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Soc. Sci., Volume 13, Issue 6 (June 2024) – 42 articles

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15 pages, 1457 KiB  
Article
Unveiling the Relationship between Flextime and Job Performance: The Role of Family–Work Conflict and the Ability to Cope in a Moderated Mediation Model
by Salvatore Zappalà, Ferdinando Toscano, Dharan Bharti and Luca Pietrantoni
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(6), 317; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13060317 (registering DOI) - 14 Jun 2024
Abstract
Grounded in the Conservation of Resources (COR) theory, this study explored the contribution of flexible work arrangements within the increasing digitalization of workplaces. In particular, with a specific focus on what happened when employees teleworked, it examined whether flextime perceptions, accounting for employees’ [...] Read more.
Grounded in the Conservation of Resources (COR) theory, this study explored the contribution of flexible work arrangements within the increasing digitalization of workplaces. In particular, with a specific focus on what happened when employees teleworked, it examined whether flextime perceptions, accounting for employees’ perception of control over their working hours, were related to job performance and if family–work conflict mediated this relationship. Additionally, the study investigated if the ability to cope with work tasks moderated the relationships between flextime and both family–work conflict and job performance. The study was conducted in an Italian research institute involving 598 respondents engaged in hybrid work with over two years of remote working experience. The SPSS Process macro was used, and findings showed a positive direct association between flextime and job performance. Intriguingly, no indirect effect of flextime on job performance through family–work conflict was observed. However, the introduction of the ability to cope in the model generated a significant mediation at specific levels of the moderator. The study highlighted the moderating role of the ability to cope in the relationships between flextime and family–work conflict on one side and job performance on the other. This research provides insights into the complexities of hybrid work and discusses the advantages of flextime and the intricate interplay it has with family–work conflict and job performance. The study concludes with theoretical and practical implications, offering guidance for both researchers and practitioners navigating the multifaceted realm of flexible work arrangements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Work, Employment and the Labor Market)
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33 pages, 714 KiB  
Review
Definitional Discrepancies: Defining “School Shootings” and Other Incidents of Gunfire Affecting Schools
by Benjamin P. Comer
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(6), 316; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13060316 - 13 Jun 2024
Viewed by 64
Abstract
The current review explores multiple definitions of school shootings used by myriad data collection platforms and by various scholars. Importantly, the impacts of definitional discrepancies on inclusion criteria, data divergence, research, policy, and public perception are discussed at length. The review concludes with [...] Read more.
The current review explores multiple definitions of school shootings used by myriad data collection platforms and by various scholars. Importantly, the impacts of definitional discrepancies on inclusion criteria, data divergence, research, policy, and public perception are discussed at length. The review concludes with a call to Criminologists and school gun violence scholars to better collaborate on what should be considered a “school shooting” and lists five benefits that may result from modifying school gun violence definitions and data collection methodologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reducing School Violence)
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24 pages, 1327 KiB  
Article
Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in the Portuguese Hospitality Industry: A Study on Sociodemographic and Professional Variables
by João Pedro Cordeiro, Liliana Pitacho and Daniela Lima
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(6), 315; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13060315 - 13 Jun 2024
Viewed by 103
Abstract
The aim of this research is to reflexively analyze and discuss organizational citizenship behaviors. By conducting an empirical test based on the assertions within the fields of the positive organizational behavior and the social identity theory, the specific objective is to analyze the [...] Read more.
The aim of this research is to reflexively analyze and discuss organizational citizenship behaviors. By conducting an empirical test based on the assertions within the fields of the positive organizational behavior and the social identity theory, the specific objective is to analyze the relationship between organizational citizenship and sociodemographic and professional variables. A study was carried out by surveying employees of Portuguese hotel units. The sample consisted of 798 employees, mostly males, between 30 and 34 years old, with secondary school education, serving as operatives or undifferentiated employees, and having middle levels of seniority in the organization. The main results show that hotel employees develop organizational citizenship behaviors, albeit of different types and levels, which are supported by some sociodemographic and professional variables. The findings show that age and seniority are the most important and strongest variables significantly related to organizational citizenship behaviors. This study has several implications, highlighting the role and support that managers and decision-makers must have in reinforcing positive voluntary personal and social behaviors among hotel employees. This research aims to contribute to the formulation and implementation of management strategies anchored in organizational citizenship behaviors, supporting the formulation of management systems centered on behavioral attitudes at work in the context of the hotel sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Work, Employment and the Labor Market)
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16 pages, 266 KiB  
Article
Coloniality and Refugee Education in the United States
by Jill Koyama and Adnan Turan
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(6), 314; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13060314 - 13 Jun 2024
Viewed by 108
Abstract
In this paper, we demonstrate the ways in which the schooling of refugee youth in the United States reflects ongoing coloniality in education. Drawing on data collected in a case study, conducted between 2013 and 2016, as part of a larger ongoing ethnography [...] Read more.
