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Soc. Sci., Volume 13, Issue 6 (June 2024) – 50 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Social Sciences (ISSN 2076-0760) is an international, peer-reviewed, quick-refereeing open access journal published online monthly by MDPI. The journal seeks to appeal to an interdisciplinary audience and authorship which focuses upon real world research. It attracts papers from a wide range of fields, including anthropology, criminology, geography, history, political science, psychology, social policy, social work, sociology, and more. With its efficient and qualified double-blind peer review process, Social Sciences aims to present the newest relevant and emerging scholarship in the field to both academia and the broader public alike, thereby maintaining its place as a dynamic platform for engaging in social sciences research and academic debate.
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22 pages, 490 KiB  
Article
The Right Prescription for Family Bliss: A Cross-Sectional Study on Community Satisfaction in Indonesian Family Planning Programs
by Nyigit Wudi Amini, Falih Suaedi and Erna Setijaningrum
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(6), 325; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13060325 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 190
Abstract
Although significant progress has been achieved over many decades, sustaining the success of family planning programs in Indonesia requires a deep understanding of the factors that influence community satisfaction among those involved. This study surveyed 503 Family Planning Field Workers (PKBs) across Indonesia’s [...] Read more.
Although significant progress has been achieved over many decades, sustaining the success of family planning programs in Indonesia requires a deep understanding of the factors that influence community satisfaction among those involved. This study surveyed 503 Family Planning Field Workers (PKBs) across Indonesia’s regions to identify the main factors encouraging satisfaction among communities participating in these programs. A structured online questionnaire was distributed to collect data on the sociodemographic factors influencing satisfaction, which were then analyzed using multiple linear regression. The results showed that effective follow-up on community feedback (β = 0.233, p < 0.001), implementing a rights-based approach (β = 0.207, p < 0.001), enabling community participation (β = 0.147, p < 0.001), collaborating with healthcare providers and facilities (β = 0.159, p < 0.001), and monitoring and evaluating programs (β = 0.155, p < 0.001) were significant positive predictors. More notable, the regression model accounted for a considerable 74.7% of the variation in community satisfaction, pointing to how significant the explanatory power of the identified factors was in predicting the level of satisfaction among communities participating in family planning programs. Actions must be developed to enhance reproductive health and manage population growth by focusing on key factors such as responsive communication, rights, integrated services, community involvement, and evaluations, which are what matters most for family planning programs. Full article
28 pages, 728 KiB  
Article
Communication for Development: Conceptualising Changes in Communication and Inclusive Rural Transformation in the Context of Environmental Change
by Sarah Cardey, Pamela Joyce Moraleda Eleazar, Juliet Ainomugisha, Macneil Kalowekamo and Yurii Vlasenko
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(6), 324; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13060324 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 310
Abstract
Globally, rural conditions are in states of change. They are often highly vulnerable to climate and environmental change, extreme weather events, conflict, socio-economic changes, inequalities, and demographic changes. These changes are putting stress on rural areas, which rely upon agriculture and natural resources [...] Read more.
Globally, rural conditions are in states of change. They are often highly vulnerable to climate and environmental change, extreme weather events, conflict, socio-economic changes, inequalities, and demographic changes. These changes are putting stress on rural areas, which rely upon agriculture and natural resources for their livelihoods and are often the foundation of national economies. Communication for development (C4D) has played an important role in addressing these challenges. Its thinking is broadly consistent with rural development goals—indeed, the roots of C4D come in part from rural development and agricultural extension. Communication for development (C4D) was defined by the World Congress on Communication for Development as “…a social process based on dialogue using a broad range of tools and methods. It also seeks change at different levels, including listening, building trust, sharing knowledge and skills, building policies, debating, and learning for sustained and meaningful change. It is not public relations or corporate communications”. However, after decades of action to address these interrelated rural development challenges, much remains to be done. This paper critically considers the following: What does inclusive rural development mean now, in light of environmental change, and how does this affect the conceptualisation and practice of C4D? This was done by using three countries as case studies: Malawi, Ukraine, and the Philippines. Each of these countries represented contrasting challenges and opportunities for rural development and environmental change, with lessons from their experiences shedding insight into the communication for development thinking. Full article
14 pages, 280 KiB  
Article
Prison and Love: The Role of Affection and Rehabilitative Actions in Reducing Recidivism and Beyond
by Laura Cataldi and Silvia Cataldi
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(6), 323; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13060323 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 193
Abstract
This study investigates the protective role of emotional relationships and rehabilitative actions in reducing recidivism within the prison context. Data were collected from three Italian prisons as part of the European project “Calypsos”. This study examines the role of love across its various [...] Read more.
This study investigates the protective role of emotional relationships and rehabilitative actions in reducing recidivism within the prison context. Data were collected from three Italian prisons as part of the European project “Calypsos”. This study examines the role of love across its various expressions and components in the social reintegration of inmates, exploring how family ties, educational programs, and employment opportunities contribute to their well-being and socio-affective regeneration. Descriptive analyses and multiple linear regression were used to assess the impact of these factors on recidivism. The results indicate that stable family relationships, positive interactions with teachers, and meaningful work experiences significantly reduce the likelihood of reoffending. The findings highlight the necessity of policies supporting the maintenance of emotional bonds and the provision of educational and vocational training within prisons. This study concludes that integrating these elements into rehabilitation strategies can improve inmate outcomes, reduce recidivism, and enhance social cohesion. Finally, the article identifies love as a performative right as a future research direction. Full article
15 pages, 307 KiB  
Article
Coming of Age While Challenging Borders: Networks of Solidarity and Resistance of Swedish-Afghan Youths on the Move in Europe
by Dora Rebelo
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(6), 322; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13060322 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 227
Abstract
This article examines the strategies of resistance enacted by an informal network of solidarity comprised of Afghan youths on the move in Europe and their Swedish allies. In 2015, thousands of Afghan children fleeing from the Taliban regime arrived in Europe as unaccompanied [...] Read more.
