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Soc. Sci., Volume 8, Issue 8 (August 2019)

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Open AccessArticle
Decomposing the Complexity of Value: Integration of Digital Transformation of Education with Circular Economy Transition
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(8), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8080243 - 20 Aug 2019
Viewed by 760
Abstract
In this article, we highlight the pressing need for integrating the windows of opportunities that digital transformation of education opens up with circular economy education to accelerate the achievements of sustainability outcomes. Circular economy transition, as a multi-scalar process, relates to several contexts, [...] Read more.
In this article, we highlight the pressing need for integrating the windows of opportunities that digital transformation of education opens up with circular economy education to accelerate the achievements of sustainability outcomes. Circular economy transition, as a multi-scalar process, relates to several contexts, e.g., product, firm, industry-level transformations ranging from designing local socio-technical solutions to greening global value chains, with multi-level policy and business implications for finance, production, distribution, consumption that are fundamentally consequential to everyday life, work and learning. Drawing on theories of neo-capital, multi-level perspective and structuration, and as methodology, using content analysis and qualitative meta-synthesis of scientific publications in digital education for sustainability, we blended our findings into multi-level, multi-domain structuration blueprints, which capture the complexity of value emanating from the interactions among external structures, internal structures of agents, active agencies and outcomes, for circular economy open online education and massive open online course instructional designs. We conclude that learning and creating multiple values to increase social–ecological value, complementarily to economic value, necessitate activating the complexity of value embedded in digital education and circular economy transitions with customizable niches of learning preferences and journeys of individuals and groups, within broader (and evolving) technological, organizational and institutional structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adopting Circular Economy Current Practices and Future Perspectives)
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Open AccessArticle
“12th Street is Dead”: Techno-Heritage and Neoliberal Contestation in the Maya Riviera
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(8), 242; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8080242 - 20 Aug 2019
Viewed by 503
Abstract
In 2017, the Beats Per Minute (BPM) electronic music festival was banned from Playa del Carmen following a horrific shooting that left five dead and fifteen injured. The city’s response was to crack down on electronic music, arguing the scene posed a unique [...] Read more.
In 2017, the Beats Per Minute (BPM) electronic music festival was banned from Playa del Carmen following a horrific shooting that left five dead and fifteen injured. The city’s response was to crack down on electronic music, arguing the scene posed a unique danger to the safety of the city and that electronic music was not part of Playa’s cultural identity. Those in the scene argued something else was underway, suggesting that the scene was being pushed out of the city to make room for higher end, luxury tourism development. The ousting of electronic music from the city raised important questions about the city’s cultural identity and the direction of tourism development the city would take. This essay takes a critical look at these events, tracing the way Playa’s particular electronic music scene grew to global notoriety as both a cause and consequence of the Maya Riviera’s impressive tourism expansion over the last two decades and how those in the scene believed themselves to be an essential part of the city’s heritage. The city government’s decision to oust BPM reveals how struggles over cultural heritage are at the very heart of how urban space is organized in tourism zones. Using the concept of “contestation”, this ethnographic account demonstrates how disputes over heritage and culture frame important questions of neoliberal, political-economy and can lead to counterintuitive outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neoliberal Cities: The Touristification Phenomenon under Analysis)
Open AccessArticle
Identifying the Equilibrium Point between Sustainability Goals and Circular Economy Practices in an Industry 4.0 Manufacturing Context Using Eco-Design
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(8), 241; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8080241 - 14 Aug 2019
Viewed by 828
Abstract
For manufacturing companies, the transition to circular business models (CBMs) can be hampered both by the lack of relevant data and by operational tools. Eco-design, associated with Industry 4.0 IoT (Internet of Things) technologies, can be an effective methodological approach in developing products [...] Read more.