In this paper, we demonstrate the ways in which the schooling of refugee youth in the United States reflects ongoing coloniality in education. Drawing on data collected in a case study, conducted between 2013 and 2016, as part of a larger ongoing ethnography of a Southwest United States District school’s response to refugee students, we show how the enactment of policies, pedagogies, and practices within schools reinforce the government’s control over refugee students and their families. In schools, the students are kept out of certain school spaces, marginalized in remedial courses, and denied academic opportunities and integrated support services. Using empirical data, we demonstrate how the restriction of the students’ movement in and around schools is embedded within the larger limitations embedded in coloniality and assimilation. We situate our analysis within the tensions and interactions between coloniality, assimilation, and neoliberalism as articulated in studies within anthropology and sociology, migration studies, critical refugee studies, and cultural studies. We conclude with a call for the decolonization of education and offer a practical starting point in refugee education. Full article
12 pages, 502 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Digital Presence on the Careers of Emerging Visual Artists
by Loizos Petrides and Madalena Vila de Brito
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(6), 313; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13060313 - 13 Jun 2024
Viewed by 179
Abstract
This paper investigates the importance of digital presence for the emerging visual artists’ careers. The study first examines how artists manage their digital presence and subsequently analyzes the impact of this presence on their careers by applying a model that consists of four [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the importance of digital presence for the emerging visual artists’ careers. The study first examines how artists manage their digital presence and subsequently analyzes the impact of this presence on their careers by applying a model that consists of four objectives (branding, engagement, networking, and conversion). A qualitative method was employed, and interviews were conducted with illustrators at an early or emerging career stage. The findings demonstrate that an effective presence on digital platforms requires not only producing and showing artistic work but also managing an artistic brand, engaging with the audience, and making use of networking opportunities. It is also established that artists need to complement their digital presence with interactions in the physical world to increase the chances for advancing their careers. This paper follows the literature that studies the visual artist as brand manager and adds to the body of knowledge on how artists build successful careers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Work, Employment and the Labor Market)
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23 pages, 3983 KiB  
Article
The Types of Water Conflicts in an Irrigation System in Northern Mexico: Conflict as a Negative Link in Social Network Analysis
by Ixtoc Marlo Rivera-Nuñez, Diana Luque Agraz, Arthur D. Murphy, Eric C. Jones and Martha Alejandra Flores-Cuamea
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(6), 312; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13060312 - 12 Jun 2024
Viewed by 145
Abstract
We used social network analysis (SNA) to identify the types of water-related conflicts between the users and members of the institutional arena of the Rio Mayo Irrigation District (RMID) within the ancestral territory of the Yoreme Mayo indigenous group in Sonora, northeastern Mexico. [...] Read more.
We used social network analysis (SNA) to identify the types of water-related conflicts between the users and members of the institutional arena of the Rio Mayo Irrigation District (RMID) within the ancestral territory of the Yoreme Mayo indigenous group in Sonora, northeastern Mexico. We combined ethnography with an analysis and visualization of bimodal networks that consisted of 118 users and their connections to the institutional arena’s 30 identified social actors who influence water management. Using a clustering algorithm, we identified four types of conflicts: (1) disputes between small- and large-scale farmers over (i) irrigation water and (ii) payments for water rights and land rental; (2) the struggle by large-scale farmers against the upper level of the water hierarchy, to obtain more water; (3) struggles by rural indigenous women against water providers, to conserve indigenous vernacular systems of managing water for domestic use; and (4) a “conflict” that turned out to be merely a structural remnant of the algorithm. We conclude that land- and water-grabbing in the RMID mainly affect indigenous small-scale farmers and that the combination of SNA and a clustering algorithm can identify the types of natural resource-related conflicts that might go undetected by other methodologies. However, SNA should in some cases be accompanied by a qualitative methodology. Full article
20 pages, 331 KiB  
Article
Routines and Daily Dynamics of Young People with Borderline Intelligence: An Ethnomethodological Study
by Mabel Segú and Edurne Gonzalez
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(6), 311; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13060311 - 12 Jun 2024
Viewed by 236
Abstract
Young people with borderline intelligence functioning (BIF) have intellectual functioning at the border between intellectual disability and those considered neurotypical. This population group is often underrepresented in social research, which makes it difficult to understand their experiences and needs. The research aims to [...] Read more.
Young people with borderline intelligence functioning (BIF) have intellectual functioning at the border between intellectual disability and those considered neurotypical. This population group is often underrepresented in social research, which makes it difficult to understand their experiences and needs. The research aims to understand the daily lives of young people with BIF to identify needs that society might not be aware of. The study was conducted with a sample of 30 young people. The ethnomethodological design was appropriate for the study of the routines and daily dynamics of these young people, which allowed the researchers to understand the experiences and meanings of the participants from their own perspective. The analysis was carried out in the context of the subject of Qualitative Research Tools in Social Work with fourth-year students, through participant observation, semi-structured interviews, and field diaries. Data analysis was performed using the Atlas.ti23 qualitative content analysis program. The findings suggest a strong dependence on family and social support; a daily life marked by challenges; and a search for autonomy, among many other aspects. Collaboration with the participants allowed the researchers to better understand their experiences and needs from reflexivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 8th World Conference on Qualitative Research)
12 pages, 304 KiB  
Review
How Should We Interpret Silence in Qualitative Communication Studies?
by Naíde Müller, Patrícia Tavares and João Simão
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(6), 310; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13060310 - 12 Jun 2024
Viewed by 222
Abstract
Through an interdisciplinary literature review, based on empirical evidence, this research approaches different ways of interpreting silence(s) in three qualitative research methods—ethnography, focus groups and interviews—which, by their nature, are conducive to practices that resort to silence as units of meaning. The findings [...] Read more.
