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Behav. Sci., Volume 9, Issue 10 (October 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The paper reports on a new national rehabilitation programme within the United Kingdom. The [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
A Qualitative Study Examining the Illness Narrative Master Plots of People with Head and Neck Cancer
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(10), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9100110 - 17 Oct 2019
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Abstract
Background: There is a need to understand the common plots (master plots) of illness narratives for people who are treated for cancer. Improved insight would enhance therapeutic relationships and help reduce stress for health care professionals (HCPs). Aim: Identify and refine the most [...] Read more.
Background: There is a need to understand the common plots (master plots) of illness narratives for people who are treated for cancer. Improved insight would enhance therapeutic relationships and help reduce stress for health care professionals (HCPs). Aim: Identify and refine the most supported narrative master plots, which convey meaning for the tellers’ lived experience from diagnosis to a year post-treatment for a group of Head and Neck Cancer (H&NC) patients. Method: A purposive sample of individuals with H&NC using a single qualitative interview was undertaken. A narrative analysis was used. Results: Eighteen people (57.8 years, six female and 12 male) with H&NC participated. The average time since treatment began was 10 months. Five master plots were identified: (1) The responsive and reflective narrative, (2) The frail narrative, (3) The recovery narrative, (4) The survive or die narrative and (5) The personal project narrative. Discussion: The identification of narrative master plots of people with H&NC enables HCPs to understand and prepare for the different stories and reactions presented to them. This is important to prevent people’s reactions being labelled in restrictive ways. The implications of recognising the different experiences are discussed further within the manuscript. Research is needed to build on these findings to promote better patient-centred care in practice. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Providing Excellent Customer Service Is Therapeutic: Insights from an Implicit Association Neuromarketing Study
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(10), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9100109 - 14 Oct 2019
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This paper reports the results of a combined biometric and implicit affective priming study of the emotional consequences of being the provider or receiver of either positive or negative customer service experiences. The study was conducted in two stages. Study 1 captured the [...] Read more.
This paper reports the results of a combined biometric and implicit affective priming study of the emotional consequences of being the provider or receiver of either positive or negative customer service experiences. The study was conducted in two stages. Study 1 captured the moment-by-moment implicit emotional and physiological responses associated with receiving and providing good customer service. Study 2 employed an affective priming task to evaluate the implicit associations with good and poor customer service in a large sample of 1200 respondents across three Western countries. Our results show that both giving and receiving good customer service was perceived as pleasurable (Study 1) and at the same time, was implicitly associated with positive feelings (Study 2). The authors discuss the implications of the research for service providers in terms of the impact of these interactions on employee wellbeing, staff retention rates and customer satisfaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumer Neurosciences)
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Open AccessArticle
Childhood Trauma and Stressful Life Events Are Independently Associated with Sleep Disturbances in Adolescents
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(10), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9100108 - 10 Oct 2019
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Abstract
Adolescence is a critical developmental period associated with an increase in stress, the appearance of anxiety and depressive symptoms, and changes in sleep patterns. Even though the disruption of sleep patterns in stress and anxiety and depressive disorders is well known, the independent [...] Read more.
Adolescence is a critical developmental period associated with an increase in stress, the appearance of anxiety and depressive symptoms, and changes in sleep patterns. Even though the disruption of sleep patterns in stress and anxiety and depressive disorders is well known, the independent effects of childhood trauma and stressful life events on sleep patterns are less understood. We tested the independent effects of stress (childhood trauma and stressful life events) while controlling for anxiety and depression on adolescent sleep patterns. Seven hundred fifty-two adolescents (age 12–15 years) completed self-report questionnaires about childhood trauma, stressful life events, anxiety, and depression. Four sleep factors identifying movement during sleep, sleep regularity, sleep disturbances, and sleep pressure were extracted in the principal component analysis of sleep questions. Both childhood trauma and recent stressful life events were significantly associated with sleep disturbances before and after controlling for anxiety and depression. Full article
Open AccessArticle
A Qualitative Study on the Impact of First Steps—A Peer-led Educational Intervention for People Newly Diagnosed with Parkinson’s Disease
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(10), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9100107 - 10 Oct 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 133
Abstract
Aim: The dual aim of this research was to consider the impact of providing the First Steps program on the stories of people with Parkinson’s Disease (PD) and to investigate the psychosocial and emotional mechanisms which may explain this impact. Methods: A [...] Read more.