For manufacturing companies, the transition to circular business models (CBMs) can be hampered both by the lack of relevant data and by operational tools. Eco-design, associated with Industry 4.0 IoT (Internet of Things) technologies, can be an effective methodological approach in developing products that are consistent with the principles of the circular economy. The reason is that, in the design phase, decisions are made that can significantly influence the degree of sustainability of products during their lifecycle. Therefore, in the manufacturing environment, eco-design represents an innovative approach to include sustainability among the traditional industrial variables such as functionality, aesthetics, quality, and profit. This study aimed to test eco-design as a tool to define the equilibrium point between sustainability and circular economy in the manufacturing environment of ceramic tile production, and to demonstrate how new business opportunities can be created through evolution from a linear to a circular business model, thanks to IoT and Industry 4.0 technologies used as enabling factors. The main result of this paper was the empirical validation in a manufacturing environment of sustainability paradigms through eco-design tools and digital technologies, proposing the circular business model as an operational tool to promote the competitiveness of enterprises. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adopting Circular Economy Current Practices and Future Perspectives)
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Open AccessArticle
Millennial Consumers’ Responses to Cause-Related Marketing in Support of LGBTQ Homeless Youth
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(8), 240; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8080240 - 14 Aug 2019
Viewed by 679
Abstract
This study explored Millennial consumers’ responses to a cause-related marketing (CRM) initiative for a sensitive social cause—lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer (LGBTQ) homeless youth. Qualitative and quantitative research methods were employed to examine the effectiveness of CRM in generating financial support for [...] Read more.
This study explored Millennial consumers’ responses to a cause-related marketing (CRM) initiative for a sensitive social cause—lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer (LGBTQ) homeless youth. Qualitative and quantitative research methods were employed to examine the effectiveness of CRM in generating financial support for LGBTQ homeless youth. Findings revealed that self-cause congruence may be an important factor in determining Millennial consumers’ responses to a CRM initiative for LGBTQ homeless youth; whereas, message frame/appeal may be less important for generating response to such an initiative. Findings also indicated that gender, information processing, guilt, and skepticism influenced Millennial consumers’ attitudes toward brand, attitudes toward cause, and behavioral intentions toward the CRM initiative. These findings offer implications for brands/companies that may wish to engage in CRM initiative in support of sensitive social causes. By addressing a sensitive social cause—LGBTQ homeless youth—findings provide an original contribution to the CRM literature. Findings reveal that self-cause congruence is an important predictor of behavioral intention toward the LGBTQ social cause. This provides an implication for marketers who want to target their relationship-building efforts toward individuals who have demonstrated prior engagement with a social cause. Findings also have implications for brands/companies that wish to develop CRM initiatives for controversial causes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gender Studies)
Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Sociodemographic Variables on Audiovisual Consumption: The Case of Spain
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(8), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8080239 - 13 Aug 2019
Viewed by 693
Abstract
Different spectators have distinct patterns of audiovisual product consumption. These patterns may be influenced by a range of factors. In this context, the present study analyzes how audiovisual consumption is influenced by sociodemographic variables. To this end, primary data was collected through a [...] Read more.
Different spectators have distinct patterns of audiovisual product consumption. These patterns may be influenced by a range of factors. In this context, the present study analyzes how audiovisual consumption is influenced by sociodemographic variables. To this end, primary data was collected through a survey with 484 Spanish spectators. The collected data was subjected to a descriptive analysis and a non-parametric Pearson’s chi-square test, in order to establish consumption patterns and potentially link them to demographic variables. Results show that consumption patterns vary according to gender, age, and formal education. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Legitimate Exclusion of Would-Be Immigrants: A View from Global Ethics and the Ethics of International Relations
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(8), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8080238 - 09 Aug 2019
Viewed by 826
Abstract
The debate about justice in immigration seems somehow stagnated given that it seems justice requires both further exclusion and more porous borders. In the face of this, I propose to take a step back and to realize that the general problem of borders—to [...] Read more.
The debate about justice in immigration seems somehow stagnated given that it seems justice requires both further exclusion and more porous borders. In the face of this, I propose to take a step back and to realize that the general problem of borders—to determine what kind of borders liberal democracies ought to have—gives rise to two particular problems: first, to justify exclusive control over the administration of borders (the problem of legitimacy of borders) and, second, to specify how this control ought to be exercised (the problem of justice of borders). The literature has explored the second but ignored the first. Therefore, I propose a different approach to the ethics of immigration by focusing on concerns of legitimacy in a three-step framework: first, identifying the kind of authority or power that immigration controls exercise; second, redefining borders as international and domestic institutions that issue that kind of power; and finally, considering supranational institutions that redistribute the right to exclude among legitimate borders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reshaping the World: Rethinking Borders)
Open AccessArticle
Market Orientation in NGDOs: Construction of a Scale Focused on Their Stakeholders
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(8), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8080237 - 09 Aug 2019
Viewed by 709
Abstract
Nongovernmental development organizations (NGDOs) have traditionally enjoyed notable recognition and visibility within the field of nonprofit organizations. However, the situation of this sector is problematic in its need to respond to various threats whether programmatic, financial, or of social legitimacy. This study poses [...] Read more.