Through an interdisciplinary literature review, based on empirical evidence, this research approaches different ways of interpreting silence(s) in three qualitative research methods—ethnography, focus groups and interviews—which, by their nature, are conducive to practices that resort to silence as units of meaning. The findings presented in this paper demonstrate how, in different data collection techniques, it is possible to rethink not only the whole conception of what silence is but also what silence can (or cannot) help to express. From a qualitative perspective in the social sciences and humanities, silence can in itself be a means of expression and a valid communication resource. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 8th World Conference on Qualitative Research)
18 pages, 922 KiB  
Article
Crisis and Organizational Sustainability: Empirical Analysis of the Implication of Transformational Leadership on the Decision to Stay Mediated by the Commitment of the Democratic Party in Indonesia
by Herzaky Mahendra Putra, Fendy Suhariadi, Suparto Wijoyo, Sukron Ma’mun, Ian Firstian Aldhi and Dwi Hardaningtyas
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(6), 309; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13060309 - 11 Jun 2024
Viewed by 266
Abstract
The research focuses on the impact of transformational leadership on the decision to stay mediated by commitment after a court refusal regarding illegal extraordinary congress involving the outsiders of a political party in Indonesia (in this case, it is the Democratic Party currently [...] Read more.
The research focuses on the impact of transformational leadership on the decision to stay mediated by commitment after a court refusal regarding illegal extraordinary congress involving the outsiders of a political party in Indonesia (in this case, it is the Democratic Party currently led by Agus Harimurti Yudhoyono), where this phenomenon is classified as a crisis. Theories and the previous literature pointed out that transformational leadership would significantly affect an individual’s decision to stay with the institution through commitment. Therefore, this research empirically analyzes the hypotheses using quantitative methods on 349 respondents who are central (DPP) and local (DPD and DPC) active committees of the Democratic Party. Respondents are collected using cluster random sampling. Referring to theories and the previous literature, the latent variables of this research are constructed using dimensions. Transformational leadership (TL) has four dimensions which are charisma (idealized influence), inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individual considerations. Commitment has three dimensions which are affective, normative, and sustainable commitments. The decision to stay has two dimensions, which are intrinsic and extrinsic motivations. By using Structural Equation Modeling–Partial Least Square (SEM–PLS), the research revealed that the direct effect shows that transformational leadership and commitment significantly influence the decision to stay. On the other hand, the indirect effect indicates that commitment significantly mediates the relationship between transformational leadership and the decision to stay. The result indicates strong transformational leadership performed by Agus Harimurti Yudhoyono as the chief of the Democratic Party in Indonesia. Full article
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18 pages, 4107 KiB  
Review
Teaching about Marginalized Groups Using a Digital Human Library: Lessons Learned
by Chitat Chan
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(6), 308; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13060308 - 8 Jun 2024
Viewed by 228
Abstract
This paper presents lessons learned from a project inspired by digital storytelling and the human library to reduce prejudices against marginalized groups. By comparing the outcomes of similar participants in different settings over the same period, the study explored which types of activities [...] Read more.
This paper presents lessons learned from a project inspired by digital storytelling and the human library to reduce prejudices against marginalized groups. By comparing the outcomes of similar participants in different settings over the same period, the study explored which types of activities might be pivotal when influencing the perspective-taking attitudes of participants. The study used a case study approach, with data from the digital human library project, and selected participants from three different engagement contexts: participants in group A were involved in reading story abstracts online, having short face-to-face meetings regarding human books, and engaging in editorial activities; participants in group B were involved in extended face-to-face sharing provided by human books, followed by question-and-answer interaction; and participants in group C were involved in the reading of stories online without interaction. Convenience sampling was used and included 250 registered participants who completed pre-test and post-test questionnaires. The study found that merely reading stories online (group C) did not significantly reduce prejudice, and face-to-face contact on its own (group B) was also not the most effective in changing attitudes. Group A participants who combined short face-to-face meetings and story-retelling activities showed the most significant changes in perspective-taking attitudes. These findings imply that dialogic cognitive processes in narrative activities, rather than the mode of contact, may be pivotal in enhancing perspective-taking attitudes. This paper calls for further research into the scalability of digital human library hybrids and more rigorous experimental research designs. It underscores the potential of these interventions to foster more inclusive societies, mitigate social biases, and support equity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Stratification and Inequality)
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23 pages, 687 KiB  
Article
Time Use, Health, and Well-Being across the Life Cycle: A Gender Analysis
by M. Pilar Matud, Juan Manuel Bethencourt, Mª José del Pino, D. Estefanía Hernández-Lorenzo, Demelsa Fortes and Ignacio Ibáñez
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(6), 307; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13060307 - 8 Jun 2024
Viewed by 314
Abstract
Although time use is one of people’s most important resources, there are social forces and inequalities that shape how time is used. The aim of this research is to examine gender differences in time use from adolescence to old age and to analyze [...] Read more.
Although time use is one of people’s most important resources, there are social forces and inequalities that shape how time is used. The aim of this research is to examine gender differences in time use from adolescence to old age and to analyze the association of such use with sociodemographic characteristics and with women’s and men’s health and well-being. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 5700 women (54.2%) and men (45.8%) from the Spanish general population, aged 14 to 85 years. Participants were assessed using five self-reported measures of time use, health, mental symptoms, psychological well-being, life satisfaction, social support, and masculine/instrumental and feminine/expressive traits. The results showed that although there were important differences in life cycle stage and occupation, women spent more time than men on housework, childcare, and caring for sick relatives, while men spent more time than women on enjoying activities and exercise. More time spent on housework was associated with worse health and well-being for women and more exercise with better health and well-being for both genders. It is concluded that gender is relevant to time use and the impact of different uses of time on health and well-being. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gender Studies)
25 pages, 1975 KiB  
Article
Development of Community and Agricultural Associations through Social and Solidarity Economy with Collaboration of University
by Jimmy Landaburú-Mendoza, León Arguello, Néstor Montalván-Burbano, Lady Chunga-Montalván and Roberto Pico-Saltos
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(6), 306; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13060306 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 269
Abstract
The Social and Solidarity Economy (SSE) is a unique economic model that addresses contemporary community problems by democratising the economy through activities that promote sustainability, solidarity, and collective prosperity. Research on the SSE has increased in recent years, showing its potential as an [...] Read more.
