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Adm. Sci., Volume 10, Issue 1 (March 2020) – 18 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The main objective of the paper is to change the minds of the entities related to entrepreneurship [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Application of Simulation to Selecting Project Strategy for Autonomous Research Projects at Public Universities
Adm. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci10010018 - 23 Mar 2020
Viewed by 404
Abstract
The definition of the success of research projects implemented at public universities is far from being unequivocal. The success of a research project has to be in line with both the public university’s and the funding institution’s policies, as well as with the [...] Read more.
The definition of the success of research projects implemented at public universities is far from being unequivocal. The success of a research project has to be in line with both the public university’s and the funding institution’s policies, as well as with the personal objectives and ambitions of the researchers. Once the success definition for the research project has been determined, the strategy of implementation must be defined. The omission of this step may result in effort lost (public money, time, enthusiasm, etc.) after being directed toward objectives which do not fit with either the public university’s or the funding agency’s policies, nor with the researchers’ personal objectives. This paper discusses this problem and proposes a model where simulation is used to choose the project strategy that best fits the selected research project success definition in the context of the policy of a given public university, the preferences of its researchers, and the policy of the funding agencies. The model is illustrated by means of a case study—a real world research project implemented at a public university in a European country, where the policy of subsidizing public universities has been changing both very regularly and in a highly unpredictable manner. It is shown how various project strategies can lead to multiple project outcomes, which are then evaluated in different ways depending on the point of view of public university policy or of the researchers, the funding agencies, and/or society. The main conclusion is that applying simulation to a research project before it starts may contribute significantly to the optimization of time, effort, and resource usage with the objective of project success maximization in the context of public university policy and the objectives of the researchers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Employer Branding Implementation and Human Resource Management in Greek Telecommunication Industry
Adm. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci10010017 - 20 Mar 2020
Viewed by 482
Abstract
Even though employer branding has its origins back to the 1990s, only after 2001 did it become a hot topic for human resource (HR) management. Ever since, a series of researchers and professionals have made an effort to understand how the image that [...] Read more.
Even though employer branding has its origins back to the 1990s, only after 2001 did it become a hot topic for human resource (HR) management. Ever since, a series of researchers and professionals have made an effort to understand how the image that job seekers have about employers is shaped and what benefits arise from this bilateral relationship. The Greek business environment delayed adoption of the most recently developed HR techniques, as a result of the economic crisis, and resulting decrease in working manpower, as well as budget reductions for HR. Only in the past few years have some of the leading companies in several business sectors started to implement employer branding as part of their corporate strategy. The current study aims to present how employer branding is actually under implementation in one of the most dynamic, national sectors—the telecommunication industry. Interviews in HR departments were conducted in order to collect (a) qualitative information regarding how employer branding is perceived and what results are expected from its implementation, as well as (b) quantitative data regarding its usefulness on attracting and choosing candidates, as well as evaluating existing employees. Results indicate that even though employer branding implementation is still an ongoing procedure, it has already started to transform HR departments’ operational logic. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
New Regulations on Medical Devices in Europe: Are They an Opportunity for Growth?
Adm. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci10010016 - 12 Mar 2020
Viewed by 550
Abstract
Increasing demand for modern treatments and significant profit margins are strong incentives for investors and producers. However, the production and use of medical devices is subject to a number of laws, regulations, strict standards, and certification processes. Therefore, the aim of this paper [...] Read more.