This article examines the strategies of resistance enacted by an informal network of solidarity comprised of Afghan youths on the move in Europe and their Swedish allies. In 2015, thousands of Afghan children fleeing from the Taliban regime arrived in Europe as unaccompanied minors. Many have been hosted in Sweden and lived there for several years, until coming of age. Reaching 18 years prompted a series of consecutive losses, as the Swedish state limited their opportunities to remain in the country or even illegalized them. Subjected to threats of detention, deportation, and ill treatment, many Afghan youths re-escaped into other European countries, crafting networks of informal solidarity to help them resist border violence. This article is based on an ethnographic study that delves into the lived experiences of four Afghan youths who lived in Lisbon between February 2019 and February 2020, particularly focusing on the journey of Ahmed, a young man of Hazara ethnicity. The empirical data shed light on the solidarity enactments that enhanced the youths’ resistance in hostile environments, inviting reflection on the impacts of the European border regime and the importance of agency, care, and political contestation. Full article
15 pages, 303 KiB  
Article
Anti-Trafficking Professionals and Institutionalized Violence in Spain: An Exploratory Study
by Mara Clemente, Alba Sierra-Rodríguez and David Cairns
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(6), 321; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13060321 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 329
Abstract
In recent decades, an anti-trafficking legislative and policy framework has been developed in Spain, coupled with the funding of initiatives related to the protection of trafficked persons, especially women, largely carried out by faith-based and secular organizations. Using 25 interviews conducted with people [...] Read more.
In recent decades, an anti-trafficking legislative and policy framework has been developed in Spain, coupled with the funding of initiatives related to the protection of trafficked persons, especially women, largely carried out by faith-based and secular organizations. Using 25 interviews conducted with people employed in programmes targeting trafficked women in the Autonomous Community of Madrid, this article provides deeper exploration of this under-studied subject with a view to gaining a better understanding of the work experiences of professionals involved in these initiatives, with special attention paid to the challenges they face in enacting anti-trafficking activities while avoiding producing violence on assisted persons. The experiences of these professionals highlight that the neoliberal outsourcing of services to non-governmental organizations nevertheless contributes towards making anti-trafficking an apparatus in which violence materializes and reproduces. Significantly, this violence involves not only the people who are being assisted as trafficking victims but also some anti-trafficking professionals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue International Counter-Trafficking: A Zero-Sum Game?)
18 pages, 671 KiB  
Article
COVID-19 Pandemic, Economic Livelihoods, and the Division of Labor in Rural Communities of Delta and Edo States in Nigeria
by Francisca I. Omorodion, Andrew G. Onokerhoraye, Job I. Eronmhonsele, Osagie J. Aitokhuehi, Jones O. Abriku, Kuukua C. Hanson, Mercy O. Edejeghwro and Ernest O. Imongan
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(6), 320; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13060320 - 18 Jun 2024
Viewed by 355
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic affected economic, social, health, and political aspects of most global, national, and local populations, including urban and rural communities. Government measures like lockdowns resulted in the closure of schools and businesses, while social distancing preventing group gatherings impacted public and [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic affected economic, social, health, and political aspects of most global, national, and local populations, including urban and rural communities. Government measures like lockdowns resulted in the closure of schools and businesses, while social distancing preventing group gatherings impacted public and private spaces. Based on key informants’ interviews with 36 participants drawn equally from three senatorial districts of Edo and Delta states of Nigeria, we analyzed the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the type of work men and women do and division of household activities, such as cooking, child, and family care. The findings show that traditional gender role ideology (GRI) defines and shapes rural men’s and women’s work, with women more engaged in farming, rearing livestock, and trading while men are engaged in farming, rearing livestock, and carrying out skilled jobs like carpentry, plumbing, and blacksmithing. The lockdown of schools and workplaces resulted in women disproportionately bearing the burden of cooking and caring for children, the elderly, and the sick. A few rural men shared childcare, while women spent more time on housework and childcare activities than in the pre-pandemic period when children were in school for 6–7 h daily. During the pandemic, rural men and women spent more time with the children, such that rural women stayed at home or took children to the farms and marketplaces where possible. Older siblings and the elderly also provided support for women. In conclusion, work and family activities during COVID were, to an extent, difficult to manage as parents had to cope with increasing food insecurity, economic and transportation costs, and social deprivation fostered by social norms, values, and practices that perpetuate gender inequality and marginalization of women. Full article
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15 pages, 528 KiB  
Article
Examining the Impact of Virtual Health Influencers on Young Adults’ Willingness to Engage in Liver Cancer Prevention: Insights from Parasocial Relationship Theory
by Donghwa Chung, Jiaqi Wang and Yanfang Meng
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(6), 319; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13060319 - 17 Jun 2024
Viewed by 277
Abstract
The emergence of virtual influencers and AI doctors has significantly increased the attention of Chinese users, especially their health awareness and cancer health literacy. In our current study, guided by parasocial relationship theory, we examined the psychological antecedents that influence Chinese young adults’ [...] Read more.
The emergence of virtual influencers and AI doctors has significantly increased the attention of Chinese users, especially their health awareness and cancer health literacy. In our current study, guided by parasocial relationship theory, we examined the psychological antecedents that influence Chinese young adults’ willingness to engage in liver cancer prevention. Specifically, we aimed to examine the mediated mechanism of reduced unrealistic optimism within this relationship. A total of 252 respondents participated in this study, and the valid data were analyzed using hierarchical regression and mediation analysis to test our hypotheses. The results demonstrated three positive correlations between psychological factors (including perceived severity, parasocial relationship, and response efficacy) and Chinese young adults’ willingness to engage in liver cancer prevention. Furthermore, we found that reduced unrealistic optimism mediated these relationships. These findings provide valuable practical insights for Chinese health departments and experts to develop effective health campaign strategies that utilize multiple media platforms for optimal promotion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Social Media on Health and Well-Being)
12 pages, 655 KiB  
Article
The Intergenerational Transmission of Pro-Environmental Behaviours: The Role of Moral Judgment in Primary School-Age Children
by Marco Giancola, Maria Chiara Pino, Cristina Zacheo, Marta Sannino and Simonetta D’Amico
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(6), 318; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13060318 - 17 Jun 2024
Viewed by 247
Abstract
The environmental crisis poses a critical issue for current and future generations, driving research to investigate the key factors and psychological characteristics that motivate individuals to engage in pro-environmental behaviours (PEBs) from an early age. In this context, intergenerational transmission—which refers to how [...] Read more.
The environmental crisis poses a critical issue for current and future generations, driving research to investigate the key factors and psychological characteristics that motivate individuals to engage in pro-environmental behaviours (PEBs) from an early age. In this context, intergenerational transmission—which refers to how parents influence their children’s behaviour—plays a crucial role in initiating and promoting eco-friendly practices. From a children-centred perspective, the current study focused on the intergenerational transmission of PEBs, addressing the moderating role of children’s moral judgment. This latter was evaluated considering general moral judgment (i.e., moral transgressions, social-conventional transgressions, and non-harmful personal choices) and domain-specific environmental moral judgment (i.e., harmful actions with no specific victim, harmful actions to animals, and harmful actions to plants/trees). This study was carried out with 229 triads of Italian children (Mage = 8.54 years; SDage = 1.46 years; rangeage 6–11 years, 130 girls and 99 boys), fathers (Mage = 45.73 years; SDage = 5.07 years; rangeage 29–64 years), and mothers (Mage = 42.56 years; SDage = 4.67 years; rangeage 28–57 years). Results revealed that only the moral evaluations on harmful actions directed at animals (B = 0.32, SE = 0.15, t = 2.18, CI 95% = [0.030, 0.612]) and those towards plants/trees (B = 0.19, SE = 0.08, t = 2.49, CI 95% = [0.369, 0.342]) moderated the association between parents’ PEBs and children’s PEBs, boosting the intergenerational transmission of PEBs. Overall, this research yielded novel evidence on the main factors affecting the intergenerational transmission of PEBs, suggesting moral judgment as a critical mechanism in nurturing pro-environmental practices in school-age children. Implications, limitations, and future research directions are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Childhood and Youth Studies)
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15 pages, 1432 KiB  
Article
Unveiling the Relationship between Flextime and Job Performance: The Role of Family–Work Conflict and the Ability to Cope in a Moderated Mediation Model
by Salvatore Zappalà, Ferdinando Toscano, Dharan Bharti and Luca Pietrantoni
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(6), 317; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13060317 - 14 Jun 2024
Viewed by 422
Abstract
Grounded in the Conservation of Resources (COR) theory, this study explored the contribution of flexible work arrangements within the increasing digitalization of workplaces. In particular, with a specific focus on what happened when employees teleworked, it examined whether flextime perceptions, accounting for employees’ [...] Read more.
Grounded in the Conservation of Resources (COR) theory, this study explored the contribution of flexible work arrangements within the increasing digitalization of workplaces. In particular, with a specific focus on what happened when employees teleworked, it examined whether flextime perceptions, accounting for employees’ perception of control over their working hours, were related to job performance and if family–work conflict mediated this relationship. Additionally, the study investigated if the ability to cope with work tasks moderated the relationships between flextime and both family–work conflict and job performance. The study was conducted in an Italian research institute involving 598 respondents engaged in hybrid work with over two years of remote working experience. The SPSS Process macro was used, and findings showed a positive direct association between flextime and job performance. Intriguingly, no indirect effect of flextime on job performance through family–work conflict was observed. However, the introduction of the ability to cope in the model generated a significant mediation at specific levels of the moderator. The study highlighted the moderating role of the ability to cope in the relationships between flextime and family–work conflict on one side and job performance on the other. This research provides insights into the complexities of hybrid work and discusses the advantages of flextime and the intricate interplay it has with family–work conflict and job performance. The study concludes with theoretical and practical implications, offering guidance for both researchers and practitioners navigating the multifaceted realm of flexible work arrangements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Work, Employment and the Labor Market)
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33 pages, 714 KiB  
Review
Definitional Discrepancies: Defining “School Shootings” and Other Incidents of Gunfire Affecting Schools
by Benjamin P. Comer
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(6), 316; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13060316 - 13 Jun 2024
Viewed by 296
Abstract
The current review explores multiple definitions of school shootings used by myriad data collection platforms and by various scholars. Importantly, the impacts of definitional discrepancies on inclusion criteria, data divergence, research, policy, and public perception are discussed at length. The review concludes with [...] Read more.
