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Open AccessArticle

Effects of Sulfur Levels in Fermented Total Mixed Ration Containing Fresh Cassava Root on Feed Utilization, Rumen Characteristics, Microbial Protein Synthesis, and Blood Metabolites in Thai Native Beef Cattle

1
Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center (TROFREC), Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand
2
Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla 90112, Thailand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2019, 9(5), 261; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9050261
Received: 7 April 2019 / Revised: 17 May 2019 / Accepted: 20 May 2019 / Published: 21 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Nutrition)
Feeding of fresh cassava root to animals is restricted because it contains hydrocyanic acid at a high level, which is the origin for poisoning. High levels of hydrocyanic acid from fresh cassava root could be detoxified by sulfur addition to become nontoxic to cattle. The addition of 2% sulfur in a fermented total mixed ration containing fresh cassava root and ensiling for 7 days could improve dry matter digestibility, efficiency of microbial protein synthesis, and concentrations of total volatile fatty acid, propionic acid, and blood thiocyanate.
The influence of sulfur included in fermented total mixed ration (FTMR) containing fresh cassava root on rumen characteristics, microbial protein synthesis, and blood metabolites in cattle was evaluated. Four Thai native beef cattle were randomly assigned according to a 2 × 2 factorial in a 4 × 4 Latin square design, and dietary treatments were as follows: factor A included a level of sulfur at 1% and 2% in total mixed ration, and factor B featured ensiling times at zero and 7 days. Digestibility of dry matter was increased when FTMR was supplemented with 2% sulfur. Blood thiocyanate increased by 69.5% when ensiling time was 7 days compared to no ensiling (p < 0.01). Bacterial populations were significantly different in the FTMR containing sulfur at 2% and 7 days of ensiling. Furthermore, microbial crude protein and efficiency of microbial protein synthesis were higher in the FTMR containing 2% sulfur and 7 days of ensiling (p < 0.01). Thus, high levels of hydrocyanic acid from fresh cassava root could be detoxified by a sulfur addition with an ensiling process to become nontoxic to cattle. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy source; mineral; rumen fermentation; ruminant; tropical feed energy source; mineral; rumen fermentation; ruminant; tropical feed
MDPI and ACS Style

Supapong, C.; Cherdthong, A.; Wanapat, M.; Chanjula, P.; Uriyapongson, S. Effects of Sulfur Levels in Fermented Total Mixed Ration Containing Fresh Cassava Root on Feed Utilization, Rumen Characteristics, Microbial Protein Synthesis, and Blood Metabolites in Thai Native Beef Cattle. Animals 2019, 9, 261.

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