Aim: The dual aim of this research was to consider the impact of providing the First Steps program on the stories of people with Parkinson’s Disease (PD) and to investigate the psychosocial and emotional mechanisms which may explain this impact. Methods: A qualitative study using a subtle realist paradigm and hermeneutic phenomenological methodology was undertaken. A single semi-structured interview was used to consider the impact and experiences of people with PD who completed either the intervention (2-day peer-led behavior intervention using storytelling 6–8 weeks apart) or received telephone support calls as part of the active control group. Descriptive statistics and a narrative analysis were undertaken on the results. Results: Forty-two participants were invited to participate, forty of whom completed the interview. This included 18 from the intervention group and 22 from the active control group. The intervention group identified the value of the program as worth-while, demonstrating improved exercise behavior and coping mechanisms following the intervention. Three major stories (the affirmed, the validated and the transformed story) identified the impact of the intervention. Three internal mechanisms (perceived control, hope and action, and the individual’s mind set) alongside three social mechanisms (social comparison, social control and the first opportunity to share with peers) appeared to explain this impact. Conclusion: This study provides exciting and novel evidence of the impact of a peer-led psycho-educational intervention for people newly diagnosed with PD. Further research is needed to consider the impact of stories-based approaches on participants and consider a critical evaluation of the mechanisms which may explain changes in stories and self-reported behaviour. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Self-Identity Development among Indigenous Adolescents from the Far North of Russia
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(10), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9100106 - 02 Oct 2019
Viewed by 179
Abstract
Self-identity is one of the fundamental needs of an individual. The most significant period of a person’s self-identity development is adolescence. The aim of this empirical study was to examine self-identity development among indigenous adolescents from the subarctic region of Russia. We identified [...] Read more.
Self-identity is one of the fundamental needs of an individual. The most significant period of a person’s self-identity development is adolescence. The aim of this empirical study was to examine self-identity development among indigenous adolescents from the subarctic region of Russia. We identified specific features of personal identity among Nenets adolescents as compared to Russian adolescents. We also identified the dynamics of self-identity components among Nenets girls and boys during the transition period from the age of 12–13 to 14–15 years, and discovered characteristic features of self-identity among Nenets girls and boys. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Hospital Outcomes in Antepartum Mental Disorders: A Study on 897,397 Pregnant Inpatients
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(10), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9100105 - 29 Sep 2019
Viewed by 228
Abstract
Objective: To evaluate the impact of antepartum mental disorders (AMD) in medical and psychiatric comorbidities, and inpatient outcomes during hospitalizations for pregnancy/birth-related complications. Methods: We used the national inpatient sample (NIS) data and included 19,170,562 female patients (age, 12–40 years) with a principal [...] Read more.
Objective: To evaluate the impact of antepartum mental disorders (AMD) in medical and psychiatric comorbidities, and inpatient outcomes during hospitalizations for pregnancy/birth-related complications. Methods: We used the national inpatient sample (NIS) data and included 19,170,562 female patients (age, 12–40 years) with a principal diagnosis of pregnancy/birth-related complications and grouped by co-diagnoses of AMD (N = 897,397). We used a binomial logistic regression model to evaluate the odds ratio (OR) for major severity of illness and adjusted for demographic confounders. Results: The hospitalizations with AMD increased by 22.1% (p < 0.001) from 2010 to 2014. White females (66.1%) and those from low-income families (<25th percentile, 31.8%) majorly had comorbid AMD. Depression (43.8%) and drug abuse (27%) were prevalent psychiatric disorders in AMD inpatients. Comorbid AMD inpatients had a higher likelihood for major severity of illness (OR 2.475, 95% CI 2.459–2.491, p < 0.001). They also had a longer hospitalization stay with a mean difference of 0.486 days (95% CI 0.480–0.491) and higher total charges by $1889.420 per admission (95% CI 1852.670–1926.170) than non-AMD inpatients. Conclusions: AMD is associated with worsening of severity of illness in pregnancy/birth-related complications and require acute inpatient care. Mental health assessment and treatment of AMD, and education about efficacy and safety of psychiatric medications may help to improve outcomes in these patients. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Measuring Experiential Avoidance and Posttraumatic Stress in Families
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(10), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9100104 - 27 Sep 2019
Viewed by 249
Abstract
Experiential avoidance (EA) is receiving attention as an emotion regulation strategy and critical factor in the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Evidence suggests that EA explains co-varying relationships among topographically dissimilar problem behaviors. The transmission of emotion regulatory strategies is [...] Read more.
Experiential avoidance (EA) is receiving attention as an emotion regulation strategy and critical factor in the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Evidence suggests that EA explains co-varying relationships among topographically dissimilar problem behaviors. The transmission of emotion regulatory strategies is important to understanding the development of these problems. EA may be a learned response style. This conceptual framework was used to test parent EA as a predictor of young adult/older adolescent (offspring) EA, posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), and problem behaviors in a university context as well as to test the best predictors of these outcomes individually for parents and offspring. Two measures of experiential avoidance, the unwillingness to be in contact with distressing emotions, thoughts, and memories were used to predict the outcomes of interest. The Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II) was the strongest and only statistically significant predictor of PTSS and problem behaviors for parents and offspring above and beyond trauma history, while the Multidimensional Experiential Avoidance Questionnaire (MEAQ) remained non-significant. Implications regarding measurement discrepancies, PTSS, and harmful behavior trajectories are discussed. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Education Level and Cigarette Smoking: Diminished Returns of Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Individuals
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(10), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9100103 - 24 Sep 2019
Viewed by 382
Abstract
Background: Education level is one of the strongest protective factors against high-risk behaviors such as cigarette smoking. Minorities’ Diminished Returns (MDRs), however, suggest that the protective effects of education level tend to be weaker for racial and ethnic minority groups relative to non-Hispanic [...] Read more.
Background: Education level is one of the strongest protective factors against high-risk behaviors such as cigarette smoking. Minorities’ Diminished Returns (MDRs), however, suggest that the protective effects of education level tend to be weaker for racial and ethnic minority groups relative to non-Hispanic White people. Only two previous studies have shown that MDRs may also apply to lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals; however, these studies have focused on outcomes other than tobacco use. Aims: To compare LGB and non-LGB American adults for the effects of education level on cigarette-smoking status. Methods: Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH; 2013) entered 31,480 American adults who were either non-LGB (n = 29,303, 93.1%) or LGB (n = 2,177; 6.9%). The independent variable was education level. The dependent variable was current established cigarette smoking. Race, ethnicity, age, gender, poverty status, employment, and region were the covariates. LGB status was the moderator. Results: Overall, individuals with higher education level (odds ratio (OR) = 0.69) had lower odds of current established smoking. We found a significant interaction between LGB status and education level suggesting that the protective effect of education level on smoking status is systemically smaller for LGB people than non-LGB individuals (OR for interaction = 1.19). Conclusions: Similar to the patterns that are shown for racial and ethnic minorities, MDRs can be observed for the effects of education level among sexual minorities. In the United States, highly educated LGB adults remain at high risk of smoking cigarettes, a risk which is disproportionate to their education level. In other terms, high education level better helps non-LGB than LGB individuals to avoid cigarette smoking. The result is a relatively high burden of tobacco use in highly educated LGB individuals. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Different Rejection Letters on Applicants’ Reactions
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(10), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9100102 - 20 Sep 2019
Viewed by 330
Abstract
Organisations appear to pay little attention to rejection letters, considered a special form of organisational communication, despite a growing body of literature that shows they play an important role in terms of employer branding. This study aims to empirically test how applicants’ perceptions [...] Read more.
Organisations appear to pay little attention to rejection letters, considered a special form of organisational communication, despite a growing body of literature that shows they play an important role in terms of employer branding. This study aims to empirically test how applicants’ perceptions are affected by differently manipulated rejection letters. In detail, a sample of 138 rejected candidates filled in an ad hoc questionnaire on perceived selection procedure fairness and satisfaction, after receiving a rejection letter where we had manipulated time latency, the politeness formula and customisation. Results suggest that providing a timely, customised and informal notification is something agreeable, which is able to affect, above all, fairness perceptions and intention to re-apply. In detail, the time latency in giving feedback appears to affect the relationship between fairness perception and organisational recommendation and acts more as a mediator rather than an antecedent variable. Considering that providing feedback is a relatively low-cost activity that at the same time has a big impact on job applicants, our results show that organisations should be sensitive to negative feedback communication, especially in relation to response time, in order to support their employer branding. Full article
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