The current review explores multiple definitions of school shootings used by myriad data collection platforms and by various scholars. Importantly, the impacts of definitional discrepancies on inclusion criteria, data divergence, research, policy, and public perception are discussed at length. The review concludes with a call to Criminologists and school gun violence scholars to better collaborate on what should be considered a “school shooting” and lists five benefits that may result from modifying school gun violence definitions and data collection methodologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reducing School Violence)
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24 pages, 1327 KiB  
Article
Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in the Portuguese Hospitality Industry: A Study on Sociodemographic and Professional Variables
by João Pedro Cordeiro, Liliana Pitacho and Daniela Lima
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(6), 315; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13060315 - 13 Jun 2024
Viewed by 263
Abstract
The aim of this research is to reflexively analyze and discuss organizational citizenship behaviors. By conducting an empirical test based on the assertions within the fields of the positive organizational behavior and the social identity theory, the specific objective is to analyze the [...] Read more.
The aim of this research is to reflexively analyze and discuss organizational citizenship behaviors. By conducting an empirical test based on the assertions within the fields of the positive organizational behavior and the social identity theory, the specific objective is to analyze the relationship between organizational citizenship and sociodemographic and professional variables. A study was carried out by surveying employees of Portuguese hotel units. The sample consisted of 798 employees, mostly males, between 30 and 34 years old, with secondary school education, serving as operatives or undifferentiated employees, and having middle levels of seniority in the organization. The main results show that hotel employees develop organizational citizenship behaviors, albeit of different types and levels, which are supported by some sociodemographic and professional variables. The findings show that age and seniority are the most important and strongest variables significantly related to organizational citizenship behaviors. This study has several implications, highlighting the role and support that managers and decision-makers must have in reinforcing positive voluntary personal and social behaviors among hotel employees. This research aims to contribute to the formulation and implementation of management strategies anchored in organizational citizenship behaviors, supporting the formulation of management systems centered on behavioral attitudes at work in the context of the hotel sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Work, Employment and the Labor Market)
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16 pages, 266 KiB  
Article
Coloniality and Refugee Education in the United States
by Jill Koyama and Adnan Turan
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(6), 314; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13060314 - 13 Jun 2024
Viewed by 290
Abstract
In this paper, we demonstrate the ways in which the schooling of refugee youth in the United States reflects ongoing coloniality in education. Drawing on data collected in a case study, conducted between 2013 and 2016, as part of a larger ongoing ethnography [...] Read more.
In this paper, we demonstrate the ways in which the schooling of refugee youth in the United States reflects ongoing coloniality in education. Drawing on data collected in a case study, conducted between 2013 and 2016, as part of a larger ongoing ethnography of a Southwest United States District school’s response to refugee students, we show how the enactment of policies, pedagogies, and practices within schools reinforce the government’s control over refugee students and their families. In schools, the students are kept out of certain school spaces, marginalized in remedial courses, and denied academic opportunities and integrated support services. Using empirical data, we demonstrate how the restriction of the students’ movement in and around schools is embedded within the larger limitations embedded in coloniality and assimilation. We situate our analysis within the tensions and interactions between coloniality, assimilation, and neoliberalism as articulated in studies within anthropology and sociology, migration studies, critical refugee studies, and cultural studies. We conclude with a call for the decolonization of education and offer a practical starting point in refugee education. Full article
12 pages, 502 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Digital Presence on the Careers of Emerging Visual Artists
by Loizos Petrides and Madalena Vila de Brito
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(6), 313; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13060313 - 13 Jun 2024
Viewed by 361
Abstract
This paper investigates the importance of digital presence for the emerging visual artists’ careers. The study first examines how artists manage their digital presence and subsequently analyzes the impact of this presence on their careers by applying a model that consists of four [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the importance of digital presence for the emerging visual artists’ careers. The study first examines how artists manage their digital presence and subsequently analyzes the impact of this presence on their careers by applying a model that consists of four objectives (branding, engagement, networking, and conversion). A qualitative method was employed, and interviews were conducted with illustrators at an early or emerging career stage. The findings demonstrate that an effective presence on digital platforms requires not only producing and showing artistic work but also managing an artistic brand, engaging with the audience, and making use of networking opportunities. It is also established that artists need to complement their digital presence with interactions in the physical world to increase the chances for advancing their careers. This paper follows the literature that studies the visual artist as brand manager and adds to the body of knowledge on how artists build successful careers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Work, Employment and the Labor Market)
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23 pages, 3983 KiB  
Article
The Types of Water Conflicts in an Irrigation System in Northern Mexico: Conflict as a Negative Link in Social Network Analysis
by Ixtoc Marlo Rivera-Nuñez, Diana Luque Agraz, Arthur D. Murphy, Eric C. Jones and Martha Alejandra Flores-Cuamea
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(6), 312; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13060312 - 12 Jun 2024
Viewed by 254
Abstract
We used social network analysis (SNA) to identify the types of water-related conflicts between the users and members of the institutional arena of the Rio Mayo Irrigation District (RMID) within the ancestral territory of the Yoreme Mayo indigenous group in Sonora, northeastern Mexico. [...] Read more.
We used social network analysis (SNA) to identify the types of water-related conflicts between the users and members of the institutional arena of the Rio Mayo Irrigation District (RMID) within the ancestral territory of the Yoreme Mayo indigenous group in Sonora, northeastern Mexico. We combined ethnography with an analysis and visualization of bimodal networks that consisted of 118 users and their connections to the institutional arena’s 30 identified social actors who influence water management. Using a clustering algorithm, we identified four types of conflicts: (1) disputes between small- and large-scale farmers over (i) irrigation water and (ii) payments for water rights and land rental; (2) the struggle by large-scale farmers against the upper level of the water hierarchy, to obtain more water; (3) struggles by rural indigenous women against water providers, to conserve indigenous vernacular systems of managing water for domestic use; and (4) a “conflict” that turned out to be merely a structural remnant of the algorithm. We conclude that land- and water-grabbing in the RMID mainly affect indigenous small-scale farmers and that the combination of SNA and a clustering algorithm can identify the types of natural resource-related conflicts that might go undetected by other methodologies. However, SNA should in some cases be accompanied by a qualitative methodology. Full article
20 pages, 331 KiB  
Article
Routines and Daily Dynamics of Young People with Borderline Intelligence: An Ethnomethodological Study
by Mabel Segú and Edurne Gonzalez
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(6), 311; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13060311 - 12 Jun 2024
Viewed by 354
Abstract
Young people with borderline intelligence functioning (BIF) have intellectual functioning at the border between intellectual disability and those considered neurotypical. This population group is often underrepresented in social research, which makes it difficult to understand their experiences and needs. The research aims to [...] Read more.