Nongovernmental development organizations (NGDOs) have traditionally enjoyed notable recognition and visibility within the field of nonprofit organizations. However, the situation of this sector is problematic in its need to respond to various threats whether programmatic, financial, or of social legitimacy. This study poses as a hypothesis that market orientation, as a management philosophy which many NGDOs could adopt, may be fundamental for them to deal successfully with the challenges they face. An analysis of the literature on market orientation in the nonprofit sector showed that the existing models of market orientation did not adequately capture NGDOs’ real working context, thus recommending a broader market approach based on proposals oriented to the stakeholder and to social aspects. For this reason, the objective of the study was to create a scale of market orientation adapted to the reality of the work of NGDOs. Analysis of a sample of 104 Spanish entities allowed an eight-factor market orientation scale for NGDOs to be created and validated, which reached optimal values of reliability and validity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marketing in Nonprofit Organizations)
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Open AccessArticle
Social Innovation in the Non-Profit Organization Framework: A Review
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(8), 236; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8080236 - 09 Aug 2019
Viewed by 845
Abstract
This article reviews the literature related to the concepts of social innovation and non-profit organizations, applying a bibliometric analysis to the last five years of publications in the Scopus platform and Web of Science. The results suggest that these concepts complement rather than [...] Read more.
This article reviews the literature related to the concepts of social innovation and non-profit organizations, applying a bibliometric analysis to the last five years of publications in the Scopus platform and Web of Science. The results suggest that these concepts complement rather than exclude each other, as social innovation can add to the social value of this type of organization. The social commitment of non-profit organizations and its relevance to integrating an innovative approach in their management is also discussed as a way to confront social problems through innovation and promote more participation and development in the social sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marketing in Nonprofit Organizations)
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Open AccessArticle
New Materialist Feminist Ecological Practices: La Via Campesina and Activist Environmental Work
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(8), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8080235 - 08 Aug 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 804
Abstract
Within the context of new theoretical developments in environmentalist materialism, as inflected by gender issues, this paper attempts to analyze the important work of La Via Campesina (women’s section) both in grassroots activism and in creating a feminist agenda for the transformation of [...] Read more.
Within the context of new theoretical developments in environmentalist materialism, as inflected by gender issues, this paper attempts to analyze the important work of La Via Campesina (women’s section) both in grassroots activism and in creating a feminist agenda for the transformation of human-non-human connections. Methodologically, this paper proceeds by historically situating La Via Campesina and the progressive incorporation of women’s issues as part of the movement. In parallel, La Via Campesina’s insurgent practices of contestation to the exploitation of huge multinational agrobusinesses, to genetically modified crops, and to land-grabbing practices and land usurpation from indigenous populations are illustrated. In conclusion and within the frame of new materialisms, my discussion addresses issues of response-ability, sustainability, and co-habitation to reflect upon the major changes brought about by these new modes of thinking and inhabiting the planet. Full article
Open AccessArticle
“Because of the Christian Fellowship, I Decided to Stay”: How Participating in a Christian Community Shapes the Social Experiences of Chinese International Students
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(8), 234; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8080234 - 07 Aug 2019
Viewed by 787
Abstract
This ethnographic study examines how participation in a Christian church community shapes Chinese international undergraduate students’ social experiences in an American university. Our findings reveal that Chinese international undergraduate students identify the church and its fellowship as (1) a social support community and [...] Read more.
This ethnographic study examines how participation in a Christian church community shapes Chinese international undergraduate students’ social experiences in an American university. Our findings reveal that Chinese international undergraduate students identify the church and its fellowship as (1) a social support community and (2) an informal learning community, one which fills in the gap in counseling services and interpersonal activities that the university fails to offer. Recommendations are made for higher education institutions to provide stronger support for international students, regardless of their nationalities and religions. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Moral Foundations in the 2015-16 U.S. Presidential Primary Debates: The Positive and Negative Moral Vocabulary of Partisan Elites
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(8), 233; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8080233 - 06 Aug 2019
Viewed by 846
Abstract
Moral foundations theory (MFT) suggests that individuals on the political left draw upon moral intuitions relating primarily to care and fairness, whereas conservatives are more motivated than liberals by authority, ingroup, and purity concerns. The theory of conservatism as motivated [...] Read more.
