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Animals, Volume 10, Issue 12 (December 2020) – 264 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Forest duikers are one of the most important groups of mammals in Central African rainforests, and up to seven species of duikers can live sympatrically. A better understanding of the ecology of duikers is essential for the development of effective strategies for the conservation and management of their populations. Using camera traps installed over five years across four countries of Central Africa, the authors have quantified for the first time the daily activity patterns of six species of duikers and studied their temporal and spatial interactions. View this paper.
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Review
Enhancement of Live Food Nutritional Status with Essential Nutrients for Improving Aquatic Animal Health: A Review
Animals 2020, 10(12), 2457; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122457 - 21 Dec 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 1757
Abstract
At the present time, no artificial larval diet is capable of entirely fulfilling the dietary requirements of several larval fish and crustacean species. Zooplankton live food is the basic foundation of fish larviculture, and successful rearing of fish larvae still heavily depends on [...] Read more.
At the present time, no artificial larval diet is capable of entirely fulfilling the dietary requirements of several larval fish and crustacean species. Zooplankton live food is the basic foundation of fish larviculture, and successful rearing of fish larvae still heavily depends on an adequate supply of nutritious live food. Despite being important, the production protocols of copepods and cladocerans (Moina) are still underdeveloped in hatcheries. Rotifers and Artemia are the most commonly used live foods. However, these live foods are evidently lacking in crucial nutrient constituents. Hence, through nutrient enrichment, live food with the nutritional profile that meets the requirements of fish larvae can be produced. With the aim to maximize the effectiveness of production to optimize profitability, it is important to evaluate and improve culture techniques for the delivery of micro- and macro-nutrients as feed supplements to larvae in aquaculture systems. Bioencapsulation and enrichment are the evolving techniques in aquaculture that are commonly employed to enhance the nutritional quality of live food by integrating nutrients into them, which subsequently improves the growth, survival, and disease resistance of the consuming hosts. This review aims to highlight some of the approaches and methods used to improve the nutritional quality of live food by modifying their nutrient composition, which could have immense promise in the enhancement of aquatic animal health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feeding Research for Nutrition and Health Improvement in Fish)
Communication
Trading Tactics: Time to Rethink the Global Trade in Wildlife
Animals 2020, 10(12), 2456; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122456 - 21 Dec 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4459
Abstract
The Covid-19 outbreak has brought about fresh and intensified scrutiny of the wildlife trade, which substantively involves commerce in exotic pets. In response, major policy decisions involving trade bans have ensued, with calls for similar such action to be applied across the trade [...] Read more.
The Covid-19 outbreak has brought about fresh and intensified scrutiny of the wildlife trade, which substantively involves commerce in exotic pets. In response, major policy decisions involving trade bans have ensued, with calls for similar such action to be applied across the trade chain. Yet, these measures have been criticised, largely based on concerns that they risk exacerbating poverty, undermining human rights, damaging conservation incentives, and otherwise harming sustainable development and conservation efforts. Instead, many critics propose improved regulation of the status quo, with the intention of nurturing a legal, sustainable, safe, humane, and equitable wildlife trade. Herein, we provide a countering view that outlines how the risks presented by the wildlife trade are becoming increasingly recognised as being both manifold and severe; and raise concerns that the goal of a well-regulated wildlife trade is becoming increasingly exposed as a mirage. We conclude that while pursuing the United Nation’s Sustainable Development Goals (with their focus on poverty alleviation, food security, public health, and conservation) is enduringly vital, a flourishing wildlife trade is not. Given that the exploitation of wildlife, including for the pet trade, has been identified as one of the dominant drivers of biodiversity loss, emergence of zoonotic infectious disease, animal suffering, and financial instability, perpetuating the concept of utilising a regulated wildlife trade as the default approach to protect people and planet is in urgent need of re-evaluation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pets, People and Policies)
Editorial
Are Animal Models Needed to Discover, Develop and Test Pharmaceutical Drugs for Humans in the 21st Century?
Animals 2020, 10(12), 2455; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122455 - 21 Dec 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1442
Abstract
Despite many decades of research, much of which has focused on studies in animals, we humans continue to suffer from multiple diseases for which there are no cures or treatments [...] Full article
Article
The Winter Habitat Selection of Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) Based on a Multi-Scale Model
Animals 2020, 10(12), 2454; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122454 - 21 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 859
Abstract
Single-scale frameworks are often used to analyze the habitat selections of species. Research on habitat selection can be significantly improved using multi-scale models that enable greater in-depth analyses of the scale dependence between species and specific environmental factors. In this study, the winter [...] Read more.
Single-scale frameworks are often used to analyze the habitat selections of species. Research on habitat selection can be significantly improved using multi-scale models that enable greater in-depth analyses of the scale dependence between species and specific environmental factors. In this study, the winter habitat selection of red deer in the Gogostaihanwula Nature Reserve, Inner Mongolia, was studied using a multi-scale model. Each selected covariate was included in multi-scale models at their “characteristic scale”, and we used an all subsets approach and model selection framework to assess habitat selection. The results showed that: (1) Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that the response scale of red deer to environmental factors was different among different covariate. The optimal scale of the single covariate was 800–3200 m, slope (SLP), altitude (ELE), and ratio of deciduous broad-leaved forests were 800 m in large scale, except that the farmland ratio was 200 m in fine scale. The optimal scale of road density and grassland ratio is both 1600 m, and the optimal scale of net forest production capacity is 3200 m; (2) distance to forest edges, distance to cement roads, distance to villages, altitude, distance to all road, and slope of the region were the most important factors affecting winter habitat selection. The outcomes of this study indicate that future studies on the effectiveness of habitat selections will benefit from multi-scale models. In addition to increasing interpretive and predictive capabilities, multi-scale habitat selection models enhance our understanding of how species respond to their environments and contribute to the formulation of effective conservation and management strategies for ungulata. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Wildlife)
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Article
Performance and Milk Composition of Nubian Goats as Affected by Increasing Level of Nannochloropsis oculata Microalgae
Animals 2020, 10(12), 2453; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122453 - 21 Dec 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1041
Abstract
Fat supplementation affects the lactational performance of goats and dramatically changes milk nutritive value. In the present experiment, two levels of Nannochloropsis oculata microalgae, a natural source of rumen-protected eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), were studied in the diet of Nubian goats. Using quintuplicated 3 [...] Read more.
