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Article

Phylogeny, Global Biogeography and Pleomorphism of Zanclospora

1
Department of Taxonomy, Institute of Botany, The Czech Academy of Sciences, 252 43 Průhonice, Czech Republic
2
Laboratory of Fungal Genetics and Metabolism, Institute of Microbiology, The Czech Academy of Sciences, 142 20 Prague, Czech Republic
3
Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Diagnostics, University Hospital Hradec Králové, 500 05 Hradec Králové, Czech Republic
4
Illinois Natural History Survey, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL 61820, USA
5
Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute, 3508 AD Utrecht, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Dea Garcia-Hermoso
Microorganisms 2021, 9(4), 706; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9040706
Received: 13 February 2021 / Revised: 19 March 2021 / Accepted: 24 March 2021 / Published: 29 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hotspots of Fungal Diversity)
Zanclospora (Chaetosphaeriaceae) is a neglected, phialidic dematiaceous hyphomycete with striking phenotypic heterogeneity among its species. Little is known about its global biogeography due to its extreme scarcity and lack of records verified by molecular data. Phylogenetic analyses of six nuclear loci, supported by phenotypic data, revealed Zanclospora as highly polyphyletic, with species distributed among three distantly related lineages in Sordariomycetes. Zanclospora is a pleomorphic genus with multiple anamorphic stages, of which phaeostalagmus-like and stanjehughesia-like are newly discovered. The associated teleomorphs were previously classified in Chaetosphaeria. The generic concept is emended, and 17 species are accepted, 12 of which have been verified with DNA sequence data. Zanclospora thrives on decaying plant matter, but it also occurs in soil or as root endophytes. Its global diversity is inferred from metabarcoding data and published records based on field observations. Phylogenies of the environmental ITS1 and ITS2 sequences derived from soil, dead wood and root samples revealed seven and 15 phylotypes. The field records verified by DNA data indicate two main diversity centres in Australasia and Caribbean/Central America. In addition, environmental ITS data have shown that Southeast Asia represents a third hotspot of Zanclospora diversity. Our data confirm that Zanclospora is a rare genus. View Full-Text
Keywords: Chaetosphaeriales; conidiogenesis; geographic distribution; GlobalFungi; life cycle; molecular systematics; taxonomic novelties; new typification Chaetosphaeriales; conidiogenesis; geographic distribution; GlobalFungi; life cycle; molecular systematics; taxonomic novelties; new typification
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MDPI and ACS Style

Réblová, M.; Kolařík, M.; Nekvindová, J.; Miller, A.N.; Hernández-Restrepo, M. Phylogeny, Global Biogeography and Pleomorphism of Zanclospora. Microorganisms 2021, 9, 706. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9040706

AMA Style

Réblová M, Kolařík M, Nekvindová J, Miller AN, Hernández-Restrepo M. Phylogeny, Global Biogeography and Pleomorphism of Zanclospora. Microorganisms. 2021; 9(4):706. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9040706

Chicago/Turabian Style

Réblová, Martina, Miroslav Kolařík, Jana Nekvindová, Andrew N. Miller, and Margarita Hernández-Restrepo. 2021. "Phylogeny, Global Biogeography and Pleomorphism of Zanclospora" Microorganisms 9, no. 4: 706. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9040706

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