Young people with borderline intelligence functioning (BIF) have intellectual functioning at the border between intellectual disability and those considered neurotypical. This population group is often underrepresented in social research, which makes it difficult to understand their experiences and needs. The research aims to understand the daily lives of young people with BIF to identify needs that society might not be aware of. The study was conducted with a sample of 30 young people. The ethnomethodological design was appropriate for the study of the routines and daily dynamics of these young people, which allowed the researchers to understand the experiences and meanings of the participants from their own perspective. The analysis was carried out in the context of the subject of Qualitative Research Tools in Social Work with fourth-year students, through participant observation, semi-structured interviews, and field diaries. Data analysis was performed using the Atlas.ti23 qualitative content analysis program. The findings suggest a strong dependence on family and social support; a daily life marked by challenges; and a search for autonomy, among many other aspects. Collaboration with the participants allowed the researchers to better understand their experiences and needs from reflexivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 8th World Conference on Qualitative Research)
12 pages, 304 KiB  
Review
How Should We Interpret Silence in Qualitative Communication Studies?
by Naíde Müller, Patrícia Tavares and João Simão
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(6), 310; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13060310 - 12 Jun 2024
Viewed by 516
Abstract
Through an interdisciplinary literature review, based on empirical evidence, this research approaches different ways of interpreting silence(s) in three qualitative research methods—ethnography, focus groups and interviews—which, by their nature, are conducive to practices that resort to silence as units of meaning. The findings [...] Read more.
Through an interdisciplinary literature review, based on empirical evidence, this research approaches different ways of interpreting silence(s) in three qualitative research methods—ethnography, focus groups and interviews—which, by their nature, are conducive to practices that resort to silence as units of meaning. The findings presented in this paper demonstrate how, in different data collection techniques, it is possible to rethink not only the whole conception of what silence is but also what silence can (or cannot) help to express. From a qualitative perspective in the social sciences and humanities, silence can in itself be a means of expression and a valid communication resource. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 8th World Conference on Qualitative Research)
18 pages, 922 KiB  
Article
Crisis and Organizational Sustainability: Empirical Analysis of the Implication of Transformational Leadership on the Decision to Stay Mediated by the Commitment of the Democratic Party in Indonesia
by Herzaky Mahendra Putra, Fendy Suhariadi, Suparto Wijoyo, Sukron Ma’mun, Ian Firstian Aldhi and Dwi Hardaningtyas
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(6), 309; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13060309 - 11 Jun 2024
Viewed by 395
Abstract
The research focuses on the impact of transformational leadership on the decision to stay mediated by commitment after a court refusal regarding illegal extraordinary congress involving the outsiders of a political party in Indonesia (in this case, it is the Democratic Party currently [...] Read more.
The research focuses on the impact of transformational leadership on the decision to stay mediated by commitment after a court refusal regarding illegal extraordinary congress involving the outsiders of a political party in Indonesia (in this case, it is the Democratic Party currently led by Agus Harimurti Yudhoyono), where this phenomenon is classified as a crisis. Theories and the previous literature pointed out that transformational leadership would significantly affect an individual’s decision to stay with the institution through commitment. Therefore, this research empirically analyzes the hypotheses using quantitative methods on 349 respondents who are central (DPP) and local (DPD and DPC) active committees of the Democratic Party. Respondents are collected using cluster random sampling. Referring to theories and the previous literature, the latent variables of this research are constructed using dimensions. Transformational leadership (TL) has four dimensions which are charisma (idealized influence), inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individual considerations. Commitment has three dimensions which are affective, normative, and sustainable commitments. The decision to stay has two dimensions, which are intrinsic and extrinsic motivations. By using Structural Equation Modeling–Partial Least Square (SEM–PLS), the research revealed that the direct effect shows that transformational leadership and commitment significantly influence the decision to stay. On the other hand, the indirect effect indicates that commitment significantly mediates the relationship between transformational leadership and the decision to stay. The result indicates strong transformational leadership performed by Agus Harimurti Yudhoyono as the chief of the Democratic Party in Indonesia. Full article
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18 pages, 4107 KiB  
Review
Teaching about Marginalized Groups Using a Digital Human Library: Lessons Learned
by Chitat Chan
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(6), 308; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13060308 - 8 Jun 2024
Viewed by 297
Abstract
This paper presents lessons learned from a project inspired by digital storytelling and the human library to reduce prejudices against marginalized groups. By comparing the outcomes of similar participants in different settings over the same period, the study explored which types of activities [...] Read more.
