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Open AccessArticle

Childhood Trauma and Stressful Life Events Are Independently Associated with Sleep Disturbances in Adolescents

1
Yale Child Study Center, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
2
Department of Psychiatry, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA
3
Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
4
Duke Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC 27710, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(10), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9100108
Received: 19 May 2019 / Revised: 9 September 2019 / Accepted: 29 September 2019 / Published: 10 October 2019
Adolescence is a critical developmental period associated with an increase in stress, the appearance of anxiety and depressive symptoms, and changes in sleep patterns. Even though the disruption of sleep patterns in stress and anxiety and depressive disorders is well known, the independent effects of childhood trauma and stressful life events on sleep patterns are less understood. We tested the independent effects of stress (childhood trauma and stressful life events) while controlling for anxiety and depression on adolescent sleep patterns. Seven hundred fifty-two adolescents (age 12–15 years) completed self-report questionnaires about childhood trauma, stressful life events, anxiety, and depression. Four sleep factors identifying movement during sleep, sleep regularity, sleep disturbances, and sleep pressure were extracted in the principal component analysis of sleep questions. Both childhood trauma and recent stressful life events were significantly associated with sleep disturbances before and after controlling for anxiety and depression. View Full-Text
Keywords: childhood trauma; stressful life events; sleep patterns; anxiety; depression; adolescence childhood trauma; stressful life events; sleep patterns; anxiety; depression; adolescence
MDPI and ACS Style

Baddam, S.K.; Olvera, R.L.; Canapari, C.A.; Crowley, M.J.; Williamson, D.E. Childhood Trauma and Stressful Life Events Are Independently Associated with Sleep Disturbances in Adolescents. Behav. Sci. 2019, 9, 108.

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