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Article

The Impacts of Emotional Intelligence on Students’ Study Habits in Blended Learning Environments: The Mediating Role of Cognitive Engagement during COVID-19

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School of Education, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China
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Department of Education, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
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School of Doctorate, Education & ICT (e-Learning), Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, 08018 Barcelona, Spain
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Department of Education, University of Management and Technology, Lahore 54700, Pakistan
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Research Institute of Education Science, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Livia Taverna and Antonella Brighi
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12010014
Received: 22 November 2021 / Revised: 21 December 2021 / Accepted: 30 December 2021 / Published: 13 January 2022
Emotional intelligence is a main area in educational psychology and a key factor in the academic life of students. It deals with deviant behavior through self-awareness and self-motivation, regulates emotional and social skills, and converts emotional energy into positive energy. This study examined direct and indirect relationships between emotional intelligence and study habits in blended learning environments. Blended learning is conceptualized as a hybrid learning approach that combines online learning opportunities and the traditional classroom approach. Furthermore, the study explored the mediating role of cognitive engagement in the relationship between emotional intelligence and study habits. We used 26 items in a paper-based questionnaire in a quantitative study to collect data on emotional intelligence, cognitive engagement and study habits from health sciences students (N = 338) enrolled in blended learning courses in universities in the Hunan province of China. Emotional intelligence included self-awareness, self-motivation, and the regulation of emotion; social skills were also examined. A partial least squares structural-equation modeling approach was applied through SmartPLS software to explore the relationships. The results indicate that self-awareness and self-motivation have direct, significant, and positive connections with study habits. Similarly, the results indicate that all four dimensions of emotional intelligence (self-awareness, self-motivation, emotion regulation and social skills) had indirect, significant, and positive relationships with study habits using cognitive engagement as a mediator variable. It was concluded that students face higher-than-usual challenges in building study habits in blended learning environments during the COVID-19 pandemic, and that emotional intelligence helps them to develop their study habits to greater effect. Similarly, it was concluded that cognitive engagement strengthens the connection between emotional intelligence and study habits. Therefore, it is recommended that universities take specific measures to enhance students’ emotional intelligence and cognitive engagement, which will ultimately improve their study habits. Moreover, valuable and practical implications for teachers, practitioners, and university management were also discussed in the study. View Full-Text
Keywords: emotional intelligence; cognitive engagement; study habits; blended learning; COVID-19 emotional intelligence; cognitive engagement; study habits; blended learning; COVID-19
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MDPI and ACS Style

Iqbal, J.; Asghar, M.Z.; Ashraf, M.A.; Yi, X. The Impacts of Emotional Intelligence on Students’ Study Habits in Blended Learning Environments: The Mediating Role of Cognitive Engagement during COVID-19. Behav. Sci. 2022, 12, 14. https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12010014

AMA Style

Iqbal J, Asghar MZ, Ashraf MA, Yi X. The Impacts of Emotional Intelligence on Students’ Study Habits in Blended Learning Environments: The Mediating Role of Cognitive Engagement during COVID-19. Behavioral Sciences. 2022; 12(1):14. https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12010014

Chicago/Turabian Style

Iqbal, Javed, Muhammad Z. Asghar, Muhammad A. Ashraf, and Xie Yi. 2022. "The Impacts of Emotional Intelligence on Students’ Study Habits in Blended Learning Environments: The Mediating Role of Cognitive Engagement during COVID-19" Behavioral Sciences 12, no. 1: 14. https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12010014

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