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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Mapping Recent Shoreline Changes Spanning the Lateral Collapse of Anak Krakatau Volcano, Indonesia

1
British Geological Survey, Environmental Science Centre, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG, UK
2
Nottingham Geospatial Institute, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2TU, UK
3
Department of Earth Sciences, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
4
Department of Earth Sciences, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3AN, UK
5
School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
6
Petrology, Volcanology, and Geochemistry Research Group, Department of Geological Engineering, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung 40132, Indonesia
7
National Oceanography Centre, Waterfront Campus, University of Southampton, European Way, Southampton SO14 3ZH, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(2), 536; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10020536
Received: 12 December 2019 / Revised: 7 January 2020 / Accepted: 7 January 2020 / Published: 10 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mapping and Monitoring of Geohazards)
We use satellite imagery to investigate the shoreline changes associated with volcanic activity in 2018–2019 at Anak Krakatau, Indonesia, spanning a major lateral collapse and period of regrowth through explosive activity. The shoreline changes have been analyzed and validated through the adaptation of an existing methodology based on Sentinel-2 multispectral imagery and developed on Google Earth Engine. This work tests the results of this method in a highly dynamic volcanic environment and validates them with manually digitized shorelines. The analysis shows that the size of the Anak Krakatau Island increased from 2.84 km2 to 3.19 km2 during 15 May 2018–1 November 2019 despite the loss of area in the 22 December 2018 lateral collapse. The lateral collapse reduced the island area to ~1.5 km2 but this was followed by a rapid increase in area in the first two months of 2019, reaching up to 3.27 km2. This was followed by a period of little change as volcanic activity declined and then by a net decrease from May 2019 to 1 November 2019 that resulted from erosion on the SW side of the island. This history of post-collapse eruptive regrowth and coastal erosion derived from the shoreline changes illuminates the potential for satellite-based automated shoreline mapping to provide databases for monitoring remote island volcanoes. View Full-Text
Keywords: Sentinel-2; shoreline; Google Earth Engine; cloud computing; explosive volcanism; tsunami hazards; Anak Krakatau Sentinel-2; shoreline; Google Earth Engine; cloud computing; explosive volcanism; tsunami hazards; Anak Krakatau
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MDPI and ACS Style

Novellino, A.; Engwell, S.L.; Grebby, S.; Day, S.; Cassidy, M.; Madden-Nadeau, A.; Watt, S.; Pyle, D.; Abdurrachman, M.; Edo Marshal Nurshal, M.; Tappin, D.R.; Andri Kurniawan, I.; Hunt, J. Mapping Recent Shoreline Changes Spanning the Lateral Collapse of Anak Krakatau Volcano, Indonesia. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 536. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10020536

AMA Style

Novellino A, Engwell SL, Grebby S, Day S, Cassidy M, Madden-Nadeau A, Watt S, Pyle D, Abdurrachman M, Edo Marshal Nurshal M, Tappin DR, Andri Kurniawan I, Hunt J. Mapping Recent Shoreline Changes Spanning the Lateral Collapse of Anak Krakatau Volcano, Indonesia. Applied Sciences. 2020; 10(2):536. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10020536

Chicago/Turabian Style

Novellino, Alessandro; Engwell, Samantha L.; Grebby, Stephen; Day, Simon; Cassidy, Michael; Madden-Nadeau, Amber; Watt, Sebastian; Pyle, David; Abdurrachman, Mirzam; Edo Marshal Nurshal, Muhammad; Tappin, David R.; Andri Kurniawan, Idham; Hunt, James. 2020. "Mapping Recent Shoreline Changes Spanning the Lateral Collapse of Anak Krakatau Volcano, Indonesia" Appl. Sci. 10, no. 2: 536. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10020536

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