Moral foundations theory (MFT) suggests that individuals on the political left draw upon moral intuitions relating primarily to care and fairness, whereas conservatives are more motivated than liberals by authority, ingroup, and purity concerns. The theory of conservatism as motivated social cognition (CMSC) suggests that conservatives are more attuned than liberals to threat and to negative stimuli. Because evidence for both accounts rests on studies of mass publics, however, it remains unclear whether political elites of the left and right exhibit these inclinations. Thus, this analysis uses the 2015-16 United States presidential primary season as an occasion to explore partisan differences in candidates’ moral rhetoric. The analysis focuses on verbal responses to questions posed during party primary debates, a setting that is largely unscripted and thus potentially subject to intuitive influences. The Moral Foundations Dictionary is employed to analyze how frequently candidates used words representing various moral foundations, distinguishing between positive and negative references to each. Consistent with CMSC, the Republican candidates were more likely to use negative-valence moral terminology, describing violations of moral foundations. The direction of some partisan differences contradicts the expectations of MFT. Donald Trump, a novice candidate, was an exception to the typical Republican pattern, making markedly lower overall use of moral-foundations vocabulary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Contemporary Politics and Society)
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Open AccessArticle
In Search of Maximal Citizenship in Educational Policy for Young People: Analysing Citizenship in Finnish Religious Education in View of the “Maximal” Conception
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(8), 232; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8080232 - 02 Aug 2019
Viewed by 964
Abstract
The place of religion and how it should be employed in education for citizenship is currently an issue in Europe. The challenges of increasing diversity are the underlying factors. The conception of maximal citizenship (a critical model of citizenship) gives a significant framework [...] Read more.
The place of religion and how it should be employed in education for citizenship is currently an issue in Europe. The challenges of increasing diversity are the underlying factors. The conception of maximal citizenship (a critical model of citizenship) gives a significant framework for analysis and scholarly perspectives about several European contexts on this matter. However, there is hardly maximal citizenship in Finnish contexts in scholarship. Hence, this work searches for the elements of maximal citizenship in educational policy for young people by employing the policy relating to citizenship in Finnish religious education (RE). Focusing on grades 7–9 of basic education, its primary data is based on selected national policy documents. The data were analysed using critical discourse analysis. The main findings suggest that citizenship in Finnish RE is only somewhat compatible with the characteristics of maximal citizenship. This reveals some policy shortcomings that could negatively affect the potential of critical-mindedness of young people and equal opportunities in a democracy. Hence, some suggestions that could improve the situation are embedded in the paper. Nevertheless, a linguistic conception of citizenship in Finland vis-à-vis a recent development in national educational policy seems to push the conception of maximal citizenship in a relatively new direction. Furthermore, an explicit use of the “Convention on the Rights of the Child” in Finnish curriculum broadens our conception of maximal citizenship in general. Moreover, while scholars generally agree that maximal citizenship is essentially “critical”, this piece suggests that every “critical” approach to citizenship education is not necessarily “maximal”. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Trends in International PISA Scores over Time: Which Countries Are Actually Improving?
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(8), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8080231 - 02 Aug 2019
Viewed by 895
Abstract
Many countries attempt to increase their Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) rankings and scores over time. However, despite providing a more accurate assessment of the achievement-based improvements across countries, few studies have systematically examined growth in PISA scores over multiple assessments. Using [...] Read more.
Many countries attempt to increase their Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) rankings and scores over time. However, despite providing a more accurate assessment of the achievement-based improvements across countries, few studies have systematically examined growth in PISA scores over multiple assessments. Using data from the 2006, the 2009, and the 2012 PISA, we analyzed which countries experienced significant increases in their country-level average PISA scores between 2006 and 2012. To facilitate improved policy decisions, we also examined what country-level conditions were associated with such increases. Contrary to expectations, we found that few countries significantly increased their PISA scores over time. Countries that did experience meaningful improvements in PISA scores were more likely to have had lower PISA scores in 2006 and experienced country-level foundational advancements more recently, such as advancing to a more democratic form of government and/or a higher income classification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Policy)
Open AccessArticle
How Do People Become Foster Carers in Portugal? The Process of Building the Motivation
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(8), 230; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8080230 - 01 Aug 2019
Viewed by 987
Abstract
Act no. 142/2015 highlights the importance of children out-of-home being placed in a family context. However, foster care continues to be an almost absent component in the Portuguese childcare system. In 2017, it corresponded to just 3% of out-of-home care. This research aims [...] Read more.
