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Behav. Sci., Volume 9, Issue 11 (November 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) This paper describes the use of a neuroimaging fMRI methodology employing a self-reflection task to [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Older Adults’ Perceptions of Psychotherapy in Cyprus
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(11), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9110116 - 19 Nov 2019
Abstract
The purpose of the study was to explore older adults’ views and perceptions of psychotherapy in Cyprus. A total of 25 older adults, aged between 65–89, participated in semi-structured interviews. Thematic analysis identified three main themes: Familiar term/Unfamiliar process; existential crises during this [...] Read more.
The purpose of the study was to explore older adults’ views and perceptions of psychotherapy in Cyprus. A total of 25 older adults, aged between 65–89, participated in semi-structured interviews. Thematic analysis identified three main themes: Familiar term/Unfamiliar process; existential crises during this stage; and the issue of stigma in psychotherapy. Participants indicated a basic understanding of what psychotherapy entails, but did not associate psychotherapy with serious mental illness. Participants identified a number of existential issues that are potentially major life stressors for an elderly person and referred to the historical stigma that has an impact on their own perceptions about psychotherapy. However, participants seemed to view their ability to overcome psychological difficulties on their own as a proof of personal strength. Psychologists and other health professionals also need to be mindful of how they describe psychological concepts and treatment, as older adults may not understand what they are being told or may be afraid of what treatment involves based on historical context. This study highlights the importance of using strategies that may have the potential to empower this population in order to proactively attend to their mental health, including community-based education and national mental health campaigns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Open AccessArticle
Latitudinal Variation in Circadian Rhythmicity in Nasonia vitripennis
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(11), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9110115 - 15 Nov 2019
Abstract
Many physiological processes of living organisms show circadian rhythms, governed by an endogenous clock. This clock has a genetic basis and is entrained by external cues, such as light and temperature. Other physiological processes exhibit seasonal rhythms, that are also responsive to light [...] Read more.
Many physiological processes of living organisms show circadian rhythms, governed by an endogenous clock. This clock has a genetic basis and is entrained by external cues, such as light and temperature. Other physiological processes exhibit seasonal rhythms, that are also responsive to light and temperature. We previously reported a natural latitudinal cline of photoperiodic diapause induction in the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis in Europe and a correlated haplotype frequency for the circadian clock gene period (per). To evaluate if this correlation is reflected in circadian behaviour, we investigated the circadian locomotor activity of seven populations from the cline. We found that the proportion of rhythmic males was higher than females in constant darkness, and that mating decreased rhythmicity of both sexes. Only for virgin females, the free running period (τ) increased weakly with latitude. Wasps from the most southern locality had an overall shorter free running rhythm and earlier onset, peak, and offset of activity during the 24 h period, than wasps from the northernmost locality. We evaluated this variation in rhythmicity as a function of period haplotype frequencies in the populations and discussed its functional significance in the context of local adaptation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Feminization and Stress in the Veterinary Profession: A Systematic Diagnostic Approach and Associated Management
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(11), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9110114 - 14 Nov 2019
Abstract
Within the field of veterinary medicine the gender distribution has changed, since most graduates are now females. Studies show that female veterinarians represent a vulnerable group for stress and stress-related illnesses. The goal of the study was to identify typical profiles of stress [...] Read more.
Within the field of veterinary medicine the gender distribution has changed, since most graduates are now females. Studies show that female veterinarians represent a vulnerable group for stress and stress-related illnesses. The goal of the study was to identify typical profiles of stress management strategies and to clarify if vets are well-equipped to cope with occupational stressors. Within a cross-sectional design 78 female veterinarians from Austria and Germany were surveyed using a self-report test-battery assessing twenty different coping styles. Statistical analysis included one sample t-tests and Cohen’s d as a concurrent effect size measure. The results showed that female veterinarians are significantly more likely to use negative coping styles for their stress e.g., rumination (t(74) = 6.733, p = < 0.001, d = 0.726) or escapism (t(72) = 2.173, p = 0.033, d = 0.281) when compared to the norm population. Amongst other studies these findings contribute to a systematic diagnosis which is necessary for the development and implementation of standardized stress management interventions for the veterinary education and training e.g., courses for improving communication and stress management skills and regular supervision or intervision (exchange with professional peers). Due to existing stigmatization concerning mental health, low-barrier counseling services should be provided for veterinarians who already feel stressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Open AccessArticle
Virtual-Reality-Induced Visual Perturbations Impact Postural Control System Behavior
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(11), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9110113 - 12 Nov 2019
Abstract
Background: Virtual reality (VR) is becoming a widespread tool in rehabilitation, especially for postural stability. However, the impact of using VR in a “moving wall paradigm” (visual perturbation), specifically without and with anticipation of the perturbation, is unknown. Methods: Nineteen healthy subjects performed [...] Read more.
