Next Article in Journal
Exploring the Psychometric Properties of the Questionnaire on Family Members Adapting to an Older Adult’s Admission to a Nursing Home (CAFIAR-15) in a Colombian Sample
Previous Article in Journal
How Does Mobile Workplace Stress Affect Employee Innovative Behavior? The Role of Work–Family Conflict and Employee Engagement
Review

The Impact of the COVID-19 Lockdown on European Students’ Negative Emotional Symptoms: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

1
Department of Sport and Exercise Science, LUNEX International University of Health, Exercise and Sports, L-4671 Differdange, Luxembourg
2
Luxembourg Health and Sport Sciences Research Institute A.S.B.L., L-4671 Differdange, Luxembourg
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Andy Smith and Andrew Soundy
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12010003
Received: 8 November 2021 / Revised: 20 December 2021 / Accepted: 22 December 2021 / Published: 23 December 2021
Considerable changes to higher education approaches, as a response to the global coronavirus pandemic, has increased the stress on university students. The impact of these changes has had an effect on the negative emotional symptoms being experienced, which can lead to more severe mental health issues. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to determine the prevalence of anxiety, depression and stress during the coronavirus lockdown. A systematic review of three electronic databases (Google Scholar, PubMed and Medline) was conducted, with 13 studies from different European countries reporting data on students and their negative emotional symptoms identified. The random-effects model was used to perform the meta-analysis on anxiety, depression and stress. The overall pooled prevalence rate was 55% (95% CI: 45–64%) for anxiety, 63% (95% CI: 52–73%) for depression and 62% (95% CI: 43–79%) for stress. The impact of the coronavirus pandemic on negative emotional symptoms has been serious with studies reporting high prevalence rates for these. Isolation, reduced social contact, duration of quarantine and restrictions, which are the characteristics of a lockdown, played an important role in increased negative emotional symptoms for students. Countries have to be aware of this situation and develop mental support strategies to mitigate the impact. View Full-Text
Keywords: isolation; emotion; university; coronavirus; depression; anxiety; stress isolation; emotion; university; coronavirus; depression; anxiety; stress
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Oliveira Carvalho, P.; Hülsdünker, T.; Carson, F. The Impact of the COVID-19 Lockdown on European Students’ Negative Emotional Symptoms: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Behav. Sci. 2022, 12, 3. https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12010003

AMA Style

Oliveira Carvalho P, Hülsdünker T, Carson F. The Impact of the COVID-19 Lockdown on European Students’ Negative Emotional Symptoms: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Behavioral Sciences. 2022; 12(1):3. https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12010003

Chicago/Turabian Style

Oliveira Carvalho, Patrick, Thorben Hülsdünker, and Fraser Carson. 2022. "The Impact of the COVID-19 Lockdown on European Students’ Negative Emotional Symptoms: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis" Behavioral Sciences 12, no. 1: 3. https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12010003

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop