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Article

Analysis of Volcanic Thermohaline Fluctuations of Tagoro Submarine Volcano (El Hierro Island, Canary Islands, Spain)

1
Departament d’Oceanografia Física i Tecnològica, Institut de Ciències del Mar, CSIC, 08003 Barcelona, Spain
2
Centro Oceanográfico de Canarias, Instituto Español de Oceanografía (IEO), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), 38180 Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain
3
Departamento de Física, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
4
Dipartimento di Chimica “G. Ciamician”, Università di Bologna, 40126 Bologna, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Riccardo De Ritis, Salvatore Passaro, Alessandra Pensa and Jesus Martinez-Frias
Geosciences 2021, 11(9), 374; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11090374
Received: 29 June 2021 / Revised: 26 August 2021 / Accepted: 28 August 2021 / Published: 4 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Present and Past Submarine Volcanic Activity)
Temperature and conductivity fluctuations caused by the hydrothermal emissions released during the degasification stage of the Tagoro submarine volcano (Canary Islands, Spain) have been analysed as a robust proxy for characterising and forecasting the activity of the system. A total of 21 conductivity-temperature-depth time series were gathered on a regular high-resolution grid over the main crater of Tagoro volcano. Temperature and conductivity time series, as manifestations of stochastic events, were investigated in terms of variance and analysed by the Generalised Moments Method (GMM). GMM provides the statistical moments, the structure functions of a process whose shape is an indicator of the underlying stochastic mechanisms and the state of activity of the submarine volcano. Our findings confirm an active hydrothermal process in the submarine volcano with a sub-normal behaviour resulting from anti-persistent fluctuations in time. Its hydrothermal emissions are classified as multifractal processes whose structure functions present a crossover between two time scales. In the shorter time scale, findings point to the multiplicative action of two random processes, hydrothermal vents, which carries those fluctuations driving the circulation over the crater, and the overlying aquatic environment. Given that both temperature and conductivity fluctuations are nonstationary, Tagoro submarine volcano can be characterised as an open system exchanging energy to its surroundings. View Full-Text
Keywords: Tagoro submarine volcano; time series; volcanic activity; generalised moments method; stochastic processes Tagoro submarine volcano; time series; volcanic activity; generalised moments method; stochastic processes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Olivé Abelló, A.; Vinha, B.; Machín, F.; Zerbetto, F.; Bakalis, E.; Fraile-Nuez, E. Analysis of Volcanic Thermohaline Fluctuations of Tagoro Submarine Volcano (El Hierro Island, Canary Islands, Spain). Geosciences 2021, 11, 374. https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11090374

AMA Style

Olivé Abelló A, Vinha B, Machín F, Zerbetto F, Bakalis E, Fraile-Nuez E. Analysis of Volcanic Thermohaline Fluctuations of Tagoro Submarine Volcano (El Hierro Island, Canary Islands, Spain). Geosciences. 2021; 11(9):374. https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11090374

Chicago/Turabian Style

Olivé Abelló, Anna, Beatriz Vinha, Francisco Machín, Francesco Zerbetto, Evangelos Bakalis, and Eugenio Fraile-Nuez. 2021. "Analysis of Volcanic Thermohaline Fluctuations of Tagoro Submarine Volcano (El Hierro Island, Canary Islands, Spain)" Geosciences 11, no. 9: 374. https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11090374

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