Increasing demand for modern treatments and significant profit margins are strong incentives for investors and producers. However, the production and use of medical devices is subject to a number of laws, regulations, strict standards, and certification processes. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to analyze patent activity based on the example of the selected country (Czech Republic), compare it with selected foreign countries, and discuss the development of this industry in the context of new medical device regulation (MDR) implementation. The paper is based on the theoretical concept of the relationship between regulation and innovation. The main challenge in the implementation of the new medical device regulations lies in the area of innovation. This is because most innovative research in the medical device sector is undertaken by small to medium enterprises (SMEs) rather than by large companies. SMEs are more vulnerable than big companies when it comes to development because the accompanying administrative costs can be so high that it may force the company to leave the market. Given that the main reason for the existence of economic regulations are various forms of market failure, which occurs when market mechanisms do not lead to results that benefit society, any attempts to redress this situation should naturally lead to greater benefits for society and hence benefits for the given industry as well. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Conceptualizing the Relationship between Personal Values and Sustainability—A TMO Case Study
Adm. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci10010015 - 09 Mar 2020
Viewed by 668
Abstract
Sustainability is associated with many contemporary challenges facing society, prompting sustainability initiatives and research in this field. An emerging strand of research has sought to investigate sustainability as a function of values. Given that values determine and predict perceptions, attitudes and behaviors, understanding [...] Read more.
Sustainability is associated with many contemporary challenges facing society, prompting sustainability initiatives and research in this field. An emerging strand of research has sought to investigate sustainability as a function of values. Given that values determine and predict perceptions, attitudes and behaviors, understanding employees’ underlying values would provide important insights on how values relate to sustainability-related actions. However, there is a gap in knowledge around individual actors’ roles as influencers or change agents for sustainability, particularly in a construction project context. Drawing on values theory, this exploratory research addresses this gap by conceptualizing the relationship between personal values and sustainability performance. A Temporary Multiple Organization (TMO) (a major infrastructure project in the UK) was used as the case study. An adapted version of Schwartz Value Survey (SVS) was used to measure and analyze the personal values of employees with professional and managerial roles. Statistical and multidimensional scaling analysis were deployed to analyze the responses. Given the lack of theory and research in a construction management context, the potential significance and implications of the findings were explored and analyzed by drawing on existing empirical studies around values. This enabled the development of six theoretical concepts (‘Feeling of Oneness’, ‘Moral Obligation’, ‘Creativity’, ‘Challenge’, ‘Change’ and ‘Compliance’) latterly expressed as propositions. This novel conceptualization has the potential to explain and articulate the relationship between personal values and sustainability performance. This research has both practical and theoretical implications, as it is the first to explain the role of personal values in enabling projects to deliver sustainability in a TMO context. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Subsidiarity Principle—Its Realization in Self-Government in Lithuania and Poland
Adm. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci10010014 - 09 Mar 2020
Viewed by 476
Abstract
Purpose: This paper analyzes the development of the concept of subsidiarity, its relationship with management theories and the implementation of the principle of subsidiarity in the context of local self-government in Poland and Lithuania by conducting comparative research. Design/ methodology/ approach: The research [...] Read more.
Purpose: This paper analyzes the development of the concept of subsidiarity, its relationship with management theories and the implementation of the principle of subsidiarity in the context of local self-government in Poland and Lithuania by conducting comparative research. Design/ methodology/ approach: The research was conducted based on methods of desk research of scientific literature, analysis of documents and their content from the Lithuanian and Polish parliaments’ commissions and using comparative approach methods. Findings: The research reveals the essential aspects of the concept of subsidiarity and the extent to which this principle is relevant in the work of the Committee on State Administration and Local Authorities of the Seimas of the Republic of Lithuania and Self-Government and Regional Policy Commission of the Sejm of the Republic of Poland in shaping the policy of self-government. The study demonstrates that subsidiarity principles are used in practice in a very incoherent way regarding public service regulations. Practical implications: The analysis is relevant, as an implementation of public policy in Lithuania and Poland increasingly calls for the integration of values into politics, which cannot be done without relying on certain principles. Research limitations: The generalizability of the results is limited by the number of parliamentary terms that have been taken into consideration. Originality/ value: The originality of this paper lies within the context in which this study took place—an international comparison of Lithuanian and Polish concepts that is rarely taken into consideration in the scientific literature. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Sustainability Performance Indicators and Non-Financial Information Reporting. Evidence from the Italian Case
Adm. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci10010013 - 26 Feb 2020
Viewed by 584
Abstract
Non-financial reporting is a growing topic, and the adoption of the EU Directive 2014/95/EU on non-financial information (NFI) is increasing the use of this reporting. One of the most distinctive elements of guidelines and standards that are widely used to draw-up reports on [...] Read more.