The Social and Solidarity Economy (SSE) is a unique economic model that addresses contemporary community problems by democratising the economy through activities that promote sustainability, solidarity, and collective prosperity. Research on the SSE has increased in recent years, showing its potential as an alternative to dominant economic schemes. This article aims to analyse how the SSE can contribute to sustainability in rural sector associations in Ecuador through the Participatory Action Research (PAR) method. This method empowers various stakeholders, including the community, associations, and the university, to be actively involved in designing, developing, and implementing solutions to alleviate their problems. The results show that in the context of a developing country, this active participation, interaction, and commitment can identify the various problems that the rural sector and its associations are experiencing. This situation allows for possible joint action solutions, involving people who usually do not have decision-making power or are vulnerable, by diagnosing their socio-economic conditions and establishing a training programme where knowledge production is democratic, thus combining theoretical and practical elements according to the needs detected. Full article
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23 pages, 592 KiB  
Systematic Review
Cultural Differences in Body Image: A Systematic Review
by Marzieh Abdoli, Marco Scotto Rosato, Avinash Desousa and Paolo Cotrufo
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(6), 305; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13060305 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 366
Abstract
Culture affects individuals’ perceptions and experiences of their bodies. In order to provide the most effective solutions to body image-related issues, it is necessary to understand cultures and their influences on body image in various populations. This paper focuses on the effects of [...] Read more.
Culture affects individuals’ perceptions and experiences of their bodies. In order to provide the most effective solutions to body image-related issues, it is necessary to understand cultures and their influences on body image in various populations. This paper focuses on the effects of culture on body image. Therefore, a systematic literature search following PRISMA guidelines was performed in the PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases, yielding 2064 articles published between 1990 and 2023. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 54 articles were selected. Our findings showed a strong influence of culture on body image, highlighting the impact of societal expectations on individuals’ mental well-being. Western cultures, with their preference for thinness, differ from non-Western ideals. The findings also showed the impact of regional variations within the same culture and society on body image. Furthermore, the study found that the young demographic, especially females, is the most vulnerable to body image issues; however, emerging research within our review also indicates a growing concern among males. This study underscores the necessity of culturally considering interventions to address body image issues, which are integral to improving mental health concerns like body dissatisfaction, eating disorders, depression, low self-esteem, and anxiety. Full article
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6 pages, 220 KiB  
Editorial
Introduction to the Special Issue “Rethinking Artful Politics: Bodies of Difference Remaking Body Worlds”
by Nadine Changfoot, Carla Rice and Eliza Chandler
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(6), 304; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13060304 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 278
Abstract
“Rethinking Artful Politics: Bodies of Difference Remaking Body Worlds” is a robust Special Issue comprising 11 scholarly articles on the nexus of art and politics [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rethinking Artful Politics: Bodies of Difference Remaking Body Worlds)
22 pages, 498 KiB  
Article
Preferences for Remote and Hybrid Work: Evidence from the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Carolyn E. Waldrep, Marni Fritz and Jennifer Glass
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(6), 303; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13060303 - 3 Jun 2024
Viewed by 184
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic created an opportunity for many American workers to work from home. Did the rapid and widespread adoption of remote work arrangements influence workers’ preferences? This study analyzes the early pandemic work experiences of 52 participants (20 men and 32 women) [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic created an opportunity for many American workers to work from home. Did the rapid and widespread adoption of remote work arrangements influence workers’ preferences? This study analyzes the early pandemic work experiences of 52 participants (20 men and 32 women) in dual-earner households with children through in-depth interviews conducted in 2021 and 2022 via Zoom. The study explores respondents’ desire for remote and hybrid work, considering job satisfaction as well as job characteristics, family structure, and household organization. Unless their jobs were poorly suited to remote work, most workers with pandemic-era remote work opportunities—and even some who had not worked remotely—wished to keep remote access in their post-pandemic work arrangements. Respondents reported enhanced job satisfaction and productivity from remote work, as a result of greater schedule control and flexibility. We found that some workers were willing to change jobs to maintain their preferred work arrangement, while others acquiesced to employers’ return-to-work policies. The study highlights the need to understand workers’ preferences in supporting flexible work arrangements and contributes to the understanding of remote work on family dynamics during the pandemic and afterwards. Full article
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19 pages, 2754 KiB  
Article
Social and Cultural Hazards, from the 3.11 Disaster through Today’s Global Warming: Shifting Conceptions of the Soma Nomaoi Cavalry Event in Fukushima, Japan
by Nobuko Adachi
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(6), 302; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13060302 - 3 Jun 2024
Viewed by 104
Abstract
This case study is an anthropological reflection on the impact of multiple disaster events on the culture and economy of the Hamadōri coastal area of Fukushima, Japan. The 2011 Tōhoku earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear meltdown; the pandemic of 2020; and today’s global warming [...] Read more.