Fat supplementation affects the lactational performance of goats and dramatically changes milk nutritive value. In the present experiment, two levels of Nannochloropsis oculata microalgae, a natural source of rumen-protected eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), were studied in the diet of Nubian goats. Using quintuplicated 3 × 3 Latin square design, fifteen lactating goats, (14 ± 2 months old and 33.0 ± 1.3 kg) after kidding, were randomly assigned into three treatments in an 84-d assay. Goats were offered a basal diet comprising berseem clover, wheat straw and concentrates in 3:2:5, respectively, (control treatment-no supplementation). The other two treatments were supplemented with N. oculata microalgae at 5 g (NOM5 treatment) or 10 g (NOM10 treatment)/doe/d. Without affecting intake, treatments improved (p < 0.01) nutrient digestibility. Supplementations had no effect on ruminal pH and ammonia-nitrogen, however, NOM5 and NOM10 linearly improved (p < 0.05) total volatile fatty acids and propionic acids. N. oculata supplementation linearly increased (p < 0.01) milk yield and lactose content. Supplementation reduced atherogenic index (p = 0.004) and enhanced the concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids and C20:5n3 (EPA). Conclusively, feeding Nubian goats on diet supplemented with N. oculata at 5 and 10 g improved milk production and the nutritive value. No improvements in the performance were observed when N. oculata dose was increased from 5 g to 10 g/doe; thus, 5 g dose is recommended for use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Animal Production 2021)
Communication
Description of Behavioral Patterns Displayed by a Recently Weaned Cohort of Healthy Dairy Calves
Animals 2020, 10(12), 2452; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122452 - 21 Dec 2020
Viewed by 1010
Abstract
Animals display movement patterns that can be used as health indicators. The movement of dairy cattle can be characterized into three distinct cluster types. These are cluster type 1 (resting), cluster type 2 (traveling), and cluster type 3 (searching). This study aimed to [...] Read more.
Animals display movement patterns that can be used as health indicators. The movement of dairy cattle can be characterized into three distinct cluster types. These are cluster type 1 (resting), cluster type 2 (traveling), and cluster type 3 (searching). This study aimed to analyze the movement patterns of healthy calves and assess the relationship between the variables that constitute the three cluster types. Eleven Holstein calves were fitted with GPS data loggers, which recorded their movement over a two week period during spring. The GPS data loggers captured longitude and latitude coordinates, distance, time and speed. It was found that the calves were most active during the afternoon and at night. Slight inconsistencies from previous studies were found in the cluster movements. Cluster type 2 (traveling) reported the fastest rate of movement, whereas cluster type 1 (resting) reported the slowest. These diverse movement patterns could be used to enhance the assessment of dairy animal health and welfare on farms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dairy Cow Health and Welfare)
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Article
The Native Ant Lasius niger Can Limit the Access to Resources of the Invasive Argentine Ant
Animals 2020, 10(12), 2451; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122451 - 21 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1205
Abstract
Within ant communities, the biotic resistance of native species against invasive ones is expected to be rare, because invasive species are often highly dominant competitors. The invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile (Mayr)) often demonstrated numerical dominance against its opponents, increased aggressiveness, and [...] Read more.
Within ant communities, the biotic resistance of native species against invasive ones is expected to be rare, because invasive species are often highly dominant competitors. The invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile (Mayr)) often demonstrated numerical dominance against its opponents, increased aggressiveness, and ability to quickly recruit to food. The present study aimed to assess the behavioral mechanisms involved in the interspecific competition between L. humile, facing either an invasive species (Lasius neglectus Van Loon, Boomsma and Andrásfalvy) or a native dominant species (Lasius niger (Linnaeus)). The resource exploitation by the Argentine ant was investigated during one-hour competitive interactions using 10 dead Drosophila flies as prey. When facing La. niger, L. humile exploratory behavior was strongly inhibited, it brought very few prey resources, and killed few opponents. Conversely, La. neglectus had a low impact on L. humile. Contrarily to expectations, the invasive La. neglectus lacked the ability to hinder L. humile resource exploitation, whereas the native La. niger did. These results suggest that La. niger could impact invasive populations of L. humile by interference competition, perhaps better so than some invasive species. While L. humile has become invasive in Southern Europe, the invasion process could be slowed down in the northern latitudes by such native dominant species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolutionary Ecology of Eusocial Insects in a Changing World)
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Article
The Effect of the Type of Non-Caged Housing System, Genotype and Age on the Behaviour of Laying Hens
Animals 2020, 10(12), 2450; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122450 - 21 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 990
Abstract
This study investigated the welfare of laying hens in different non-caged housing systems, namely a deep-litter barn system (BS), a free-range system (FRS) and an organic system (OS). The study was conducted on 270 hens of a native breed Green-legged Partridge (Z-11) and [...] Read more.
This study investigated the welfare of laying hens in different non-caged housing systems, namely a deep-litter barn system (BS), a free-range system (FRS) and an organic system (OS). The study was conducted on 270 hens of a native breed Green-legged Partridge (Z-11) and 270 Hy-Line Brown hybrids. Visual scans were performed to record behaviour of hens. Hens were housed in groups of 30 and observed over the course of one day at 20, 36 and 56 weeks of age. Dustbathing, scratching, wing stretching, wing flapping and preening were recorded as comfort behaviours. Pecking, fighting, threatening and chasing were recorded as agonistic behaviours. The percentage of run use was higher in native hens than in commercial hens (p < 0.05). The proportion of hens exhibiting comfort behaviours housed in the FRS and OS was similar but over twice as high as in the BS (p < 0.05). In the FRS and OS, the percentage of hens displaying comfort behaviours increased with age (p < 0.05). In all the production systems, the percentage of birds displaying comfort behaviours was higher in native breed hens than in commercial breeds (p < 0.05). In the BS, the higher proportion of hens displaying an agonistic behaviour was seen more in commercial breed than in the native breed hens (p < 0.05). The percentage of birds displaying an agonistic behaviour declined with hen age, both in commercial and native breed hens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Poultry Welfare)
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Article
Milk Production and Energetic Metabolism of Heat-Stressed Dairy Goats Supplemented with Propylene Glycol
Animals 2020, 10(12), 2449; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122449 - 21 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1125
Abstract
Heat-stressed dairy animals increase their reliance on glucose. This elevated glucose demand is partially met by increasing the conversion of glucogenic amino acids (AA) in the liver. Propylene glycol (PG) is a glucogenic precursor and was not tested in dairy goats under thermoneutral [...] Read more.