Non-financial reporting is a growing topic, and the adoption of the EU Directive 2014/95/EU on non-financial information (NFI) is increasing the use of this reporting. One of the most distinctive elements of guidelines and standards that are widely used to draw-up reports on NFI is sustainability performance indicators (SPIs). SPIs can provide a significant value-added to non-financial corporate communication, and they are useful tools to support internal decision-making processes. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects produced on SPIs disclosure by the entry into force of the Italian Decree implementing the Directive on NFI. Content analysis method is used to analyze indicators disclosed by Italian companies before and after the adoption of the Decree. Findings show that each category of SPIs was largely used by the companies of our 2012 sample, but a reduction of the quantity of indicators disclosed was documented in 2017. Therefore, after the introduction of mandatory disclosure of NFI, companies seem to focus only on indicators considered more “relevant” according to the Directive. This research represents one of the preliminary analysis on the adoption of the Directive in Italy and on its first effects on NFI reporting practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Ecology and Innovation)
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Open AccessErratum
Erratum: Lee, J. and et al. 2018. The Effects of Knowledge Sharing on Individual Creativity in Higher Education Institutions: Socio-Technical View. Administrative Sciences 8: 21
Adm. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci10010012 - 19 Feb 2020
Viewed by 455
Open AccessArticle
What Shapes Local Innovation Policies? Empirical Evidence from Japanese Cities
Adm. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci10010011 - 13 Feb 2020
Viewed by 536
Abstract
Increasing attention has been paid to regional innovation systems. However, previous studies have so far only focused on (the regional impact of) national policies or specific regions. Despite increasing attention to regional and local innovation policies, no studies have been carried out to [...] Read more.
Increasing attention has been paid to regional innovation systems. However, previous studies have so far only focused on (the regional impact of) national policies or specific regions. Despite increasing attention to regional and local innovation policies, no studies have been carried out to date on the factors of implementation and design of local research and development (R&D) subsidy programs at the city level. Our research fills this gap by using information on R&D subsidy programs from local authorities in Japan collected via websites and our original survey. Thus, our research aims at empirically investigating the determinants of both implementation and design of local R&D subsidy programs at the city level (length and upper limit of subsidies, and flexibility of subsidy conditions) considering both demand- and supply-side factors. We employ probit models for basic empirical estimations and provide some robustness checks. The empirical results suggest that, after controlling for city type and population size, supply-side factors including local government conditions significantly affect the implementation of public R&D subsidy programs. In contrast, we find that demand-side factors matter more for the design of subsidy programs than supply-side factors. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Requirements Engineering for an Industrial Symbiosis Tool for Industrial Parks Covering System Analysis, Transformation Simulation and Goal Setting
Adm. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci10010010 - 12 Feb 2020
Viewed by 553
Abstract
Industrial Symbiosis (IS) is a collaborative cross-sectoral approach to connect the resource supply and demand of various industries in order to optimize the resource use through exchange of materials, energy, water and human resources across different companies, while generating ecological, technical, social and [...] Read more.