This case study is an anthropological reflection on the impact of multiple disaster events on the culture and economy of the Hamadōri coastal area of Fukushima, Japan. The 2011 Tōhoku earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear meltdown; the pandemic of 2020; and today’s global warming have affected this area’s economic, touristic, and cultural practices, such as the Soma Nomaoi Calvary tradition. Outcomes exemplify the concept of punctuated entropy: a permanent decline in the adaptive flexibility of a human cultural system to the environment brought on by the cumulative impact of periodic disaster events. In the case of Fukushima, efforts to mitigate and recover from these closely occurring disaster events have been only partially successful, and the outcomes provide profound lessons learned regarding the complexity of the recovery process when deep-seated and sustaining cultural practices are disrupted or lost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anthropological Reflections on Crisis and Disaster)
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14 pages, 2645 KiB  
Article
The Perception of Educators on Gender Equality: A Study in Ecuador
by Verónica Díaz, Henry Vallejos, Carmen Oval, Selin Carrasco, Carmen Coloma, Fabiola Flores, Carola Lozada, Patricio Rivera and María Simón
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(6), 301; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13060301 - 31 May 2024
Viewed by 178
Abstract
Gender equality is a prerequisite for people-centered human development. This exploratory and descriptive study was conducted to investigate the perception of gender among Ecuadorian primary school teachers. Quantitative data were obtained from teachers in public and urban educational establishments. In order to collect [...] Read more.
Gender equality is a prerequisite for people-centered human development. This exploratory and descriptive study was conducted to investigate the perception of gender among Ecuadorian primary school teachers. Quantitative data were obtained from teachers in public and urban educational establishments. In order to collect the data, an online survey-type opinion questionnaire was applied with the aim of finding out teachers’ perception of gender equality within their institutions in educational establishments in the Republic of Ecuador, considering the dimensions of personal perceptions of the subject, the organizational culture, and the implementation of gender equality in the internal management of the educational organizations where they work. The results of the questionnaire show that teachers perceive that there is currently more receptiveness to gender issues than in the past. From the answers received, it can be concluded that people identify with gender issues, even though there is a need for elements and support to enable them to be expressed effectively, on a daily basis and sustained over time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gender Studies)
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17 pages, 1065 KiB  
Article
Investigating the Effects of Misinformation as Infopathogens: Developing a Model and Thought Experiment
by Roger D. Magarey, Thomas M. Chappell and Kayla Pack Watson
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(6), 300; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13060300 - 31 May 2024
Viewed by 346
Abstract
Previously, it has been shown that transmissible and harmful misinformation can be viewed as pathogenic, potentially contributing to collective social epidemics. In this study, a biological analogy is developed to allow investigative methods that are applied to biological epidemics to be considered for [...] Read more.
Previously, it has been shown that transmissible and harmful misinformation can be viewed as pathogenic, potentially contributing to collective social epidemics. In this study, a biological analogy is developed to allow investigative methods that are applied to biological epidemics to be considered for adaptation to digital and social ones including those associated with misinformation. The model’s components include infopathogens, tropes, cognition, memes, and phenotypes. The model can be used for diagnostic, pathologic, and synoptic/taxonomic study of the spread of misinformation. A thought experiment based on a hypothetical riot is used to understand how disinformation spreads. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Disinformation and Misinformation in the New Media Landscape)
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13 pages, 305 KiB  
Article
“I Thought I Was Going to Die like Him”: Racial Authoritarianism and the Afterlife of George Floyd in the United States and Brazil
by Jaimee A. Swift
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(6), 299; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13060299 - 31 May 2024
Viewed by 169
Abstract
This paper offers a brief yet comprehensive comparative analysis of historical and contemporary racial authoritarian violence in the United States and Brazil. Utilizing Black feminist historian and literary scholar Saidiya Hartman’s theorization of the “afterlife of slavery” and Michael Dawson’s linked fate, I [...] Read more.
This paper offers a brief yet comprehensive comparative analysis of historical and contemporary racial authoritarian violence in the United States and Brazil. Utilizing Black feminist historian and literary scholar Saidiya Hartman’s theorization of the “afterlife of slavery” and Michael Dawson’s linked fate, I examine how the processes of racialization and the racial logics of subordination have and continue to shape the contours of Black life in the United States and in Brazil. Moreover, in this work, I interrogate the afterlife of George Floyd and the afterlives of Black Brazilian victims and survivors of racial authoritarian violence; the political, transnational, and symbolic impacts of Floyd’s death; and Diasporic understandings of linked fate on racial authoritarian violence between Black communities in the United States and in Brazil. Full article
28 pages, 755 KiB  
Review
Intersex Epistemologies? Reviewing Relevant Perspectives in Intersex Studies
by Amets Suess-Schwend
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(6), 298; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13060298 - 31 May 2024
Viewed by 286
Abstract
Over the last decades, intersex studies has achieved increasing development as a field of critical knowledge, in tight collaboration with discourses developed by intersex activism and human rights bodies. This paper proposes a self-reflexive review of epistemological perspectives in intersex studies within broader [...] Read more.