Heat-stressed dairy animals increase their reliance on glucose. This elevated glucose demand is partially met by increasing the conversion of glucogenic amino acids (AA) in the liver. Propylene glycol (PG) is a glucogenic precursor and was not tested in dairy goats under thermoneutral (TN) and heat stress (HS) conditions simultaneously. We hypothesize that if HS-goats are fed with PG, they would get more glucose and consequently spare more glucogenic AA for milk protein synthesis rather than gluconeogenesis. Eight multiparous dairy goats (40.8 ± 1.1 kg body weight; 84 ± 1 days in milk) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design of 4 periods; 21 d each (14 d adaptation, 5 d for measurements, and 2 d of transition). Goats were allocated to one of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Factors were control (CO) without PG or 5% of PG, and thermoneutral (TN; 15 to 20 °C) or heat stress (HS; 12 h/d at 37 °C and 12 h/d at 30 °C) conditions. Feed intake, rectal temperature, respiratory rate, milk yield, milk composition, and blood metabolites were measured. Compared to TN, HS goats had lower (p < 0.01) feed intake (–34%), fat-corrected milk (–15%), and milk fat (–15%). Heat-stressed goats also tended (p < 0.10) to produce milk with lower protein (–11%) and lactose (–4%) contents. Propylene glycol increased blood glucose (+7%; p < 0.05), blood insulin (+37%; p < 0.10), and body weight gain (+68%; p < 0.05), but decreased feed intake (–9%; p < 0.10) and milk fat content (–23%; p < 0.01). Furthermore, blood non-esterified fatty acids (–49%) and β-hydroxybutyrate (–32%) decreased (p < 0.05) by PG. In conclusion, supplementation of heat-stressed dairy goats with propylene glycol caused milk fat depression syndrome, but reduced body weight loss that is typically observed under HS conditions. Supplementation with lower doses of PG would avoid the reduced feed intake and milk fat depression, but this should be tested. Full article
Article
The LEPR Gene Is Associated with Reproductive Seasonality Traits in Rasa Aragonesa Sheep
Animals 2020, 10(12), 2448; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122448 - 21 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 985
Abstract
The aim of this study was to characterize and identify causative polymorphisms in the leptin receptor (LEPR) gene responsible for the seasonal variation of reproductive traits in sheep. Three reproductive seasonality traits were studied: the total days of anoestrous (TDA), the [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to characterize and identify causative polymorphisms in the leptin receptor (LEPR) gene responsible for the seasonal variation of reproductive traits in sheep. Three reproductive seasonality traits were studied: the total days of anoestrous (TDA), the progesterone cycling months (P4CM) and the oestrous cycling months (OCM). In total, 18 SNPs were detected in 33 ewes with extreme values for TDA and OCM. Six SNPs were non-synonymous substitutions and two of them were predicted in silico as deleterious: rs596133197 and rs403578195. These polymorphisms were then validated in 239 ewes. The SNP rs403578195, located in exon 8 and leading to a change of alanine to glycine (Ala284Gly) in the extracellular domain of the protein, was associated with the OCM trait, being the G allele associated with a decrease of 12 percent of the OCM trait. Haplotype analyses also suggested the involvement of other non-synonymous SNP located in exon 20 (rs405459906). This SNP also produces an amino acid change (Lys1069Glu) in the intracellular domain of the protein and segregates independently of rs403578195. These results confirm for the first time the role of the LEPR gene in sheep reproductive seasonality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Small Ruminant Genetics and Breeding)
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Article
Correlated Response to Selection for Litter Size Residual Variability in Rabbits’ Body Condition
Animals 2020, 10(12), 2447; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122447 - 21 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 841
Abstract
A divergent selection experiment for residual variance of litter size at birth was carried out in rabbits during twelve generations. Residual variance of litter size was estimated as the within-doe variance of litter size after pre-correction for year and season as well as [...] Read more.
A divergent selection experiment for residual variance of litter size at birth was carried out in rabbits during twelve generations. Residual variance of litter size was estimated as the within-doe variance of litter size after pre-correction for year and season as well as parity and lactation status effects. The aim of this work was to study the correlated response to selection for litter size residual variability in body condition from mating to weaning. Body condition is related directly to an animal’s fat deposits. Perirenal fat is the main fat deposit in rabbits. Individual body weight (IBW) and perirenal fat thickness (PFT) were used to measure body condition at second mating, delivery, 10 days after delivery, and weaning. Litter size of the first three parities was analyzed. Both lines decreased body condition between mating to delivery; however, the decrease in body condition at delivery was lower in the low line, despite this line having higher litter size at birth (+0.54 kits, p = 0.93). The increment of body condition between delivery and early lactation was slightly higher in the low line. On the other hand, body condition affected success of females’ receptivity and fertility at the third mating, e.g., receptive females showed a higher IBW and PFT than unreceptive ones (+129 g and +0.28 mm, respectively), and fertile females had a higher IBW and PFT than unfertile ones (+82 g and +0.28 mm, respectively). In conclusion, the does selected for reducing litter size variability showed a better deal with situations of high-energy demand, such as delivery and lactation, than those selected for increasing litter size variability, which would agree with the better health and welfare condition in the low line. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Body Condition and Productivity, Health and Welfare)
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Article
A Retrospective Study of Cryptorchidectomy in Horses: Diagnosis, Treatment, Outcome and Complications in 70 Cases
Animals 2020, 10(12), 2446; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122446 - 21 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1037
Abstract
The aim of the study was to investigate the breed predisposition and the diagnostic and surgical management of horses referred for cryptorchidism. The breed, localization of retained testis, diagnosis, type of surgical treatment and complications were analyzed. Seventy horses were included in the [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to investigate the breed predisposition and the diagnostic and surgical management of horses referred for cryptorchidism. The breed, localization of retained testis, diagnosis, type of surgical treatment and complications were analyzed. Seventy horses were included in the study; the Western Riding horse breeds were the most affected (Quarter Horse 34/70, 48.5%; Appaloosa 9/70, 12.8%). In unilateral cryptorchids (65/70, 92.8%) the most common location for a retained testis was the left abdomen (28/65, 43%), while in bilateral cryptorchids (5/70, 7.1%), bilateral abdominal retention was the most frequent (3/5, 6%). Information about testis localization was achieved through transabdominal ultrasound (30/49 cases, 61.2%), through per rectum palpation (21/49 cases, 42.9%) and through inguinal palpation (14/49 cases, 28.9%). Cryptorchidectomy was achieved with standing laparoscopy (44/70 cases, 62.8%), or with open inguinal orchiectomy in general anesthesia (26/70 cases, 37.2%). Complications during laparoscopy were spleen puncture (1/44, 2.2%), a self-limiting bleeding from the spermatic cord (10/44 cases, 22.7%), hyperthermia (3/44 cases, 6.8%), and emphysema (15/44, 34%). During inguinal open cryptorchidectomy difficulties with identifying the inguinal testis during surgery (8/26 cases, 30.8%) and a moderate and self-limiting swelling of the inguinal region after surgery (17/26, 65.4%) were observed. For orchiectomy, a standing laparoscopy was confirmed as the preferred procedure for an abdominally retained testis with almost no complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Veterinary Minimally Invasive Surgery)
Article
Bisphenol A (BPA) Affects the Enteric Nervous System in the Porcine Stomach
Animals 2020, 10(12), 2445; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122445 - 20 Dec 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1284
Abstract
Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely utilized in plastic production process all over the world. Previous studies have shown that BPA, with its similarity to estrogen, may negatively affect living organisms. It is acknowledged that BPA distorts the activity of multiple internal systems, including [...] Read more.
Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely utilized in plastic production process all over the world. Previous studies have shown that BPA, with its similarity to estrogen, may negatively affect living organisms. It is acknowledged that BPA distorts the activity of multiple internal systems, including the nervous, reproductive, urinary, and endocrine systems. BPA also affects the gastrointestinal tract and enteric nervous system (ENS), which is placed throughout the wall from the esophagus to the rectum. Contrary to the intestine, the influence of BPA on the ENS in the stomach is still little known. This study, performed using the double immunofluorescence method, has revealed that BPA affects the number of nervous structures in the porcine gastric wall immunoreactive to vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT, a marker of cholinergic neurons), substance P (SP), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), galanin (GAL) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART). The character and severity of noted alterations depended on the part of the ENS, the BPA dose, and the type of neuronal substance. Administration of BPA resulted in an increase in the number of nervous structures containing SP, GAL, and/or CART, and a decrease in the number of cholinergic neurons in all parts of the gastric wall. The number of VIP-positive nervous structures increased in the enteric myenteric ganglia, along with the muscular and mucosal layers, whilst it decreased in the submucous ganglia. The exact mechanism of noted changes was not absolutely obvious, but they were probably related to the neuroprotective and adaptive processes constituting the response to the impact of BPA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Gut and Bone in Health and Disease)
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Article
A Cross Sectional Study on Serological Prevalence of Ehrlichia canis and Rickettsia conorii in Different Canine Population of Sicily (South-Italy) during 2017–2019
Animals 2020, 10(12), 2444; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122444 - 20 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1254
Abstract
Vector-borne pathogens such as Erlichia canis and Rickettsia conorii are widespread in the Mediterranean basin. Rhipicephalus sanguineus, is considered the main vector in Mediterranean climatic areas. Seroprevalence in dogs is variable in relation to environmental factors, presence of vectors, and dogs’ management. [...] Read more.
Vector-borne pathogens such as Erlichia canis and Rickettsia conorii are widespread in the Mediterranean basin. Rhipicephalus sanguineus, is considered the main vector in Mediterranean climatic areas. Seroprevalence in dogs is variable in relation to environmental factors, presence of vectors, and dogs’ management. We investigated the seroprevalence in Sicilian dogs during 2017–2019, considering temporal as well as spatial variations, and different canine population. A total of 11,009 sera were analyzed: 7568 and 3441 sera were tested to detect antibodies to E. canis and to R. conorii, respectively, by immunofluorescence assay. The rainfall average in the sampling sites during the three-year period was also considered. Statistical analyses were performed using chi-square tests for association between two or more variables. We reported a prevalence of 29.6% and 53.6% for E. canis and R. conorii, respectively. Significant temporal variation was found in R. conorii, while significant difference was found considering canine population and spatial variation regarding both pathogens. Our study updates the previous results of E. canis and R. conorii seroprevalence in dogs in Sicily, and confirms the wide distribution of these pathogens. In addition, we considered, for the first time, three different variables to identify the areas and the canine populations most exposed to risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal System and Management)
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Article
Effects of Long-Term Supplementation with Brown Seaweeds and Polyphenols in Rabbit on Meat Quality Parameters
Animals 2020, 10(12), 2443; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122443 - 20 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 809
Abstract
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of dam and offspring dietary supplementation with a natural feed additive on the growth performance and meat quality parameters of growing rabbits. The growing rabbits are selected from lactating does receiving a [...] Read more.
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of dam and offspring dietary supplementation with a natural feed additive on the growth performance and meat quality parameters of growing rabbits. The growing rabbits are selected from lactating does receiving a control diet (C) or diets supplemented with 0.3% (SP1) and 0.6% (SP2) of feed additive containing brown seaweeds (Laminaria spp.) and plant extracts. In the postweaning phase, the growing rabbits remained in the treatment group defined by their does and the trial lasted 42 days. The average daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio were improved in the rabbit fed 0.6% of the natural feed additive. The cholesterol content tended to be lower in Longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle and decrease in Semimembranosus (SM) muscle (in SP2 −41.36% than controls). The α tocopherol and retinol content were enhanced in both muscles of rabbit fed the natural mixture (SP1 and SP2 groups). An improvement of sensory attributes of texture was observed in both muscles from rabbit fed natural mixture. In conclusion, long term supplementation of both lactating does and offspring with the high dosage of brown seaweed and plant polyphenols improves growth performance and enhances meat nutritional and sensory parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Products Quality and Characterization)
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Article
A Novel Transdermal Ketoprofen Formulation Provides Effective Analgesia to Calves Undergoing Amputation Dehorning
Animals 2020, 10(12), 2442; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122442 - 20 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 950
Abstract
There is a critical need to ensure that all cattle undergoing surgical husbandry procedures are provided effective pain relief. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are most commonly used, and typically are administered by intramuscular (IM) injection. However, administration of NSAIDs via this route to [...] Read more.