Industrial Symbiosis (IS) is a collaborative cross-sectoral approach to connect the resource supply and demand of various industries in order to optimize the resource use through exchange of materials, energy, water and human resources across different companies, while generating ecological, technical, social and economic benefits. One of the main goals of IS is the set-up of advanced circular/cascading systems, in which the energy and material flows are prolonged for multiple utilization within industrial systems in order to increase resource productivity and efficiency, while reducing the environmental load. Many Information Communication Technology (ICT) tools have been developed to facilitate IS, but they predominantly focus on the as-is analysis of the IS system, and do not consider the development of a common desired target vision or corresponding possible future scenarios as well as conceivable transformation paths from the actual to the defined (sustainability) target state. This gap shall be addressed in this paper, presenting the software requirements engineering results for a holistic IT-supported IS tool covering system analysis, transformation simulation and goal-setting. This new approach goes beyond system analysis and includes the use of expert systems, system dynamics and Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques, which turn the IT-supported IS tool to be developed into a comprehensive and holistic instrument with which future scenarios and transformation paths can be simulated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Ecology and Innovation)
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Open AccessArticle
What Do Coordinators Do? Mental Health Policy Implementation as Translation
Adm. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci10010009 - 06 Feb 2020
Viewed by 566
Abstract
Coordination is described as a widespread function emerging in relation to policy plans inducing collaboration between different sectors, organizations and professions. This paper suggests seeing the implementation phase as a translation process, one where the content of policy plans is reinvented primarily through [...] Read more.
Coordination is described as a widespread function emerging in relation to policy plans inducing collaboration between different sectors, organizations and professions. This paper suggests seeing the implementation phase as a translation process, one where the content of policy plans is reinvented primarily through discussion rather than linearly transferred from the political to the professional arena. It focuses on the function of coordinator with a view to examining how this function is performed and questions its influence on the local translation of both policy plans. The data collection was part of two research projects focusing on the reform of Belgian mental healthcare and the creation of care pathways for forensic patients, combining document analysis, interviews (n = 82) and observations (n = 58). The results highlight the inherent ambiguity of the coordinators’ working environment, the socially-disputed nature of their function and define the coordinators as connection-makers who exert power over processes rather than people or structures. It demonstrates that coordinators influence the policy process by inducing discussions at meetings and the documents subsequently produced. In conclusion, this paper defines coordinators as process managers whose work largely consists of translating policy plans through event connectivity and contextualizing practices. Given the importance of translation in policy implementation, this paper calls for a reconsideration of policy evaluation as well as of the coordinators’ recruitment and training procedures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Leadership)
Open AccessArticle
The Role of Monetary Incentives: Bonus and/or Stimulus
Adm. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci10010008 - 05 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 618
Abstract
In this paper, the role of the monetary incentives in the employee performance is investigated in the context of Public Administration (PA). In particular, the distribution of monetary incentives among the employees based on the position held, is compared with a merit approach [...] Read more.
In this paper, the role of the monetary incentives in the employee performance is investigated in the context of Public Administration (PA). In particular, the distribution of monetary incentives among the employees based on the position held, is compared with a merit approach which tends to recognize and reward individual contributions. Starting from a questionnaire, the informal network, which ignores the vertical relation among supervisor and employees, is created and a Centrality Index, based on the employee connections, has been defined and used to proxy the performance of employees. The main goals of the paper are to understand if the two mechanisms of monetary incentive distribution affect the employee performance, to analyze the variables that influence the employee performance, and therefore to identify the role of monetary incentives. The linear regression methodology has been chosen as a tool of analysis. Results show that the distribution of monetary incentives according to merit criteria rewards the employee performance and has positive effects on the employee performance in the short term. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Social Cost of Informal Electronic Waste Processing in Southern China
Adm. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci10010007 - 05 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 563
Abstract
Large amounts of e-waste are processed “informally” in lower income countries. Such processing releases dangerous pollutants, which increase mortality and reduce cognitive functioning. This paper estimates the social cost of informal e-waste processing in Southern China. This parameter may be “plugged-in” to cost-benefit [...] Read more.
