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Effectors Targeting the Unfolded Protein Response during Intracellular Bacterial Infection

1
Centre for Innate Immunity and Infectious Diseases, Hudson Institute of Medical Research, Clayton, VIC 3168, Australia
2
Department of Molecular and Translational Science, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3168, Australia
3
College of Pharmacy, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah 24230, Saudi Arabia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: James Garnett
Microorganisms 2021, 9(4), 705; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9040705
Received: 20 February 2021 / Revised: 21 March 2021 / Accepted: 24 March 2021 / Published: 29 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diverse Structures and Functions of Bacterial Effectors)
The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a homeostatic response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress within eukaryotic cells. The UPR initiates transcriptional and post-transcriptional programs to resolve ER stress; or, if ER stress is severe or prolonged, initiates apoptosis. ER stress is a common feature of bacterial infection although the role of the UPR in host defense is only beginning to be understood. While the UPR is important for host defense against pore-forming toxins produced by some bacteria, other bacterial effector proteins hijack the UPR through the activity of translocated effector proteins that facilitate intracellular survival and proliferation. UPR-mediated apoptosis can limit bacterial replication but also often contributes to tissue damage and disease. Here, we discuss the dual nature of the UPR during infection and the implications of UPR activation or inhibition for inflammation and immunity as illustrated by different bacterial pathogens. View Full-Text
Keywords: ER stress; UPR; bacteria; infection; secretion systems; effector proteins ER stress; UPR; bacteria; infection; secretion systems; effector proteins
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alshareef, M.H.; Hartland, E.L.; McCaffrey, K. Effectors Targeting the Unfolded Protein Response during Intracellular Bacterial Infection. Microorganisms 2021, 9, 705. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9040705

AMA Style

Alshareef MH, Hartland EL, McCaffrey K. Effectors Targeting the Unfolded Protein Response during Intracellular Bacterial Infection. Microorganisms. 2021; 9(4):705. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9040705

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alshareef, Manal H., Elizabeth L. Hartland, and Kathleen McCaffrey. 2021. "Effectors Targeting the Unfolded Protein Response during Intracellular Bacterial Infection" Microorganisms 9, no. 4: 705. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9040705

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