There is a critical need to ensure that all cattle undergoing surgical husbandry procedures are provided effective pain relief. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are most commonly used, and typically are administered by intramuscular (IM) injection. However, administration of NSAIDs via this route to large numbers of cattle which are handled only once or twice a year, typical of many rangeland beef production systems, presents significant occupational health and safety and mis-administration risks. To address this, a novel transdermal (TD) formulation of ketoprofen was developed, and its efficacy assessed in a study of 36 Holstein–Friesian calves which were assigned to a placebo (n = 10), a TD ketoprofen (n = 10), an IM ketoprofen (n = 10) and sham dehorned group (n = 6). TD ketoprofen significantly reduced plasma cortisol concentrations between 1 to 4 h after dehorning compared to placebo treated calves, with concentrations at 2 and 4 h being very similar to those for sham dehorned calves. The expected log count of positively associated pain variables (ear flick, tail wag, ruminating, head shake, lying down, grooming and neck extending) in the TD group was reduced by 42%, compared to placebo calves, with an overall significant (p < 0.05) treatment effect. The IM group exhibited similar responses and both TD and IM cattle had a higher BW gain at 2 and 5 (p < 0.05) weeks post-dehorning, compared to placebo. This study has shown that TD administered ketoprofen was at least as effective as IM to control pain associated with dehorning and facilitates the administration of analgesic drugs prior to the surgical husbandry procedures being performed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pain management in livestock species)
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Article
Comparative Assessment of Thermotolerance in Dorper and Second-Cross (Poll Dorset/Merino × Border Leicester) Lambs
Animals 2020, 10(12), 2441; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122441 - 20 Dec 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 983
Abstract
The objective of this study was to compare the thermotolerance of second-cross (SC; Poll Dorset × Merino × Border Leicester) and Dorper lambs. Dorper and SC lambs (4–5 months of age) were subjected to cyclic heat stress (HS) (28–40 °C). The temperature was [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to compare the thermotolerance of second-cross (SC; Poll Dorset × Merino × Border Leicester) and Dorper lambs. Dorper and SC lambs (4–5 months of age) were subjected to cyclic heat stress (HS) (28–40 °C). The temperature was increased to 38–40 °C between 800 and 1700 h daily and maintained at 28 °C for the remainder of the day (30–60% relative humidity (RH)) in climatic chambers for 2 weeks (n = 12/group), with controls maintained in a thermoneutral (TN) (18–21 °C, 40–50% RH) environment (n = 12/group). Basal respiration rate (RR), rectal temperature (RT) and skin temperature (ST) were higher (p < 0.01) in SC lambs than in Dorpers. HS increased RR, RT and ST (p < 0.01) in both genotypes, but the levels reached during HS were lower (p < 0.01) in Dorpers. HS increased (p < 0.01) water intake to a greater extent in SC lambs, while feed intake was reduced (p < 0.05) by HS in SC lambs but not in Dorpers. HS increased (p < 0.01) blood urea nitrogen and creatinine in SC lambs only. Plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentrations were reduced (p < 0.05) by HS in SC lambs but increased (p < 0.05) in Dorpers. There was no effect of HS on pO2, cHCO3 and cSO2, but higher (p < 0.01) blood pH and lower (p < 0.01) pCO2 were recorded under HS in both genotypes. Blood electrolytes and base excess were reduced (p < 0.01) under HS, while a genotype difference (p < 0.05) was only observed in blood K+ and hemoglobin concentrations. Basal plasma prolactin concentrations were lower (p < 0.01) in Dorpers but were elevated at a similar level during HS (p < 0.01) in both genotypes. Dorper lambs are more resilient to HS than SC lambs. Future research should focus on confirming whether the better heat tolerance of Dorpers is translated to better returns in terms of growth performance and carcass traits over the summer months. Full article
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Article
Animal Welfare and Meat Quality Assessment in Gas Stunning during Commercial Slaughter of Pigs Using Hypercapnic-Hypoxia (20% CO2 2% O2) Compared to Acute Hypercapnia (90% CO2 in Air)
Animals 2020, 10(12), 2440; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122440 - 20 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1588
Abstract
This study assessed aversion, stunning effectiveness, and product quality of nitrogen and carbon dioxide (CO2) mixtures used for stunning pigs. A total of 1852 slaughter pigs divided into two similar batches was assessed during routine slaughter in a Swedish commercial abattoir [...] Read more.
This study assessed aversion, stunning effectiveness, and product quality of nitrogen and carbon dioxide (CO2) mixtures used for stunning pigs. A total of 1852 slaughter pigs divided into two similar batches was assessed during routine slaughter in a Swedish commercial abattoir using either hypercapnic-hypoxia (20% CO2 and less than 2% O2; 20C2O) or hypercapnia (90% CO2; 90C) gas mixtures. Behavioral indicators of aversion and discomfort were recorded. After exposure, the stunning quality was assessed through brainstem reflexes. After slaughter, the pH and electric conductivity of carcasses were assessed to estimate the incidence of pale, soft, and exudative (PSE) pork, and the presence of ecchymosis were inspected. Compared to 90C, pigs exposed to 20C2O showed a later (p < 0.05) onset of behaviors indicative of aversion, and a lower (p < 0.01) incidence of breathlessness. However, unconsciousness (i.e., losing posture) appeared earlier (p < 0.01) in 90C compared to 20C2O. In 90C, all (100%) pigs were adequately stunned, whereas in 20C2O a 7.4% of pigs showed signs of poor stunning, especially when oxygen concentrations were >2% (p < 0.001). The percentage of PSE carcasses was higher (p < 0.01) in 20C2O than 90C. In conclusion, compared to 90C, 20C2O reduced aversion and discomfort but showed lower stun effectiveness, especially when O2 was above 2%, and a slightly poorer pork quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Humane Killing of Farm Animals)
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Article
Effect of Varying Dietary Crude Protein Level on Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility, Milk Production, and Nitrogen Use Efficiency by Lactating Holstein-Friesian Cows
Animals 2020, 10(12), 2439; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122439 - 19 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1009
Abstract
The effect of dietary crude protein (CP) level on intake, digestibility, milk production, and nitrogen (N) use efficiency was studied. Twenty-four Holstein-Friesian cows (17 multiparous and seven primiparous) were grouped by parity, days in milk, milk yield, and live weight into six blocks [...] Read more.