Large amounts of e-waste are processed “informally” in lower income countries. Such processing releases dangerous pollutants, which increase mortality and reduce cognitive functioning. This paper estimates the social cost of informal e-waste processing in Southern China. This parameter may be “plugged-in” to cost-benefit analyses that evaluate the economic efficiency of policies to reduce informal e-waste processing in China or other lower income countries. It may also be used in the estimation of the social benefits (or costs) of new or proposed e-waste processing policies in higher income countries. We estimate that the social cost of informal e-waste processing in Guiyu is about $529 million. This amount is equivalent to about $423 per tonne (in 2018 US dollars) or $3528 per person, which is over half the gross income per capita of the residents of Guiyu. We also perform sensitivity analysis that varies the estimated mortality outcomes, the value of a statistical life and the amount of e-waste processed. Full article
Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Administrative Sciences in 2019
Adm. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci10010006 - 23 Jan 2020
Viewed by 504
Abstract
The editorial team greatly appreciates the reviewers who have dedicated their considerable time and expertise to the journal’s rigorous editorial process over the past 12 months, regardless of whether the papers are finally published or not [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Drivers toward Social Entrepreneurs Engagement in Poland: An Institutional Approach
Adm. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci10010005 - 21 Jan 2020
Viewed by 565
Abstract
The aim of this study is to identify the factors that influence the involvement of individuals in social entrepreneurship in Poland from an institutional economics perspective. The research is based on exploratory data analysis using qualitative data covering 22 interviews with social entrepreneurs [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to identify the factors that influence the involvement of individuals in social entrepreneurship in Poland from an institutional economics perspective. The research is based on exploratory data analysis using qualitative data covering 22 interviews with social entrepreneurs and 10 representatives of stakeholders from Poland as well as observations and secondary data. By employing an inductive approach and a case study methodology, it can be stated that involvement of social entrepreneurs is stimulated by a complex set of factors. Moreover, the results show the importance of the institutional environment for social enterprises in Poland, including the impact of formal and informal institutions on their development. The findings contribute to enhancing the knowledge on factors determining the establishment and development of social enterprises in Poland given the institutional economics perspective. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Results of SME Investment Activities: A Comparative Analysis among Enterprises Using and Not Using EU Subsidies in Poland
Adm. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci10010004 - 08 Jan 2020
Viewed by 915
Abstract
The need to pay some attention to the issues of investment processes undertaken in enterprises and explore this topic is a direct result of the important role that enterprises play in the economy—with particular emphasis on the SMEs. From the company’s point of [...] Read more.
The need to pay some attention to the issues of investment processes undertaken in enterprises and explore this topic is a direct result of the important role that enterprises play in the economy—with particular emphasis on the SMEs. From the company’s point of view, it is crucial to obtain economic effects as a result of the implemented investment. The aim of the study was to analyze the results of tangible investments in enterprises in Małopolska province in Poland, in two groups of entities—those that implemented investments using EU subsidies and those that financed investments from other sources without using EU aid. This is a unique research in the field of analysis and presentation of investment data in enterprises, especially in relation to companies using EU funds. There is no comparative assessment of investments in enterprises on this topic in the scientific literature (concerning EU subsidies). For this reason, comparing the effects of investment activities between the two groups of enterprises studied—using and not using EU subsidies—fills the research gap in this regard. The study was based on the critical analysis of domestic and foreign literature, and quantitative and qualitative analyses of the results of a survey among 160 enterprises using the CSAQ method, additionally extended by interviews with selected respondents. Data presentation uses a descriptive approach in combination with statistical analysis. A multiple linear regression model (MLR) was also used to verify hypotheses. Research results show that undertaking investment activities contributes to obtaining favorable results in enterprises, regardless of the source of investment financing. The source of financing the investment is not important for the results achieved in the enterprise. However, representatives of companies who received EU subsidies assess their market position higher after investment relative to companies that used other sources of financing for this purpose. Entities that have received EU subsidies have a stronger perception of investment as an important factor determining the company’s development. In addition, variables were identified using the MLR model that affect the assessment of the financial position of enterprises in both groups of entities. This article supplements the knowledge on the economic effects of investments implemented by enterprises in the SME sector in Poland in a situation where these entities used and did not benefit from EU subsidies during 2007–2015. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovation Management and Entrepreneurship)
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Open AccessArticle
Tracking Sustainability Targets with Quantitative Indicator Systems for Performance Measurement of Industrial Symbiosis in Industrial Parks
Adm. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci10010003 - 08 Jan 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 679
Abstract
Industrial Symbiosis (IS) is a systematic and collective (business) approach to optimizing the use of materials and energy among cross-sectoral industries in order to initiate and exhaust extended cascading systems; it is associated with (synergistic) environmental, technical, social, and economic benefits. For monitoring [...] Read more.
