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Open AccessArticle

Biofilm Formation by Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli on Stainless Steel Coupons as Affected by Temperature and Incubation Time

1
College of Food Science and Technology, Nanjing Agriculture University, Nanjing 210095, China
2
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge, AB T1J 4B1, Canada
3
Alberta Agriculture and Forestry, Lethbridge, AB T1J 4V6, Canada
4
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 4Z6, Canada
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2019, 7(4), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7040095
Received: 2 March 2019 / Revised: 24 March 2019 / Accepted: 27 March 2019 / Published: 31 March 2019
Forming biofilm is a strategy utilized by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) to survive and persist in food processing environments. We investigated the biofilm-forming potential of STEC strains from 10 clinically important serogroups on stainless steel at 22 °C or 13 °C after 24, 48, and 72 h of incubation. Results from crystal violet staining, plate counts, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) identified a single isolate from each of the O113, O145, O91, O157, and O121 serogroups that was capable of forming strong or moderate biofilms on stainless steel at 22 °C. However, the biofilm-forming strength of these five strains was reduced when incubation time progressed. Moreover, we found that these strains formed a dense pellicle at the air-liquid interface on stainless steel, which suggests that oxygen was conducive to biofilm formation. At 13 °C, biofilm formation by these strains decreased (P < 0.05), but gradually increased over time. Overall, STEC biofilm formation was most prominent at 22 °C up to 24 h. The findings in this study identify the environmental conditions that may promote STEC biofilm formation in food processing facilities and suggest that the ability of specific strains to form biofilms contributes to their persistence within these environments. View Full-Text
Keywords: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC); biofilm formation; temperature; stainless steel Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC); biofilm formation; temperature; stainless steel
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Ma, Z.; Bumunang, E.W.; Stanford, K.; Bie, X.; Niu, Y.D.; McAllister, T.A. Biofilm Formation by Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli on Stainless Steel Coupons as Affected by Temperature and Incubation Time. Microorganisms 2019, 7, 95.

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