Act no. 142/2015 highlights the importance of children out-of-home being placed in a family context. However, foster care continues to be an almost absent component in the Portuguese childcare system. In 2017, it corresponded to just 3% of out-of-home care. This research aims to contribute to the understanding of the reasons for becoming a foster family. It adopted a qualitative approach, using carers’ narrative interviews and practitioners semi-structured interviews, inspired by grounded theory. Foster family motivation is rooted in altruism, affection for children and sensitivity to maltreatment. These factors, as well as personal life course and contact with out-of-home care, induce a predisposition to become a foster family. The quality of the support services and the care professionals’ performance also reveal key elements. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Street-Wise University: The Amsterdam Knowledge Mile as an Intermediary and Place-Making Concept
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(8), 229; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8080229 - 31 Jul 2019
Viewed by 1014
Abstract
Universities have become more engaged or entrepreneurial, forging deeper relations with society beyond the economic sphere. To foster, structure, and institutionalize a broader spectrum of engagement, new types of intermediary organizations are created, going beyond the “standard” technology transfer offices, incubators, and science [...] Read more.
Universities have become more engaged or entrepreneurial, forging deeper relations with society beyond the economic sphere. To foster, structure, and institutionalize a broader spectrum of engagement, new types of intermediary organizations are created, going beyond the “standard” technology transfer offices, incubators, and science parks. This paper conceptualizes the role of such new-style intermediaries as facilitator, enabler, and co-shaper of university–society interaction, making a distinction between the roles of facilitation, configuration, and brokering. As a case study, the paper presents the Knowledge Mile in Amsterdam as a novel form of hyper-local engagement of a university with its urban surroundings that connects the challenges of companies and organisations in the street to a broad range of educational and research activities of the university, as well as to rebrand the street. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Universities’ Contributions to Societal Development)
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Open AccessArticle
Keeping People in Place: Political Factors of (Im)mobility and Climate Change
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(8), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8080228 - 29 Jul 2019
Viewed by 901
Abstract
While those ‘trapped’ or who choose to stay in areas affected by climate change represent a substantial policy issue, there only a small amount of empirical work specifically targeting such populations. The scant attention that is afforded to immobility often emphasizes financial constraints [...] Read more.
While those ‘trapped’ or who choose to stay in areas affected by climate change represent a substantial policy issue, there only a small amount of empirical work specifically targeting such populations. The scant attention that is afforded to immobility often emphasizes financial constraints as factors driving (involuntary) immobility. As an essential part of the mobility spectrum, the complexity of immobility in crisis, including its political dimensions, warrants thorough investigation. In response to these gaps, this contribution locates environmental immobility within mobilities studies, its conceptual complexities, and, finally, illustrates the importance of political factors in shaping (im)mobilities. The findings are based on semi-structured interviews conducted in two developing countries experiencing the impacts of climate change. We delve into the socio-cultural and economic nature of (im)mobilities as they interact with political forces, specifically by exploring international bilateral agreements (Senegal) and a relocation program (Vietnam). In political spaces that are dominated by a desire to limit human mobility and (re)produce stasis, we challenge traditional dichotomies between mobile/immobile and sedentary/migration polices by underlining how policy interventions can simultaneously promote mobility and immobility, demonstrating complex co-existing mobilities. Keeping people in place can, in fact, mean allowing the very same people to move. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Role of Culture in Urban Travel Patterns: Quantitative Analyses of Urban Areas Based on Hofstede’s Culture Dimensions
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(8), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8080227 - 29 Jul 2019
Viewed by 962
Abstract
Introduction—culture is an interpretation code of societies, which may explain common preferences in a place. Prediction of alternative transport systems, which could be adopted in a city at peace can help urban transport planners and policy makers adjust urban environments in a [...] Read more.