The effect of dietary crude protein (CP) level on intake, digestibility, milk production, and nitrogen (N) use efficiency was studied. Twenty-four Holstein-Friesian cows (17 multiparous and seven primiparous) were grouped by parity, days in milk, milk yield, and live weight into six blocks of four, and randomly assigned to four total mixed ration (TMR) treatments, containing 141, 151, 177, or 210 g CP/kg dry matter (DM), over 28 day experimental periods. Apparent total-tract DM and fiber digestibilities and milk fat composition were similar across treatments. Milk protein and urea-N compositions, and urinary and manure N excretion increased linearly, while milk N efficiency (MNE) decreased linearly with increasing CP. DM intake was highest with the 177 diet, while CP intake increased linearly with increasing CP, peaking at 200 g/kg DM. Milk yield increased with CP intake for the three lower CP levels, peaking at 176 g CP/kg DM. The further increase in CP level from 177 to 210 g/kg DM did not result in improved milk yield, but resulted in decreased milk N secretion and increased urinary N excretion. In summary, milk protein composition increased linearly with increasing CP, accompanied by a linear decrease in MNE, resulting in a bell-shaped relationship between milk yield and dietary CP level. Full article
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Article
Changes in the Secretion of Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines and Acute-Phase Proteins in the Uterus after Artificial Insemination in the Mare
Animals 2020, 10(12), 2438; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122438 - 19 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 885
Abstract
The objective of the study was to evaluate the concentrations of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), interleukin-10 (IL-10), serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin (Hp) in uterine lavage fluid before and after artificial insemination (AI). Based on ultrasound examination, mares were divided into: Group [...] Read more.
The objective of the study was to evaluate the concentrations of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), interleukin-10 (IL-10), serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin (Hp) in uterine lavage fluid before and after artificial insemination (AI). Based on ultrasound examination, mares were divided into: Group 1 (n = 9), no fluid was detected in the uterus during estrus and 7 h after AI; Group 2 (n = 8), no fluid was detected in the uterus during estrus but 7 h after AI fluid was detected in the uterus; Group 3 (n = 8), fluid was detected in the uterus during estrus and also 7 h after AI. In all groups of mares, a significant increase in polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) and a significant increase in IL-1RA and SAA were recorded 7 h after AI. The obtained results show that, regardless of the status of the mare before AI, the endometrial response characterized by PMN influx, and SAA, Hp, IL-1RA and IL-10 production, is similar. The presence of intrauterine fluid during estrus is not connected with PMN influx but can impact uterine IL-1RA production at this time. Full article
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Article
Degree of Saturation and Free Fatty Acid Content of Fats Determine Dietary Preferences in Laying Hens
Animals 2020, 10(12), 2437; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122437 - 19 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1277
Abstract
Behavioural and genetic evidence shows that the taste system is intimately related to the sensing of nutrients with consequences for poultry nutrition practices. A better understanding of how chickens may sense fat could provide the background for selecting feedstuffs used in poultry feeds. [...] Read more.
Behavioural and genetic evidence shows that the taste system is intimately related to the sensing of nutrients with consequences for poultry nutrition practices. A better understanding of how chickens may sense fat could provide the background for selecting feedstuffs used in poultry feeds. Acid oils have the potential to be economical and sustainable feedstuffs. These fat by-products from the edible oil refining industry possess a similar fatty acid composition to the crude oils but are richer in free fatty acids (FFA). An experiment was conducted to study the effect of FFA content and the unsaturated:saturated ratio (U:S) on dietary preferences in hens. Four fat sources were added to a basal diet at an inclusion rate of 6%, determining the experimental diets: soybean oil (SO; high U:S, 5% FFA); soybean acid oil (SA; high U:S, 50% FFA); palm oil (PO; low U:S, 5% FFA); and palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD; low U:S, 50% FFA). The experimental diets were offered in a series of double-choice tests to forty-eight Lohmann Brown laying hens housed individually in cages. Each hen was offered the ten potential binary combinations of the four diets including each diet compared to itself (referred to as four control double-choices). Feed intake was measured for two hours twice a day after one hour of fasting. Consumption was analysed as a standard preference index (% of test diet intake in comparison with the total intake). Preference values were compared to the random choice value of 50% using the Student’s t-test. None of the four control comparisons differ significantly from 50% (p > 0.05), indicating that the changes in preference values observed in the other binary comparisons were related to the dietary changes associated to fat ingredients. Hens showed a feed preference for palm oil added diets over soybean oil diets (p < 0.05), with PO and PFAD being equally preferred (p < 0.05). However, in this trial the hens demonstrated a preference for SO (low %FFA) when offered in choice with SA (high %FFA) (p < 0.05). These results suggest that the degree of saturation plays an important role in dietary fat preferences: hens prefer predominantly saturated oils even when these are rich in FFA. Furthermore, when presented with a choice between predominantly unsaturated oils, hens prefer feed with a low %FFA. In conclusion, %FFA and the U:S ratio affected feed preferences in hens. The use of oils with greater preference values may give rise to greater feed palatability, enhancing feed intake at critical stages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Poultry)
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Article
Concurrent Validity of Equine Joint Range of Motion Measurement: A Novel Digital Goniometer versus Universal Goniometer
Animals 2020, 10(12), 2436; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122436 - 19 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1225
Abstract
Goniometry is the measurement of joint angles with a conventional universal goniometer (UG) or a digital goniometer (DG). The UG is validated for use in dogs and cats. However, it demands both of the user’s hands when measuring. To avoid this, a novel [...] Read more.
Goniometry is the measurement of joint angles with a conventional universal goniometer (UG) or a digital goniometer (DG). The UG is validated for use in dogs and cats. However, it demands both of the user’s hands when measuring. To avoid this, a novel type of DG has been developed, simplifying measurement by offering single-hand usage. The objective of this study is to examine the concurrent validity of the DG. The study consists of measurement with the DG and UG for flexion of the carpus and fetlock on ten horses, and with the DG in flexion and neutral positioning of the fetlock on a sedated horse and corresponding radiographs, intra- and inter-tester reliability and a survey on user-friendliness. The data were analyzed with ANOVA and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), with a significance of p < 0.05. The study showed significant differences in range of motion for the carpus and fetlock joint, a 2–3° difference comparing measurements on a sedated horse with corresponding radiographs, a “fair” to “excellent” inter-tester reliability and a “fair” to “almost perfect” intra-tester reliability, and the DG was easier to use than the UG. In conclusion, the novel DG may serve as a simple tool for measuring joint motion in equine rehabilitation patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Equine Training and Rehabilitation)
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Article
Cornelian Cherry Pulp Has Beneficial Impact on Dyslipidemia and Reduced Bone Quality in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats
Animals 2020, 10(12), 2435; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122435 - 19 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 851
Abstract
Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) is a medicinal plant with a range of biological features. It is often used as a nutritional supplement in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Our study was aimed to first investigate the effects of Cornelian cherry pulp [...] Read more.
Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) is a medicinal plant with a range of biological features. It is often used as a nutritional supplement in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Our study was aimed to first investigate the effects of Cornelian cherry pulp on bone quality parameters in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Moreover, lipid-lowering properties of this fruit were also evaluated. Adult rats (n = 28) were assigned into four groups of seven individuals each: L group (non-diabetic lean rats), C group (diabetic obese rats), and E1 and E2 groups (diabetic obese rats receiving 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight of Cornelian cherry pulp, respectively, for 10 weeks). Significantly lower levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol and alkaline phosphatase activity were determined in the E2 group versus the C group. A higher dose of Cornus mas also had a beneficial impact on femoral weight, cortical bone thickness, relative volume of trabecular bone and trabecular thickness. We observed elevated density of Haversian systems and accelerated periosteal bone apposition in both treated groups (E1 and E2). Our results clearly demonstrate that Cornelian cherry pulp has a favorable effect on lipid disorder and impaired bone quality consistent with type 2 diabetes mellitus in a suitable animal model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Body Condition and Productivity, Health and Welfare)
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Article
Edible Environmental Enrichments in Littered Housing Systems: Do Their Effects on Integument Condition Differ Between Commercial Laying Hen Strains?
Animals 2020, 10(12), 2434; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122434 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1010
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of additional enrichment materials (EMs; pecking stones and alfalfa bales) on the occurrence of plumage damage, skin injuries, and toe injuries, with an emphasis on the possible differences between commercial hybrid strains of [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of additional enrichment materials (EMs; pecking stones and alfalfa bales) on the occurrence of plumage damage, skin injuries, and toe injuries, with an emphasis on the possible differences between commercial hybrid strains of laying hens. During rearing (weeks 1–18, 16 compartments, 4000 pullets) and laying periods (weeks 21–72, 24 compartments, 2808 hens) in a littered housing system, EMs were permanently provided to the study groups (EXP), while control groups (CON) did not receive additional EM. In a two-factorial study design (two groups with four strains) with 351 hens per variant, the brown egg-laying Lohmann Brown classic (LB) and Bovans Brown (BB) strains as well as the white egg-laying Lohmann Selected Leghorn classic (LSL) and Dekalb White (DW) strains were investigated. Compared to the CON, the EXP showed reduced body mass during rearing (p < 0.001) and reduced albumen consistency in the laying period (p < 0.001). Regarding integument condition, the LSL in the EXP showed more toe injuries than in the CON (p = 0.018). Remarkably, genotype-environment interactions between strains and groups were evident (p < 0.001). In groups with an EM supply, plumage damage decreased in LB (p ≤ 0.033) and LSL (p ≤ 0.005) but increased in BB (p ≤ 0.003). Moreover, there were fewer skin injuries in LSL (p = 0.001) but more in BB (p = 0.001) in groups with access to EM. In view of the diverging effects between strains, future practical recommendations for laying hen husbandry should be strain-specific. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Poultry Welfare)
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Article
Quantifying the Economic Impact of Bovine Tuberculosis on Livestock Farms in South-Western Spain
Animals 2020, 10(12), 2433; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122433 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1027
Abstract
Pasture-based livestock farming generates income in regions with limited resources and is key to biodiversity conservation. However, costs derived from fighting disease can make the difference between profit and loss, eventually compromising farm survival. Animal TB (TB), a chronic infection of cattle and [...] Read more.
Pasture-based livestock farming generates income in regions with limited resources and is key to biodiversity conservation. However, costs derived from fighting disease can make the difference between profit and loss, eventually compromising farm survival. Animal TB (TB), a chronic infection of cattle and other domestic and wild hosts, is one of the primary limitations of beef cattle farming in some parts of Europe. When an animal tests positive for TB, a loss of profit is caused in the farm, which is due mainly to the animal’s slaughter, replacement of the slaughtered animal and the need to immobilize the rest of the herd. We estimated the economic impact in terms of loss of profit as a result of incremental costs and forgone incomes. We show that farms with a larger number of heads are more capable of dealing with the loss of profit caused by the disease. The quantification of the loss of profit contributes to the ongoing debate on the co-sharing of TB costs between government and farmers. The compensation farmers receive from the public administration to mitigate the economic effects of the disease control interventions is only intended to balance the loss due to slaughter of the infected cattle, being the loss of profit a more global concept. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal System and Management)
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Review
Seaweed and Seaweed Bioactives for Mitigation of Enteric Methane: Challenges and Opportunities
Animals 2020, 10(12), 2432; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122432 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 5603
Abstract
Seaweeds contain a myriad of nutrients and bioactives including proteins, carbohydrates and to a lesser extent lipids as well as small molecules including peptides, saponins, alkaloids and pigments. The bioactive bromoform found in the red seaweed Asparagopsis taxiformis has been identified as an [...] Read more.
Seaweeds contain a myriad of nutrients and bioactives including proteins, carbohydrates and to a lesser extent lipids as well as small molecules including peptides, saponins, alkaloids and pigments. The bioactive bromoform found in the red seaweed Asparagopsis taxiformis has been identified as an agent that can reduce enteric CH4 production from livestock significantly. However, sustainable supply of this seaweed is a problem and there are some concerns over its sustainable production and potential negative environmental impacts on the ozone layer and the health impacts of bromoform. This review collates information on seaweeds and seaweed bioactives and the documented impact on CH4 emissions in vitro and in vivo as well as associated environmental, economic and health impacts. Full article
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Article
Associations between Owners’ Reports of Unwanted Ridden Behaviour and In-Hand Behaviour in Horses
Animals 2020, 10(12), 2431; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122431 - 18 Dec 2020
Viewed by 2308
Abstract
An evidence-based understanding of dangerous or unwelcome behaviour in horses would greatly benefit both horses and humans who interact with them. Using owner-reported data from the Equine Behaviour Assessment and Research Questionnaire (E-BARQ), the current study investigated in-hand behaviours associated with dangerous or [...] Read more.