This paper presents lessons learned from a project inspired by digital storytelling and the human library to reduce prejudices against marginalized groups. By comparing the outcomes of similar participants in different settings over the same period, the study explored which types of activities might be pivotal when influencing the perspective-taking attitudes of participants. The study used a case study approach, with data from the digital human library project, and selected participants from three different engagement contexts: participants in group A were involved in reading story abstracts online, having short face-to-face meetings regarding human books, and engaging in editorial activities; participants in group B were involved in extended face-to-face sharing provided by human books, followed by question-and-answer interaction; and participants in group C were involved in the reading of stories online without interaction. Convenience sampling was used and included 250 registered participants who completed pre-test and post-test questionnaires. The study found that merely reading stories online (group C) did not significantly reduce prejudice, and face-to-face contact on its own (group B) was also not the most effective in changing attitudes. Group A participants who combined short face-to-face meetings and story-retelling activities showed the most significant changes in perspective-taking attitudes. These findings imply that dialogic cognitive processes in narrative activities, rather than the mode of contact, may be pivotal in enhancing perspective-taking attitudes. This paper calls for further research into the scalability of digital human library hybrids and more rigorous experimental research designs. It underscores the potential of these interventions to foster more inclusive societies, mitigate social biases, and support equity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Stratification and Inequality)
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23 pages, 1120 KiB  
Article
Time Use, Health, and Well-Being across the Life Cycle: A Gender Analysis
by M. Pilar Matud, Juan Manuel Bethencourt, Mᵃ José del Pino, D. Estefanía Hernández-Lorenzo, Demelsa Fortes and Ignacio Ibáñez
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(6), 307; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13060307 - 8 Jun 2024
Viewed by 507
Abstract
Although time use is one of people’s most important resources, there are social forces and inequalities that shape how time is used. The aim of this research is to examine gender differences in time use from adolescence to old age and to analyze [...] Read more.
Although time use is one of people’s most important resources, there are social forces and inequalities that shape how time is used. The aim of this research is to examine gender differences in time use from adolescence to old age and to analyze the association of such use with sociodemographic characteristics and with women’s and men’s health and well-being. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 5700 women (54.2%) and men (45.8%) from the Spanish general population, aged 14 to 85 years. Participants were assessed using five self-reported measures of time use, health, mental symptoms, psychological well-being, life satisfaction, social support, and masculine/instrumental and feminine/expressive traits. The results showed that although there were important differences in life cycle stage and occupation, women spent more time than men on housework, childcare, and caring for sick relatives, while men spent more time than women on enjoying activities and exercise. More time spent on housework was associated with worse health and well-being for women and more exercise with better health and well-being for both genders. It is concluded that gender is relevant to time use and the impact of different uses of time on health and well-being. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gender Studies)
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25 pages, 1975 KiB  
Article
Development of Community and Agricultural Associations through Social and Solidarity Economy with Collaboration of University
by Jimmy Landaburú-Mendoza, León Arguello, Néstor Montalván-Burbano, Lady Chunga-Montalván and Roberto Pico-Saltos
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(6), 306; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13060306 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 342
Abstract
The Social and Solidarity Economy (SSE) is a unique economic model that addresses contemporary community problems by democratising the economy through activities that promote sustainability, solidarity, and collective prosperity. Research on the SSE has increased in recent years, showing its potential as an [...] Read more.
The Social and Solidarity Economy (SSE) is a unique economic model that addresses contemporary community problems by democratising the economy through activities that promote sustainability, solidarity, and collective prosperity. Research on the SSE has increased in recent years, showing its potential as an alternative to dominant economic schemes. This article aims to analyse how the SSE can contribute to sustainability in rural sector associations in Ecuador through the Participatory Action Research (PAR) method. This method empowers various stakeholders, including the community, associations, and the university, to be actively involved in designing, developing, and implementing solutions to alleviate their problems. The results show that in the context of a developing country, this active participation, interaction, and commitment can identify the various problems that the rural sector and its associations are experiencing. This situation allows for possible joint action solutions, involving people who usually do not have decision-making power or are vulnerable, by diagnosing their socio-economic conditions and establishing a training programme where knowledge production is democratic, thus combining theoretical and practical elements according to the needs detected. Full article
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23 pages, 592 KiB  
Systematic Review
Cultural Differences in Body Image: A Systematic Review
by Marzieh Abdoli, Marco Scotto Rosato, Avinash Desousa and Paolo Cotrufo
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(6), 305; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13060305 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 626
Abstract
Culture affects individuals’ perceptions and experiences of their bodies. In order to provide the most effective solutions to body image-related issues, it is necessary to understand cultures and their influences on body image in various populations. This paper focuses on the effects of [...] Read more.