Over the last decades, intersex studies has achieved increasing development as a field of critical knowledge, in tight collaboration with discourses developed by intersex activism and human rights bodies. This paper proposes a self-reflexive review of epistemological perspectives in intersex studies within broader discursive fields, through a thematic analysis and comparative framing analysis. This analysis is based on a narrative literature review of academic contributions, activist declarations, and documents issued by human rights bodies conducted over the last decade as a work-in-progress project. Furthermore, it includes results of a scoping review of recent knowledge production in intersex studies carried out in Scopus within the subject area ‘social sciences’. This paper focuses on the analysis of the following epistemological perspectives: human rights frameworks, legal perspectives and citizenship theories, reflections on biopolitics, medicalization and iatrogenesis, sociology of diagnosis framework, depathologization perspective, respectful health care models, and reflections on epistemological, methodological, and ethical aspects. The literature review raises questions about the existence of specific intersex epistemologies in intersex studies, their interrelation with discourses contributed by intersex activism and human rights bodies, and the opportunities for a contribution of theory making in intersex studies to the human rights protection of intersex people. Full article
15 pages, 1569 KiB  
Article
Guangdong–Hong Kong–Macao Cooperation: Historical Process and Driving Mechanisms
by Zhicong Lin, Zhenjie Yang, Johnny F. I. Lam and Lue Li
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(6), 297; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13060297 - 30 May 2024
Viewed by 251
Abstract
Cooperation in the Guangdong–Hong Kong–Macao Greater Bay Area under the “one country, two systems” framework is different from regional cooperation in other areas. Its unique cross-border cooperation within one country has attracted much attention from the academic community. Since the 1980s, the cooperation [...] Read more.
Cooperation in the Guangdong–Hong Kong–Macao Greater Bay Area under the “one country, two systems” framework is different from regional cooperation in other areas. Its unique cross-border cooperation within one country has attracted much attention from the academic community. Since the 1980s, the cooperation between Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao has gone through different stages with China’s development. Examining the process of change can contribute to understanding the logic and driving mechanisms of cooperation in the Greater Bay Area. This study shows that regional cooperation has been driven from the market to the combined influence of the market and government since the 1980s. During this transition, the central government has become increasingly involved in the cooperation through political embedding, eventually becoming the main driver of this regional cooperation. However, regardless of whether the driving force was the market or the government, significant internal tensions remained throughout the transition process. The research suggests that the top-level design for institutionalising regional cooperation can effectively balance market and administrative forces, leveraging the strengths of each. It is valuable to elucidate the uniqueness and complexity of Guangdong–Hong Kong–Macao cooperation under “one country, two systems”, which will contribute to further promoting deep cooperation in the Greater Bay Area. Full article
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23 pages, 2389 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Partners’ Relative Wages on Couples’ Gender Division of Paid Work after Parenthood across Origin Groups
by Julie Maes and Leen Marynissen
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(6), 296; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13060296 - 29 May 2024
Viewed by 201
Abstract
The transition to parenthood exacerbates gender inequality in couples’ division of paid work. While this is widely documented for general populations, in particular, potential underlying mechanisms of this phenomenon remain un(der)explored for couples with different migration backgrounds. Hence, this paper examines how women’s [...] Read more.
The transition to parenthood exacerbates gender inequality in couples’ division of paid work. While this is widely documented for general populations, in particular, potential underlying mechanisms of this phenomenon remain un(der)explored for couples with different migration backgrounds. Hence, this paper examines how women’s pre-birth relative wage potential affects the gender division of paid work after the transition to parenthood in Belgium among native, Southern-European and non-European origin couples. Our results show that, among all couples, the division of paid work is more gender-equal after childbirth when women’s wage potential is higher than or similar to that of their male partner. However, there is substantial variation by couples’ migration background and relative wage potential in partners’ gender division of paid work and the extent to which it changes after parenthood. These findings suggest that both normative and institutional factors moderate the impact of partners’ relative resources on couples’ division of paid work after parenthood, particularly among non-European origin couples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Family Studies)
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11 pages, 261 KiB  
Article
Experiences of Stealthing and the Sociodemographic Profiles of Women Victims in Brazil: A National Study
by Wendell Ferrari, Conceição Nogueira and Marcos Nascimento
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(6), 295; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13060295 - 29 May 2024
Viewed by 346
Abstract
Stealthing is the removal of a condom during sexual intercourse without the consent of one’s partner. Despite considerable media attention devoted to the trend, limited empirical research has examined how women experienced stealthing. This study aimed to contribute toward generating empirical evidence to [...] Read more.
Stealthing is the removal of a condom during sexual intercourse without the consent of one’s partner. Despite considerable media attention devoted to the trend, limited empirical research has examined how women experienced stealthing. This study aimed to contribute toward generating empirical evidence to guide the discussion surrounding stealthing. It is the first empirical research at a national level in Brazil. An online survey was conducted among 2275 women over 18 who experienced stealthing. The study analyzes these women’s sociodemographic profiles and how they experienced stealthing. Most were white, young, had a religion, were highly educated, and belonged to the Brazilian middle class. They usually experienced stealthing during their youth, and the perpetrator was a cisgender man. Most of them did not look for the morning-after pill and post-exposure prophylaxis after the occurrence and never told anyone about this experience. They stated that the perpetrator should be punished. Women reported contracting sexually transmitted infections, experiencing an unplanned pregnancy, or having an illegal abortion. In conclusion, the high incidence of stealthing in the country is notable, which should generate more discussions at academic and legal levels, creating specific laws on the subject so that victims could have more support. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gender Studies)
18 pages, 324 KiB  
Article
Reimaging Subjugated Voice in Africa: A Battle for Hearts and Minds in Terrorism Studies
by Samwel Oando and Mohammed Ilyas
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(6), 294; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13060294 - 29 May 2024
Viewed by 498
Abstract
A rare consensus points to the question of normativity, with an inclination towards the Eurocentric Frankfurt School of Critical Theory, which seems to have been central to Critical Terrorism Studies (CTS). Given the universality of knowledge exerting pressure on scholars to conform with [...] Read more.