Background: Virtual reality (VR) is becoming a widespread tool in rehabilitation, especially for postural stability. However, the impact of using VR in a “moving wall paradigm” (visual perturbation), specifically without and with anticipation of the perturbation, is unknown. Methods: Nineteen healthy subjects performed three trials of static balance testing on a force plate under three different conditions: baseline (no perturbation), unexpected VR perturbation, and expected VR perturbation. The statistical analysis consisted of a 1 × 3 repeated-measures ANOVA to test for differences in the center of pressure (COP) displacement, 95% ellipsoid area, and COP sway velocity. Results: The expected perturbation rendered significantly lower (p < 0.05) COP displacements and 95% ellipsoid area compared to the unexpected condition. A significantly higher (p < 0.05) sway velocity was also observed in the expected condition compared to the unexpected condition. Conclusions: Postural stability was lowered during unexpected visual perturbations compared to both during baseline and during expected visual perturbations, suggesting that conflicting visual feedback induced postural instability due to compensatory postural responses. However, during expected visual perturbations, significantly lowered postural sway displacement and area were achieved by increasing the sway velocity, suggesting the occurrence of postural behavior due to anticipatory postural responses. Finally, the study also concluded that VR could be used to induce different postural responses by providing visual perturbations to the postural control system, which can subsequently be used as an effective and low-cost tool for postural stability training and rehabilitation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Neuroimaging Study of Personality Traits and Self-Reflection
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(11), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9110112 - 05 Nov 2019
Abstract
This study examines the blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) activation of the brain associated with the four distinctive thinking styles associated with the four personality orientations of the Gountas Personality Orientations (GPO) survey: Emotion/Feeling-Action, Material/Pragmatic, Intuitive/Imaginative, and Thinking/Logical. The theoretical postulation is that each [...] Read more.
This study examines the blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) activation of the brain associated with the four distinctive thinking styles associated with the four personality orientations of the Gountas Personality Orientations (GPO) survey: Emotion/Feeling-Action, Material/Pragmatic, Intuitive/Imaginative, and Thinking/Logical. The theoretical postulation is that each of the four personality orientations has a dominant (primary) thinking style and a shadow (secondary) thinking style/trait. The participants (N = 40) were initially surveyed to determine their dominant (primary) and secondary thinking styles. Based on participant responses, equal numbers of each dominant thinking style were selected for neuroimaging using a unique fMRI cognitive activation paradigm. The neuroimaging data support the general theoretical hypothesis of the existence of four different BOLD activation patterns, associated with each of the four thinking styles. The fMRI data analysis suggests that each thinking style may have its own cognitive activation system, involving the frontal ventromedial, posterior medial, parietal, motor, and orbitofrontal cortex. The data also suggest that there is a left hemisphere relationship for the Material/Pragmatic and Thinking/Logical styles and a right activation relationship for Emotional/Feeling and Intuitive/Imaginative styles. Additionally, the unique self-reflection paradigm demonstrated that perception of self or self-image, may be influenced by personality type; a finding of potentially far-reaching implications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumer Neurosciences)
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Open AccessArticle
Redesign Me: Virtual Reality Experience of the Line of Life and Its Connection to a Healthier Self
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(11), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9110111 - 05 Nov 2019
Abstract
Virtual Reality is used in various ways for creating a storytelling experience. It gives us the opportunity to imagine one’s life events as a story, and in settings that are intended to aid the self, such as treatment of trauma, anxiety, phobia, etc. [...] Read more.
Virtual Reality is used in various ways for creating a storytelling experience. It gives us the opportunity to imagine one’s life events as a story, and in settings that are intended to aid the self, such as treatment of trauma, anxiety, phobia, etc. This paper discusses the ways that challenging experiences change the way people perceive their life narratives and form their memories. This paper suggests that virtual reality (VR) can be used for the exploration of alternative scenarios in order to see one’s overall line of life in a new and healthier way. Considering the theoretical background of the narrative self, this research proposes a novel view of VR immersion as a medium for constructing a new storyline and attitude to the past. The approach would also influence attitudes regarding the present and future, and thus better shape the narrative of the self, which can lead to healthier life experiences. Full article
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