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Soc. Sci., Volume 10, Issue 9 (September 2021) – 34 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Using a three-dimensional child wellbeing approach, we argue that cash transfer programs (CTPs) have helped extremely poor families in Pakistan to sustain their basic dietary needs but failed to address the distinctive vulnerabilities of children, including their relational wellbeing and social status. Focus groups with children revealed a sophisticated understanding of their family’s poverty as rooted within the broader socioeconomic context. They were keenly aware of the CTPs’ inability to address their social exclusion and meet their psychosocial needs, such as feeling secure and enjoying childhood. This suggests that social protection as currently conceptualized through CTPs is far from being a comprehensive policy for children’s wellbeing. Interventions are needed that provide economic security for caregivers and acknowledge children’s rights as citizens. View this paper.
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12 pages, 279 KiB  
Article
Discourse of Folk Literature on Healthy Ageing: A Case Study in Sindh, Pakistan during the Pandemic Crisis
by Maya Khemlani David and Ameer Ali
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(9), 350; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10090350 - 20 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4187
Abstract
Due to COVID-19 and the repeated imposition of lockdowns in Pakistan’s Sindh province, the life of senior citizens has become challenging. Given the scarcity of health care policies targeted at Sindh’s aged persons, the use of folk literature as therapy has increased to [...] Read more.
Due to COVID-19 and the repeated imposition of lockdowns in Pakistan’s Sindh province, the life of senior citizens has become challenging. Given the scarcity of health care policies targeted at Sindh’s aged persons, the use of folk literature as therapy has increased to support against isolation, depression, and distress caused by COVID-19 and lockdowns. Although research on healthy ageing from medical and health care perspectives has been increasingly conducted in different contexts, there is a need to explore how folk literature can contribute to psychological, spiritual, and social wellbeing. Therefore, this research, conducted by collecting data from 15 aged participants through interviews and conversations, seeks to explore how senior Sindhis have used folk literature such as poetry, proverbs, and tales as therapy for their healing. Findings show that the participants’ use of Sindhi folk literature contributes to their psychological (eudemonic, evaluative, and hedonic) wellbeing, spiritual healing, and social satisfaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Asian Perspectives on Active Aging: Meaning, Purpose and Hope)
14 pages, 289 KiB  
Article
Perceived Trust in Public Authorities Nine Months after the COVID-19 Outbreak: A Cross-National Study
by Daicia Price, Tore Bonsaksen, Mary Ruffolo, Janni Leung, Vivian Chiu, Hilde Thygesen, Mariyana Schoultz and Amy Ostertun Geirdal
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(9), 349; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10090349 - 18 Sep 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3575
Abstract
This study aimed to examine the perceived trust in information provided by public authorities and financial measures put in place to address the impact of COVID-19. Using a cross-national approach among four Western countries—the United States of America, Norway, Australia, and the United [...] Read more.
This study aimed to examine the perceived trust in information provided by public authorities and financial measures put in place to address the impact of COVID-19. Using a cross-national approach among four Western countries—the United States of America, Norway, Australia, and the United Kingdom—provides an analysis of responses related to trust and how they were associated with age group, gender, education level, employment status, size of place of residence, infection status, and social media use. When controlling for all included variables in logistic regression analyses, the likelihood of having trust in the public authorities’ information was higher for women, those with higher levels of education, and those living in urban areas. Being infected with the coronavirus, and spending more time daily on social media, were both associated with lower likelihood of reporting trust in information. Although policies implemented to respond to economic concerns varied cross-nationally, higher age, identifying as female, being employed, living in a city, no COVID-19 infection experience and lower levels of social media usage were associated with a higher likelihood of trusting in the financial measures put in place to counteract the economic effects of COVID-19. Full article
19 pages, 763 KiB  
Article
More Offenders, More Crime: Estimating the Size of the Offender Population in a Latin American Setting
by Spencer P. Chainey and Dennis L. Lazarus
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(9), 348; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10090348 - 18 Sep 2021
Viewed by 2731
Abstract
Research that has examined the high levels of crime experienced in Latin American settings has suggested that macrostructural variables (such as social inequality), and factors associated with development and institutional capacity, offer explanations for these high crime levels. Although useful, these studies have [...] Read more.