Introduction—culture is an interpretation code of societies, which may explain common preferences in a place. Prediction of alternative transport systems, which could be adopted in a city at peace can help urban transport planners and policy makers adjust urban environments in a more sustainable manner. This paper attempts to investigate the role of Hofstede’s culture dimensions (HCD) on urban travel patterns in 87 urban areas and 41 countries. Analysis—this is the first, systematic analysis investigating the effect of culture on urban travel patterns with open source data from different urban areas around the world. The relationship between HCD and some urban travel patterns such as mode choices (individual transportation and public transportation), car ownership, and infrastructure accessibility (road infrastructure per capita) was demonstrated. In addition, the relationship between culture and some demographic indicators (population density and GDP per capita) closely associated with travel choices are checked. The relations between indicators were identified through correlations and regression models, and calibrated to quantify the relation between indicators. Results and Conclusions—good correlation values between Hofstede’s fundamental culture dimension: individualism/collectivism (IND/COL) and urban travel patterns were demonstrated with a reasonably good fit. The analysis showed that countries with higher individualism build more individualistic transport-related environments, which in turn result in more driving. On the other hand, collective nations tend to use more public transportation. There is significant evidence that, in the case of nations, an increase in tree culture dimensions: collectivism, uncertainty, and masculinity, results in greater usage of public transport. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Moving with Touch: Entanglements of a Child, Valentine’s Day Cards, and Research–Activism against Sexual Harassment in Pre-Teen Peer Cultures
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(8), 226; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8080226 - 26 Jul 2019
Viewed by 851
Abstract
In this paper, we respond to feminist new materialist scholars’ calls to explore what research in the field of gendered and sexual violence can be, do, and become. This paper explores the microprocesses of change within the more-than-human child–card entanglements as part of [...] Read more.
In this paper, we respond to feminist new materialist scholars’ calls to explore what research in the field of gendered and sexual violence can be, do, and become. This paper explores the microprocesses of change within the more-than-human child–card entanglements as part of our research–activist campaign addressing sexual harassment in pre-teen peer cultures. Drawing on one of our creative workshops, we generate three analytical readings that map touch. We focus, first, on the intra-action of bodies, objects, and abstractions that reconfigures painful experiences of harassment for recognition; second, on the affective charge in moments and movements of response and resistance; and third, on what else touch can become when it travels across time–space domains as part of our research–activism. Re-engaging with our research–activism, we propose that different kinds of touch converge into a sensing-feeling, inherently ethico-political, matter-realizing apparatus that reconfigures painful experiences of gendered and sexual harassment for recognition, response, and resistance. Connecting to feminist new materialist endeavors to envision and enact response-able research, we propose that ‘moving with touch’ helps us shed light on the microprocesses of change in generative ways—that is, in ways that recraft response-abilities and invite movement. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Measuring Peripherality as a Proxy for Autonomous Community Coping Capacity: A Case Study from Bua Province, Fiji Islands, for Improving Climate Change Adaptation
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(8), 225; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8080225 - 26 Jul 2019
Viewed by 852
Abstract
Over the past thirty years, externally-driven interventions for climate-change adaptation in rural Pacific Island contexts have largely failed to be effective or sustained. One reason is that traditional (culturally-grounded) autonomous community coping capacity has been overlooked, many external agencies viewing all such communities [...] Read more.
Over the past thirty years, externally-driven interventions for climate-change adaptation in rural Pacific Island contexts have largely failed to be effective or sustained. One reason is that traditional (culturally-grounded) autonomous community coping capacity has been overlooked, many external agencies viewing all such communities as both homogenous and helpless. A community’s autonomous coping capacity can be proxied by peripherality, a measure of the degree to which a particular community in archipelagic (island) countries engages with core agendas. In order to gauge the depth, breadth and efficacy of autonomous coping capacity, three indices of community peripherality were developed from research within thirteen communities in (peripheral-biased) Bua Province in Fiji. Index 1 concerns geography (travel time/cost to town), Index 2 concerns population and employment (community size, age distribution, employment), and Index 3 concerns tradition and global awareness (mobile phones per capita, traditional/western healthcare preferences, inherent coping capacity, diet, water and energy security). Mapping of Indices 1–3 allows the nature of community peripherality in Bua to be captured using a readily-reproducible tool for rapid assessment in similar contexts. It is demonstrated that an understanding of peripherality (as a proxy for autonomous community coping capacity) can inform the design of future interventions for climate-change adaptation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
New Materialist Perspectives on Sex Robots. A Feminist Dystopia/Utopia?