A rare consensus points to the question of normativity, with an inclination towards the Eurocentric Frankfurt School of Critical Theory, which seems to have been central to Critical Terrorism Studies (CTS). Given the universality of knowledge exerting pressure on scholars to conform with traditional theoretical perspectives, terrorism studies pose inequality from Eurocentricity emerging in “the battle for hearts and minds” research. Some of these studies fall to the allure of connivance with the progressively “authoritarian demands of Western, liberal state and media practice”. Consequently, terrorism research risks being dominated by ethical and logical blindness within established research formations. In Africa, for example, some CTS scholars are subdued to cynically use their Africanity to authenticate the neo-colonial and neo-liberal agenda in terrorism research. This article explores the reimaging of subjugated knowledge through decolonisation of methods in CTS. Rooting for cognitive justice and adequate space for alternative knowledge to imperial science, the article contests the battle for Africa’s hearts and minds as a failed process that needs transformation. Consequently, this work is a contribution to epistemological debate between the global North and South, and the subsequent theoretical contestations in CTS. We argue for hybridity by re-constructing alternative frameworks of knowledge production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Contemporary Politics and Society)
17 pages, 4119 KiB  
Article
No Space for Female Mayors in Romania: Incumbents’ Degree of Re-Election and the Impact on Future Candidates
by Andreea-Daniela Fedor and Corneliu Iațu
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(6), 293; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13060293 - 29 May 2024
Viewed by 281
Abstract
It is expected that the number of elected female mayors in local government will increase globally, yet no major progress has been registered lately despite the increased focus on the topic. At the European level, no country exceeds 40% female mayors or other [...] Read more.
It is expected that the number of elected female mayors in local government will increase globally, yet no major progress has been registered lately despite the increased focus on the topic. At the European level, no country exceeds 40% female mayors or other leaders of the municipal council (or equivalent), with the highest descriptive representation of 39.1% in Iceland. Following the 2020 elections in Romania, only around 5% of mayors were female with a strong over-representation of male mayors. The current study aims to analyze the male–female distribution of mayors, the degree of re-election, the relationship between the number of candidates and re-election of incumbents, and how these factors impact female political representation at the local level in Romania. Thus, we argue that a high degree of re-election of incumbents may be a barrier to women’s access to the position of mayor. In addition, it is important to determine whether female incumbents are as successful as their male counterparts in being re-elected. While there is an extensive body of literature on incumbency that covers a range of topics, there is a gap in the literature regarding the proposed subject. The present research aims to fill the gap and contribute to a better understanding of the political representation of women in Eastern Europe. We utilized a dataset of Romanian elections from 2008 to 2020 to test our hypotheses. Our findings indicate that during the studied period, more than 95% of mayors were male, the re-election was a frequent occurrence in Romania with a percentage ranging from 70.82% (2008–2012) to 72% (2012–2016 and 2016–2020), and female incumbents were just as likely to be re-elected as their male counterparts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Contemporary Politics and Society)
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26 pages, 4914 KiB  
Article
The Discursive Dimensions of Pernicious Polarization. Analysis of Right-Wing Populists in Western Europe on Twitter
by Suania Acampa and Federica Nunziata
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(6), 292; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13060292 - 29 May 2024
Viewed by 344
Abstract
The objective of this research is to explore the political discourse of West European right-wing populist leaders in the perspective of pernicious polarization, focusing on their positions and argumentation styles. To achieve this, over 50,000 tweets from right-wing populist leaders in Western Europe [...] Read more.
The objective of this research is to explore the political discourse of West European right-wing populist leaders in the perspective of pernicious polarization, focusing on their positions and argumentation styles. To achieve this, over 50,000 tweets from right-wing populist leaders in Western Europe (Italy, France and Spain) were collected for a period spanning from 2 July 2019, which marks the beginning of the 9th legislature of the European Parliament, to 2 July 2023. Employing Text Mining and Topic Modeling techniques, this research will reconstruct and comparatively analyze the topics addressed by the leaders from different countries and the dynamics of polarization discourse proposing an exploratory study aiming to locate the words of pernicious polarization used by each leader. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rethinking and Analyzing Political Communication in the Digital Era)
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12 pages, 426 KiB  
Article
Livability vs. Affordability; Disability and Housing in the United States
by Raeda K. Anderson, Daniel S. Pasciuti and Chloe M. Sellers
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(6), 291; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13060291 - 29 May 2024
Viewed by 651
Abstract
This paper demonstrates the macro dynamics of housing and disability by comparing pressures on a broad range of issues related to housing and disability across states. Despite the growing population of adults with disabilities in the United States, research on the national-level relationship [...] Read more.
This paper demonstrates the macro dynamics of housing and disability by comparing pressures on a broad range of issues related to housing and disability across states. Despite the growing population of adults with disabilities in the United States, research on the national-level relationship between housing and disability has been largely absent and little attention has been paid to accessibility, housing affordability, or the prevalence of involuntary movement and relocation for adults with disabilities. Using national data from the 2020 American Community Survey (ACS), we examine the multi-dimensional nature of housing, through cost burdens, upkeep, and maintenance, renting vs. ownership, and types of housing prevalent in the United States, and argue that this creates a paradox of livability vs. affordability for adults with disabilities. These state-level trends in the cost and livability of housing environments by state show that housing conditions and housing costs are inversely associated for adults with disabilities. These macro-level conditionalities are not uniform but vary by housing type and location across the country, creating specific paradoxes in each state. We assert that housing itself is one of the key mechanisms that can support or hinder the long-term well-being of persons with disabilities living in the community, through the presence or absence of both physical space and facilities in the home. Ultimately, housing conditions and affordability need to be considered primary factors in the study and support of persons with disabilities and these considerations must be tailored to state and local housing dynamics to meet persons with disabilities where they live. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exploring Residential Mobility in a Changing Society)
23 pages, 363 KiB  
Article
Pursuing Dreams, Confronting Paradoxes: Palestinian Students in Israeli Institutions
by Al-Khansaa Diab
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(6), 290; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13060290 - 28 May 2024
Viewed by 313
Abstract
Through an immersive qualitative exploration, we delve into the narratives of East Jerusalem’s Palestinian students as they navigate the complexities of an Israeli teacher training college. Workshops and artistic expression unearth their aspirations, challenges, and coping strategies within a labyrinthine educational landscape. Our [...] Read more.