Research that has examined the high levels of crime experienced in Latin American settings has suggested that macrostructural variables (such as social inequality), and factors associated with development and institutional capacity, offer explanations for these high crime levels. Although useful, these studies have yet to quantify how these explanations translate to the dynamics of offending activities. In the current study, we examine a key component related to offending dynamics: the size of the offender population. Using two capture-recapture techniques and a bootstrap simulation, estimates were generated of the sizes of the offender populations for three comparable cities in Brazil, Mexico, and England. Each of the techniques generated similar estimates for the offender population size for each city, but with these estimates varying substantially between the cities. This included the estimated offender population size for the Brazilian city being twenty-five times greater than that for the English city. Risk of arrest values were also generated, with these calculated to be substantially lower for the Brazilian and Mexican cities than for the English city. The results provide a quantification of criminal behavior that offers a potential new insight into the high levels of crime that are experienced in Latin American settings. Full article
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21 pages, 9995 KiB  
Article
Can Regional Gender Ideologies Account for Variation of Gender Pay Gaps? The Case of Germany
by Maik Hamjediers
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(9), 347; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10090347 - 17 Sep 2021
Viewed by 3649
Abstract
While research often invokes gender disparities in wage-determining characteristics to explain gender pay gaps, why these gender disparities and gender pay gaps vary across contexts has received less attention. Therefore, I analyze how subnational gender ideologies predict gender pay gaps in two ways: [...] Read more.
While research often invokes gender disparities in wage-determining characteristics to explain gender pay gaps, why these gender disparities and gender pay gaps vary across contexts has received less attention. Therefore, I analyze how subnational gender ideologies predict gender pay gaps in two ways: as directly affecting gender pay gaps and as indirectly predicting gender pay gaps through intermediate gender disparities in determinants of wage. The analyses are based on German survey data (SOEP 2014–2018) supplemented with regional-level statistics. First, I leverage regional differences in predictors of gender ideologies to estimate region-specific gender ideologies. Mapping these gender ideologies across Germany reveals substantial regional variation. Second, multi-level models provide region-specific gender disparities in wage determinants and gender pay gaps. Results reveal that traditional gender ideologies are associated with women gaining less labor market experience and working less often in full-time jobs or supervising positions. In addition to this indirect association, gender ideologies directly predict the extent of adjusted gender pay gaps. These associations contribute novel evidence on regional variation of gender ideologies and how they can underlie explanations often invoked for gender pay gaps. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gender Studies)
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16 pages, 317 KiB  
Article
University and Professor Practices to Support DACA and Undocumented Students: DACA Student Experiences, Teacher Knowledge, and University Actions
by Jenny Banh and Jelena Radovic-Fanta
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(9), 346; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10090346 - 16 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4726
Abstract
The United States immigration policy Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) which protects some individuals from deportation was enacted in 2012, phased out in 2017 and is now under court challenges. There are still thousands of DACA students currently in higher education. The [...] Read more.
The United States immigration policy Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) which protects some individuals from deportation was enacted in 2012, phased out in 2017 and is now under court challenges. There are still thousands of DACA students currently in higher education. The article highlights promising practices that professors and universities can put in place to support DACA students in the United States. Several semi-structured interviews were conducted with DACA students and Dream Center Directors in California universities to gauge students’ barriers and bridges to their higher education success. DACA students articulated public policy suggestions that universities and professors can immediately enact and have tangible results. Three themes were revealed in the interview data: the need for teacher knowledge, diversity of DACA student experiences, and for actions. These were explained as (1) knowledge of student’s lives, and, conversely, students’ access to information necessary for navigating college life; (2) the diversity of students’ life stories and experiences of trauma suffered during and after DACA rescinding decision; and (3) actions that should be taken by the faculty, staff, and the university community that would help students succeed academically. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Contemporary Politics and Society)
25 pages, 458 KiB  
Article
Double Consciousness in the 21st Century: Du Boisian Theory and the Problem of Racialized Legal Status
by Tiffany Joseph and Tanya Golash-Boza
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(9), 345; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10090345 - 16 Sep 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 22089
Abstract
In W.E.B. Du Bois’ Souls of Black Folk, he argued that the problem of the 20th century in the United States was the problem of the color line. Given that de facto and explicit racial discrimination persist, anti-immigrant rhetoric is intensifying, and legal [...] Read more.