Culture affects individuals’ perceptions and experiences of their bodies. In order to provide the most effective solutions to body image-related issues, it is necessary to understand cultures and their influences on body image in various populations. This paper focuses on the effects of culture on body image. Therefore, a systematic literature search following PRISMA guidelines was performed in the PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases, yielding 2064 articles published between 1990 and 2023. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 54 articles were selected. Our findings showed a strong influence of culture on body image, highlighting the impact of societal expectations on individuals’ mental well-being. Western cultures, with their preference for thinness, differ from non-Western ideals. The findings also showed the impact of regional variations within the same culture and society on body image. Furthermore, the study found that the young demographic, especially females, is the most vulnerable to body image issues; however, emerging research within our review also indicates a growing concern among males. This study underscores the necessity of culturally considering interventions to address body image issues, which are integral to improving mental health concerns like body dissatisfaction, eating disorders, depression, low self-esteem, and anxiety. Full article
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6 pages, 220 KiB  
Editorial
Introduction to the Special Issue “Rethinking Artful Politics: Bodies of Difference Remaking Body Worlds”
by Nadine Changfoot, Carla Rice and Eliza Chandler
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(6), 304; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13060304 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 335
Abstract
“Rethinking Artful Politics: Bodies of Difference Remaking Body Worlds” is a robust Special Issue comprising 11 scholarly articles on the nexus of art and politics [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rethinking Artful Politics: Bodies of Difference Remaking Body Worlds)
22 pages, 498 KiB  
Article
Preferences for Remote and Hybrid Work: Evidence from the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Carolyn E. Waldrep, Marni Fritz and Jennifer Glass
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(6), 303; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13060303 - 3 Jun 2024
Viewed by 276
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic created an opportunity for many American workers to work from home. Did the rapid and widespread adoption of remote work arrangements influence workers’ preferences? This study analyzes the early pandemic work experiences of 52 participants (20 men and 32 women) [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic created an opportunity for many American workers to work from home. Did the rapid and widespread adoption of remote work arrangements influence workers’ preferences? This study analyzes the early pandemic work experiences of 52 participants (20 men and 32 women) in dual-earner households with children through in-depth interviews conducted in 2021 and 2022 via Zoom. The study explores respondents’ desire for remote and hybrid work, considering job satisfaction as well as job characteristics, family structure, and household organization. Unless their jobs were poorly suited to remote work, most workers with pandemic-era remote work opportunities—and even some who had not worked remotely—wished to keep remote access in their post-pandemic work arrangements. Respondents reported enhanced job satisfaction and productivity from remote work, as a result of greater schedule control and flexibility. We found that some workers were willing to change jobs to maintain their preferred work arrangement, while others acquiesced to employers’ return-to-work policies. The study highlights the need to understand workers’ preferences in supporting flexible work arrangements and contributes to the understanding of remote work on family dynamics during the pandemic and afterwards. Full article
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19 pages, 2754 KiB  
Article
Social and Cultural Hazards, from the 3.11 Disaster through Today’s Global Warming: Shifting Conceptions of the Soma Nomaoi Cavalry Event in Fukushima, Japan
by Nobuko Adachi
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(6), 302; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13060302 - 3 Jun 2024
Viewed by 148
Abstract
This case study is an anthropological reflection on the impact of multiple disaster events on the culture and economy of the Hamadōri coastal area of Fukushima, Japan. The 2011 Tōhoku earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear meltdown; the pandemic of 2020; and today’s global warming [...] Read more.
This case study is an anthropological reflection on the impact of multiple disaster events on the culture and economy of the Hamadōri coastal area of Fukushima, Japan. The 2011 Tōhoku earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear meltdown; the pandemic of 2020; and today’s global warming have affected this area’s economic, touristic, and cultural practices, such as the Soma Nomaoi Calvary tradition. Outcomes exemplify the concept of punctuated entropy: a permanent decline in the adaptive flexibility of a human cultural system to the environment brought on by the cumulative impact of periodic disaster events. In the case of Fukushima, efforts to mitigate and recover from these closely occurring disaster events have been only partially successful, and the outcomes provide profound lessons learned regarding the complexity of the recovery process when deep-seated and sustaining cultural practices are disrupted or lost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anthropological Reflections on Crisis and Disaster)
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14 pages, 2645 KiB  
Article
The Perception of Educators on Gender Equality: A Study in Ecuador
by Verónica Díaz, Henry Vallejos, Carmen Oval, Selin Carrasco, Carmen Coloma, Fabiola Flores, Carola Lozada, Patricio Rivera and María Simón
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(6), 301; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13060301 - 31 May 2024
Viewed by 230
Abstract
Gender equality is a prerequisite for people-centered human development. This exploratory and descriptive study was conducted to investigate the perception of gender among Ecuadorian primary school teachers. Quantitative data were obtained from teachers in public and urban educational establishments. In order to collect [...] Read more.
Gender equality is a prerequisite for people-centered human development. This exploratory and descriptive study was conducted to investigate the perception of gender among Ecuadorian primary school teachers. Quantitative data were obtained from teachers in public and urban educational establishments. In order to collect the data, an online survey-type opinion questionnaire was applied with the aim of finding out teachers’ perception of gender equality within their institutions in educational establishments in the Republic of Ecuador, considering the dimensions of personal perceptions of the subject, the organizational culture, and the implementation of gender equality in the internal management of the educational organizations where they work. The results of the questionnaire show that teachers perceive that there is currently more receptiveness to gender issues than in the past. From the answers received, it can be concluded that people identify with gender issues, even though there is a need for elements and support to enable them to be expressed effectively, on a daily basis and sustained over time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gender Studies)
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17 pages, 1065 KiB  
Article
Investigating the Effects of Misinformation as Infopathogens: Developing a Model and Thought Experiment
by Roger D. Magarey, Thomas M. Chappell and Kayla Pack Watson
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(6), 300; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13060300 - 31 May 2024
Viewed by 428
Abstract
Previously, it has been shown that transmissible and harmful misinformation can be viewed as pathogenic, potentially contributing to collective social epidemics. In this study, a biological analogy is developed to allow investigative methods that are applied to biological epidemics to be considered for [...] Read more.
Previously, it has been shown that transmissible and harmful misinformation can be viewed as pathogenic, potentially contributing to collective social epidemics. In this study, a biological analogy is developed to allow investigative methods that are applied to biological epidemics to be considered for adaptation to digital and social ones including those associated with misinformation. The model’s components include infopathogens, tropes, cognition, memes, and phenotypes. The model can be used for diagnostic, pathologic, and synoptic/taxonomic study of the spread of misinformation. A thought experiment based on a hypothetical riot is used to understand how disinformation spreads. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Disinformation and Misinformation in the New Media Landscape)
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13 pages, 305 KiB  
Article
“I Thought I Was Going to Die like Him”: Racial Authoritarianism and the Afterlife of George Floyd in the United States and Brazil
by Jaimee A. Swift
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(6), 299; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13060299 - 31 May 2024
Viewed by 207
Abstract
This paper offers a brief yet comprehensive comparative analysis of historical and contemporary racial authoritarian violence in the United States and Brazil. Utilizing Black feminist historian and literary scholar Saidiya Hartman’s theorization of the “afterlife of slavery” and Michael Dawson’s linked fate, I [...] Read more.