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(8), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8080224 - 26 Jul 2019
Viewed by 1101
Abstract
Feminist discourses on sex robots and robot sex largely focus on the dystopian fear of an exponentiation of hegemonic masculinity. The very possibility of robot sex is put on a level with slavery or prostitution and is rejected as a continuation of male [...] Read more.
Feminist discourses on sex robots and robot sex largely focus on the dystopian fear of an exponentiation of hegemonic masculinity. The very possibility of robot sex is put on a level with slavery or prostitution and is rejected as a continuation of male dominance over women. Proceeding from a feminist new materialist perspective and building both on the refutation of normative definitions of sex and a general openness to the manifold variants consenting adults can engage in in sexual matters, the article presents a queer alternative to this outright rejection. Leaving the beaten tracks of pornographic mimicry, sex robots may in fact enable new liberated forms of sexual pleasure beyond fixed normalizations, thus contributing to a sex-positive utopian future. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Big Data in Education. A Bibliometric Review
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(8), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8080223 - 25 Jul 2019
Viewed by 911
Abstract
The handling of a large amount of data to analyze certain behaviors is reaching a great popularity in the decade 2010–2020. This phenomenon has been called Big Data. In the field of education, the analysis of this large amount of data, generated to [...] Read more.
The handling of a large amount of data to analyze certain behaviors is reaching a great popularity in the decade 2010–2020. This phenomenon has been called Big Data. In the field of education, the analysis of this large amount of data, generated to a greater extent by students, has begun to be introduced in order to improve the teaching–learning process. In this paper, it was proposed as an objective to analyze the scientific production on Big Data in education in the databases Web of Science (WOS), Scopus, ERIC, and PsycINFO. A bibliometric study was carried out on a sample of 1491 scientific documents. Among the results, the increase in publications in 2017 and the configuration of certain journals, countries and authors as references in the subject matter stand out. Finally, potential explanations for the study findings and suggestions for future research are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Big Data and Social Sciences)
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Open AccessArticle
Young Transport Users’ Perception of ICT Solutions Change
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(8), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8080222 - 24 Jul 2019
Viewed by 863
Abstract
The increasing urban population impacts heavily on city sustainability. One of the key sustainability problems in developing cities is an efficient transport system that can meet transport needs at the lowest social cost. The existing body of knowledge tells us that it could [...] Read more.
The increasing urban population impacts heavily on city sustainability. One of the key sustainability problems in developing cities is an efficient transport system that can meet transport needs at the lowest social cost. The existing body of knowledge tells us that it could be achieved by shifting users to public transport (PT) and increasing occupancy rates of private modes. Against this background we argue that the key tool in ensuring this shift is offered by Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), especially with the use of smartphones. We posit that young users (i.e., 20–24) can be attracted to public transport through ICTs most effectively. We apply a questionnaire-based field research in Sopot, Poland on a large group of young transport users (i.e., n = 567). What was observed are preferences towards ICT and its potential in encouraging the use of different transport modes. We also survey the differences between car owners and no-owners in relation to their preferences. Our results show that young users prefer ICT solutions but require specific ICT-oriented features. What is most interesting is that access to a private car does not need to be a limiting factor in using public transport if only quality ICT in public transport is offered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Economics)
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Open AccessArticle
Embodied Resistance: Multiracial Identity, Gender, and the Body
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(8), 221; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8080221 - 24 Jul 2019
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Abstract
This article explores the importance of the physical body in the development of gendered racial and ethnic identities through in-depth semi-structured interviews with 11 multiracial/multiethnic women. From a critical mixed race and critical feminist perspective, I argue that the development of an embodied [...] Read more.
This article explores the importance of the physical body in the development of gendered racial and ethnic identities through in-depth semi-structured interviews with 11 multiracial/multiethnic women. From a critical mixed race and critical feminist perspective, I argue that the development of an embodied and gendered multiracial and multiethnic identity is a path to questioning and resisting the dominant monoracial order in the United States. Interviews reveal that respondents develop these embodied identities both through understandings of themselves as gendered and raced subjects and through relationships with monoracial individuals. The process by which these women understand their physical bodies as multiracial subjects illustrates a critical embodied component of the social construction of race and ethnicity in the United States. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gender Studies)
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