Industrial Symbiosis (IS) is a systematic and collective (business) approach to optimizing the use of materials and energy among cross-sectoral industries in order to initiate and exhaust extended cascading systems; it is associated with (synergistic) environmental, technical, social, and economic benefits. For monitoring and controlling the development and progress of an IS system, an indicator system must be set up to standardize and assess the IS (sustainability) performance. This study aims to present a quantitative indicator system to enable the tracking of set sustainability targets of an IS system in Industrial Parks (IPs) for goal-directed IS management. The presented guiding framework encourages IP members in IS systems to set sustainability objectives and to evaluate and track their performance over time with a quantitative indicator system. In particular, established and (partly) internationally standardized methods—such as Material Flow Analysis (MFA), Material Flow Cost Accounting (MFCA), Social Network Analysis (SNA), and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)—are used in order to place the indicator system on a solid and robust foundation and to adequately meet the multi-faceted sustainability perspectives in the form of a combinatorial application for deriving suitable quantitative indicators for all three (environmental, economic, social) dimensions of sustainability. The indicator system, once embedded in an Information Technology (IT)-supported IS tool, contributes crucially to the technology-enabled environment of IS systems, driving sustainability trajectories. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Ecology and Innovation)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of the Dissemination Index of the Information of the Different Players of the Entrepreneurial Ecosystem in the Valencian Community
Adm. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci10010002 - 31 Dec 2019
Viewed by 646
Abstract
The main objective of this research is to calculate the diffusion index of entrepreneurship to the different actors of the entrepreneurial ecosystem. For this, 57 organizations, both private and public, belonging to the entrepreneurial ecosystem of the Valencian community have been analyzed. Among [...] Read more.
The main objective of this research is to calculate the diffusion index of entrepreneurship to the different actors of the entrepreneurial ecosystem. For this, 57 organizations, both private and public, belonging to the entrepreneurial ecosystem of the Valencian community have been analyzed. Among the results are stresses the importance of the optimal use of information and communication technology in current and future generations, as well as the dissemination of entrepreneurship. In addition, the best practices carried out by the different agents of the entrepreneurial ecosystem have been identified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Minority Groups)
Open AccessArticle
Gender as a Dimension of Inequality in Accounting Organizations and Developmental HR Strategies
Adm. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci10010001 - 30 Dec 2019
Viewed by 753
Abstract
Considering the increasing number of women entering the accounting profession, it is timely to explore the inequalities that still exist and consider what policy processes continue to forge inequalities between men and women. Through a systematic literature review (SLR) of accounting and management [...] Read more.
Considering the increasing number of women entering the accounting profession, it is timely to explore the inequalities that still exist and consider what policy processes continue to forge inequalities between men and women. Through a systematic literature review (SLR) of accounting and management journals during the period 1994–2017, we assessed the different dynamics that have shaped inequalities between men and women, presenting both the employee and employer perspectives of professional enhancement. The study was framed around conceptualizations of gendered organizations and highlighted how cultural and social practices impact men and women differently. Our study found there are still organization practices that have profound gendered effects. Our study shows that there are contemporary human resource (HR) practices of recruitment, selection, and advancement; perceptions of visibility and invisibility at work; motherhood and childcare responsibilities; and finally, discourses of the glass ceiling that constitute organization and societal barriers that limit women’s career progression. Most importantly we reveal that constraints nowadays are similar to those identified in the 90s. We explored these gendered constructions and suggest relevant HR strategies that can aid women’s advancement. Full article
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