Through an immersive qualitative exploration, we delve into the narratives of East Jerusalem’s Palestinian students as they navigate the complexities of an Israeli teacher training college. Workshops and artistic expression unearth their aspirations, challenges, and coping strategies within a labyrinthine educational landscape. Our findings illuminate their indomitable spirit and unwavering pursuit of dreams despite isolation, discrimination, and the ever-present Israeli–Palestinian conflict. This study contributes to understanding minority students’ experiences in higher education, particularly those in conflict-ridden regions. Drawing upon Resilience Theory, Social Identity Theory, Critical Race Theory, and Cross-Cultural Psychology, we weave a multi-dimensional framework elucidating factors shaping academic achievements, identity formation, and psychological well-being. The fruits of this research empower educators and policymakers to nurture resilience and inclusivity among diverse student populations navigating tempestuous waters. Amplifying Palestinian students’ voices, our work stands as a clarion call for equity and social justice in education, even amidst adversity. We underscore the paramount importance of tailored support systems and interventions, illuminating education’s transformative potential as a catalyst for positive change within communities gripped by conflict. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Childhood and Youth Studies)
15 pages, 304 KiB  
Article
Unsolicited Sexting and Help-Seeking Behaviours among Australian Adults: A Mixed-Methods Study
by Dominika Howard, Sonia Ryter, Yunhao Hu, Elizabeth Mary Clancy, Bianca Klettke and Anna Klas
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(6), 289; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13060289 - 28 May 2024
Viewed by 249
Abstract
Sending unsolicited sexts is increasingly recognised as harmful and, in some countries, constitutes a criminal offence. Recipients of unwanted/unexpected sexts often report compromised mental health, yet it is currently unknown how people deal with these sexting experiences. Using a mixed-methods approach, this study [...] Read more.
Sending unsolicited sexts is increasingly recognised as harmful and, in some countries, constitutes a criminal offence. Recipients of unwanted/unexpected sexts often report compromised mental health, yet it is currently unknown how people deal with these sexting experiences. Using a mixed-methods approach, this study explored help-seeking behaviours following the receipt of unwanted sexts and barriers to reaching out for support in Australia, where the law currently does not recognise unsolicited sexting as a criminal offence. In total, 883 participants, Mage = 22.52 years (SD = 3.09), were recruited comprising 539 (61.2%) women, 325 (36.9%) men, and 17 (1.9%) other/non-binary. Overall, women were more likely to receive unsolicited sexts (389, 81%) than men (66, 26.2%), and ≥97.7% of respondents across genders never sought support in response to these experiences. Template thematic analysis revealed the receipt of unwanted sexts was often regarded “too trivial” to seek support for, which was captured under the theme of it’s just an image. Regarding barriers to help-seeking, three themes were generated: it’s an awkward experience to talk about, I did not realise it was a violation, I didn’t know where to go. Young Australian adults often did not seek support due to feelings of awkwardness and shame associated with receiving unwanted sexts, a lack of understanding of the violating nature of these experiences and young age, and minimal knowledge of supports. This study illustrates that community attitudes and the legal framework in Australia towards unsolicited sexting need to change to recognise this sexting variant as harmful and illegal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Crime and Justice)
14 pages, 339 KiB  
Article
Begging for Knowledge in Senegal: Conflicting Understandings and Interests of the Dominant Anti-Trafficking Approach and Quranic Education
by Hamadou Boiro and Jónína Einarsdóttir
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(6), 288; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13060288 - 28 May 2024
Viewed by 614
Abstract
Diverse actors, including foreign and national states, international agencies, donors, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), and private ventures, demand, fund, and implement anti-trafficking activities worldwide. Bissau-Guinean Quran schoolboys begging in Senegalese cities are defined as victims of child trafficking, and their teachers as traffickers. This [...] Read more.
Diverse actors, including foreign and national states, international agencies, donors, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), and private ventures, demand, fund, and implement anti-trafficking activities worldwide. Bissau-Guinean Quran schoolboys begging in Senegalese cities are defined as victims of child trafficking, and their teachers as traffickers. This article aims to explore the Quran teachers’ understanding of begging and their response to being accused of child trafficking. It rests on data collected during anthropological fieldwork in Guinea-Bissau and Senegal since 2009, including interviews and participation in religious events. The Quran teachers, some of whom admit colleagues might exploit their students, highlight four aspects of begging: allowing poor populations economically to study the Quran; contributing to humbleness, humility, and empathy with underprivileged groups; redistributing resources across generations; and allowing the acquisition of knowledge, liberation, and power. They maintain that the NGOs are profiting from funds provided to “rescue” the students and act as real traffickers, and together with funders, they aim to eliminate Islam. Embedded in layers of coloniality, the Quran teachers keep their position as community leaders. Banning begging is bound to fail if the anti-trafficking NGOs ignore their understanding of meaningful suffering and begging, including the economic and religious aspects of alms-seeking and its reciprocal nature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue International Counter-Trafficking: A Zero-Sum Game?)
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