An evidence-based understanding of dangerous or unwelcome behaviour in horses would greatly benefit both horses and humans who interact with them. Using owner-reported data from the Equine Behaviour Assessment and Research Questionnaire (E-BARQ), the current study investigated in-hand behaviours associated with dangerous or unwelcome ridden behaviours, notably bolting, rearing and bucking. Respondents (n = 1584) to the ridden horse section of the E-BARQ answered 42 demographic questions, followed by 268 behavioural items. Parallel analysis was conducted to group individual behaviours into rotated components to create independent and dependent indices. Multivariable general linear modelling and ordinal logistic regression were used to identify behaviours associated with bolting, rearing and bucking. Results revealed that safety-from-bolt increased as social confidence with horses (Odds ratio (OR) = 1.06; 95% confidence interval (cf = 1.02–1.09) and other animals (OR = 1.08; cf = 1.03–1.12), compliance in-hand (OR = 1.10; cf = 1.06–1.16) and tolerance of restraint (OR = 1.05; cf = 1.0–1.11) increased; and decreased as loading problems (OR = 0.95; cf = 0.92–0.99) increased. Safety-from-rear increased as tolerance of restraint (OR = 1.07; cf = 1.02–1.12) and social confidence with other animals (OR = 1.05; cf = 1.01–1.09) increased; and decreased as loading problems (OR = 0.94; cf = 0.91–0.98) increased. Safety-from-buck increased as social confidence with horses (b-value = 0.011, p < 0.001) and other animals (b-value = 0.010, p = 0.002), compliance in-hand (b-value = 0.015, p < 0.001), tolerance of restraint (b-value = 0.009, p = 0.027) and tolerance of haltering/bridling (b-value = 0.016, p = 0.010) increased, and it decreased as loading problems increased (b-value = −0.011, p < 0.001). By revealing, for the first time, that specific behaviours on the ground are associated with particular responses in the same horses when ridden, this study advances equitation science considerably. Identification of risk factors for dangerous behaviour while under saddle can improve safety for horses and riders and highlights the importance of effective and humane in-hand training. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Human-Animal Interactions, Animal Behaviour and Emotion)
Article
Effect of Rumen Protected Methionine and α-Tocopherol on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, and Meat Composition of Late Fattening Hanwoo Steer in High-Temperature Seasons
Animals 2020, 10(12), 2430; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122430 - 18 Dec 2020
Viewed by 736
Abstract
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of rumen-protected methionine and α-tocopherol (RPMT) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat composition of late fattening Hanwoo steers in high-temperature seasons. Fourteen steers were randomly assigned to one of two diets; control (commercial concentrate) [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of rumen-protected methionine and α-tocopherol (RPMT) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat composition of late fattening Hanwoo steers in high-temperature seasons. Fourteen steers were randomly assigned to one of two diets; control (commercial concentrate) and treatment (commercial concentrate + 20 g of RPMT). Average daily gain was 34% higher in the treatment group than in the control group; however, there was no significant difference due to the small number under investigation. Feed conversion ratio was lower in the treatment group than in the control group (p < 0.05). Supplementation of RPMT had little effect on the fatty acid composition of longissimus muscle. Metmyoglobin in the longissimus muscle was significantly lower in treatment group compared to the control group at the ninth day of storage (p < 0.05). The redness of the longissimus muscle was higher in the treatment group than in the control group on day 9 of storage (p < 0.01). Thus, the results suggest that RPMT have positive effects on growth performance, and Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage color stability in the longissimus muscle of late fattening Hanwoo steers in high-temperature seasons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cattle)
Article
Efficacy of Broilers as a Method of Face Fly (Musca autumnalis De Geer) Larva Control for Organic Dairy Production
Animals 2020, 10(12), 2429; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122429 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 951
Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate Freedom-Ranger broiler chickens as a method to control face fly (Musca autumnalis De Geer) larvae in cow dung pats on pasture. Ninety-nine pats in three replicates were inoculated with first-instar larvae and exposed to [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to evaluate Freedom-Ranger broiler chickens as a method to control face fly (Musca autumnalis De Geer) larvae in cow dung pats on pasture. Ninety-nine pats in three replicates were inoculated with first-instar larvae and exposed to one of four treatment conditions for 3 to 4 days: (1) an environment-controlled greenhouse (GH); (2) pasture without broilers (NEG); (3) pasture with 25 broilers stocked at a low density of 2.5 m2 of outdoor area per broiler (LOW); and (4) pasture with 25 broilers stocked at a high density of 0.5 m2 of outdoor area per broiler (HIGH). Broiler behaviors and weather conditions were recorded twice daily. Survival rates of larvae (mean, 95% CI) were similar for pats in the NEG (4.4%, 2–9%), LOW (5.6%, 3–11%), and HIGH (3.2%, 2–7%) groups, and was greatest for larvae reared in the GH (54.4%, 36–72%) group compared to all other groups. The proportion of broilers observed pasture ranging was 14.0% (6–28%) but was negatively related to solar radiation. Broilers were never observed foraging in pats. Results indicate that use of broilers may not be an effective method for controlling larvae of dung pat breeding flies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Health, Welfare and Sustainability of Organic Production)
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Article
Seasonal Pattern of Prevalence and Excretion of Eggs of Baylisascaris transfuga in the Brown Bear (Ursus arctos)
Animals 2020, 10(12), 2428; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122428 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 826
Abstract
The seasonal dynamics of the prevalence, abundance, and mean intensity of egg excretion by the nematode parasite Baylisascaris transfuga in the European brown bear (Ursus arctos) were monitored relative to environmental factors (mean temperature, humidity, and temperature) over three years. The [...] Read more.
The seasonal dynamics of the prevalence, abundance, and mean intensity of egg excretion by the nematode parasite Baylisascaris transfuga in the European brown bear (Ursus arctos) were monitored relative to environmental factors (mean temperature, humidity, and temperature) over three years. The prevalence, abundance, and mean intensity of egg excretion tended to increase from spring to autumn throughout the monitoring period. The seasonal prevalence (84.2–90.6%), abundance (470.2–545.3 eggs per gramme (EPG) of faeces), mean intensity of excretion (558.3–602.1 EPG), and number of eggs (1150 EPG) were highest in autumn. The prevalence of eggs (up to 48.5%), abundance (37.8–60.6 EPG), and mean intensity of excretion (94.4–125.0 EPG) were high in winter, despite the period of hibernation. The seasonal dynamics of B. transfuga abundance in bears, the mean temperature between spring and autumn, and the seasonal trend of increase in intensity of egg excretion with temperature from winter to summer were interrelated. Abundance differed significantly between winter and autumn, spring and autumn, and summer and autumn (p < 0.0001) in all years and between spring and summer in 2016 (p < 0.005), 2017 (p < 0.05). B. transfuga abundance differed significantly between the seasons over the three years only in spring (p ≤ 0.0001). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Wildlife)
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