This paper offers a brief yet comprehensive comparative analysis of historical and contemporary racial authoritarian violence in the United States and Brazil. Utilizing Black feminist historian and literary scholar Saidiya Hartman’s theorization of the “afterlife of slavery” and Michael Dawson’s linked fate, I examine how the processes of racialization and the racial logics of subordination have and continue to shape the contours of Black life in the United States and in Brazil. Moreover, in this work, I interrogate the afterlife of George Floyd and the afterlives of Black Brazilian victims and survivors of racial authoritarian violence; the political, transnational, and symbolic impacts of Floyd’s death; and Diasporic understandings of linked fate on racial authoritarian violence between Black communities in the United States and in Brazil. Full article
28 pages, 755 KiB  
Review
Intersex Epistemologies? Reviewing Relevant Perspectives in Intersex Studies
by Amets Suess-Schwend
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(6), 298; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13060298 - 31 May 2024
Viewed by 377
Abstract
Over the last decades, intersex studies has achieved increasing development as a field of critical knowledge, in tight collaboration with discourses developed by intersex activism and human rights bodies. This paper proposes a self-reflexive review of epistemological perspectives in intersex studies within broader [...] Read more.
Over the last decades, intersex studies has achieved increasing development as a field of critical knowledge, in tight collaboration with discourses developed by intersex activism and human rights bodies. This paper proposes a self-reflexive review of epistemological perspectives in intersex studies within broader discursive fields, through a thematic analysis and comparative framing analysis. This analysis is based on a narrative literature review of academic contributions, activist declarations, and documents issued by human rights bodies conducted over the last decade as a work-in-progress project. Furthermore, it includes results of a scoping review of recent knowledge production in intersex studies carried out in Scopus within the subject area ‘social sciences’. This paper focuses on the analysis of the following epistemological perspectives: human rights frameworks, legal perspectives and citizenship theories, reflections on biopolitics, medicalization and iatrogenesis, sociology of diagnosis framework, depathologization perspective, respectful health care models, and reflections on epistemological, methodological, and ethical aspects. The literature review raises questions about the existence of specific intersex epistemologies in intersex studies, their interrelation with discourses contributed by intersex activism and human rights bodies, and the opportunities for a contribution of theory making in intersex studies to the human rights protection of intersex people. Full article
15 pages, 1569 KiB  
Article
Guangdong–Hong Kong–Macao Cooperation: Historical Process and Driving Mechanisms
by Zhicong Lin, Zhenjie Yang, Johnny F. I. Lam and Lue Li
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(6), 297; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13060297 - 30 May 2024
Viewed by 305
Abstract
Cooperation in the Guangdong–Hong Kong–Macao Greater Bay Area under the “one country, two systems” framework is different from regional cooperation in other areas. Its unique cross-border cooperation within one country has attracted much attention from the academic community. Since the 1980s, the cooperation [...] Read more.
Cooperation in the Guangdong–Hong Kong–Macao Greater Bay Area under the “one country, two systems” framework is different from regional cooperation in other areas. Its unique cross-border cooperation within one country has attracted much attention from the academic community. Since the 1980s, the cooperation between Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao has gone through different stages with China’s development. Examining the process of change can contribute to understanding the logic and driving mechanisms of cooperation in the Greater Bay Area. This study shows that regional cooperation has been driven from the market to the combined influence of the market and government since the 1980s. During this transition, the central government has become increasingly involved in the cooperation through political embedding, eventually becoming the main driver of this regional cooperation. However, regardless of whether the driving force was the market or the government, significant internal tensions remained throughout the transition process. The research suggests that the top-level design for institutionalising regional cooperation can effectively balance market and administrative forces, leveraging the strengths of each. It is valuable to elucidate the uniqueness and complexity of Guangdong–Hong Kong–Macao cooperation under “one country, two systems”, which will contribute to further promoting deep cooperation in the Greater Bay Area. Full article
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23 pages, 2389 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Partners’ Relative Wages on Couples’ Gender Division of Paid Work after Parenthood across Origin Groups
by Julie Maes and Leen Marynissen
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(6), 296; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13060296 - 29 May 2024
Viewed by 241
Abstract
The transition to parenthood exacerbates gender inequality in couples’ division of paid work. While this is widely documented for general populations, in particular, potential underlying mechanisms of this phenomenon remain un(der)explored for couples with different migration backgrounds. Hence, this paper examines how women’s [...] Read more.
The transition to parenthood exacerbates gender inequality in couples’ division of paid work. While this is widely documented for general populations, in particular, potential underlying mechanisms of this phenomenon remain un(der)explored for couples with different migration backgrounds. Hence, this paper examines how women’s pre-birth relative wage potential affects the gender division of paid work after the transition to parenthood in Belgium among native, Southern-European and non-European origin couples. Our results show that, among all couples, the division of paid work is more gender-equal after childbirth when women’s wage potential is higher than or similar to that of their male partner. However, there is substantial variation by couples’ migration background and relative wage potential in partners’ gender division of paid work and the extent to which it changes after parenthood. These findings suggest that both normative and institutional factors moderate the impact of partners’ relative resources on couples’ division of paid work after parenthood, particularly among non-European origin couples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Family Studies)
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