore outboard profile images, thereby alleviating prevailing issues such as low detection accuracy, homogeneous functionality, and poor image recognition applicability. Empirical findings based on two real-world vessel monitoring datasets demonstrate that the proposed system consistently performs best in both nearshore identification and remote detection. Additionally, extensive supplementary experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of different modules and discuss the constraints of current deep learning-based vessel monitoring models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Coastal Engineering)
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28 pages, 3659 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Failure Mechanism of Container Port Logistics System Based on Multi-Factor Coupling
by Mengmeng Wang and Haiyan Wang
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(5), 1067; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11051067 - 17 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2251
Abstract
Container ports are prone to delays, congestion, and logistics interruptions under the perturbation of uncertain events inside and outside the system. This not only affects the service quality of the system but also brings a serious blow to the whole transportation network. Therefore, [...] Read more.
Container ports are prone to delays, congestion, and logistics interruptions under the perturbation of uncertain events inside and outside the system. This not only affects the service quality of the system but also brings a serious blow to the whole transportation network. Therefore, this paper aims to develop a hybrid Bayesian network (BN) model to investigate the failure mechanism of the container port logistics system. Considering the complex coupling relationship between failure risks, the DEMATEL and ISM methods are presented to thoroughly analyze the interdependence and hierarchical structure of system failure factors. The failure evolution mechanism of the system is then analyzed using BN reasoning ability. The suggested hybrid model can identify the main failure factors, examine how factors are coupled, and produce the main propagation path resulting in system failure. The findings indicate that the risks associated with technology, facilities, and equipment are the most significant and immediate in the system; human risks affect all system components by acting on other factors; organizational management risks have a fundamental impact on the stability of the system; additionally, the uncertainty of external risks has greatly increased the variability of each logistics link. This study provides useful insights for port logistics risk management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Port Management and Maritime Logistics)
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17 pages, 3224 KiB  
Article
A Parametric Study on the Interconnector of Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells for Co-Electrolysis of Water and Carbon Dioxide
by Shian Li, Zhi Yang, Qiuwan Shen and Guogang Yang
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(5), 1066; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11051066 - 17 May 2023
Viewed by 1363
Abstract
The shipping industry is trying to use new types of fuels to meet strict pollutant emission regulations and carbon emission reduction targets. Hydrogen is one of the options for alternative fuels used in marine applications. Solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC) technology can be [...] Read more.
The shipping industry is trying to use new types of fuels to meet strict pollutant emission regulations and carbon emission reduction targets. Hydrogen is one of the options for alternative fuels used in marine applications. Solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC) technology can be used for hydrogen production. When water and carbon dioxide are provided to SOECs, hydrogen and carbon monoxide are produced. The interconnector of SOECs plays a vital role in cell performance. In this study, a 3D mathematical model of cathode-supported planar SOECs is developed to investigate the effect of interconnector rib width on the co-electrolysis of water and carbon dioxide in the cell. The model validation is carried out by comparing the numerical results with experimental data in terms of a polarization curve. The rib width is varied from 0.2 mm to 0.8 mm with an interval of 0.1 mm. It is found that the cell voltage is decreased and then increased as the rib width increases. When the current density is 1 A/cm2, the voltages of SOECs with rib widths of 0.2 mm, 0.6 mm, and 0.8 mm are 1.272 V, 1.213 V, and 1.221 V, respectively. This demonstrates that the best performance is provided by the SOEC with a rib width of 0.6 mm. In addition, the local transport processes of SOECs with different rib widths are presented and compared in detail. This study can provide guidelines for the design of interconnectors of SOECs. Full article
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