In W.E.B. Du Bois’ Souls of Black Folk, he argued that the problem of the 20th century in the United States was the problem of the color line. Given that de facto and explicit racial discrimination persist, anti-immigrant rhetoric is intensifying, and legal status has become more salient, we argue Du Boisian theory remains relevant for understanding social and political cleavages in the 21st century United States. The intersection of race, ethnicity, and legal status or “racialized legal status” represents a new variation of Du Bois’ “color line,” due to how these statuses generate cumulative disadvantages and exclusion for citizens and immigrants of color, particularly the undocumented. We begin with a review of Du Bois’ double consciousness theory, highlighting the marginalization of African Americans. Next, we apply double consciousness to the 21st century U.S. context to empirically demonstrate parallels between 20th century African Americans and the marginalization faced today by people of color. We close with a discussion about how double consciousness enhances our understanding of citizenship and has also generated agency for people of color fighting for socio-political inclusion in the contemporary United States. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immigration and White Supremacy in the 21st Century)
13 pages, 3074 KiB  
Article
Experiences and Lessons Learnt from the Evaluation of ICT Tools for and with Migrants
by Helen C. Leligou, Despina Anastasopoulos, Nicholas Vretos, Vassilis Solachidis, Eszter Kantor, Iva Plašilová, Elodie Girardet, Anita Montagna, Fotini Vlahaki and Maria Tountopoulou
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(9), 344; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10090344 - 15 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2544
Abstract
As the number of migrants arriving in Europe increases, host societies face the challenge of supporting their smooth integration, respecting their needs and recognizing their competencies. A key element for their new life is their integration in the labour market. This paper presents [...] Read more.
As the number of migrants arriving in Europe increases, host societies face the challenge of supporting their smooth integration, respecting their needs and recognizing their competencies. A key element for their new life is their integration in the labour market. This paper presents a platform which offers a set of tools that has been developed to support migrants to find their way into the labour market in EU countries. This set includes tools for skill assessment, artificial intelligence tools providing recommendations for jobs that match their personal skills and needs, tools for suggesting training paths and options to empower their candidacy, and easy-to-use tools for creating their CV/portfolio. We focus on the evaluation of this platform in real life settings in two countries (Greece and Spain), which is part of our co-creation approach. The results are very promising and show the satisfaction of the migrants. Additionally, they provide valuable insights for both those that develop such tools and those that can use them in their work/activities with the migrants (such as the non-governmental organisations and host authorities). Full article
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17 pages, 529 KiB  
Article
Teenage Time Use and Educational Attainment in Adulthood in Finland
by Satu Ojala, Man-Yee Kan and Tomi Oinas
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(9), 343; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10090343 - 14 Sep 2021
Viewed by 2957
Abstract
We investigated the role of teenage everyday social ties in educational outcomes by examining the association between teenage time use and educational attainment in adulthood. The sample consisted of young people aged 10–18 from the 1979 Finnish Time Use Survey, and the same [...] Read more.
We investigated the role of teenage everyday social ties in educational outcomes by examining the association between teenage time use and educational attainment in adulthood. The sample consisted of young people aged 10–18 from the 1979 Finnish Time Use Survey, and the same respondents’ educational attainment later in life recorded from population register data at the year of 40th birthday (n = 366 men and 393 women). We assessed the associations of time spent with the parents, on studying, leisure activities, as well as social connectedness with friends and participation in extracurricular activities, with educational outcomes. Our findings indicated that time spent with the father is positively associated with the likelihood of completing tertiary education for both daughters and sons. In particular, time spent with lower-education fathers was associated with teenagers’ future tertiary education. However, intense friendships and participation in extracurricular activities were not associated with academic achievement later in life. The findings suggest that educational attainment is partly explained by teenage time spent with the family. Less-educated fathers can enhance the attainment of higher education of their children by spending more time with their teenage children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Childhood and Youth Studies)
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15 pages, 454 KiB  
Article
New Vulnerabilities for Migrants and Refugees in State Responses to the Global Pandemic, COVID-19
by Claudia Tazreiter and Simon Metcalfe
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(9), 342; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10090342 - 14 Sep 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4143
Abstract
This article examines the global pandemic, COVID-19, through the lens of responses to vulnerable migrants, asking what state responses mean for the future of human rights values and for humanitarian interventions. The responses of the Australian state are developed as a case study [...] Read more.
This article examines the global pandemic, COVID-19, through the lens of responses to vulnerable migrants, asking what state responses mean for the future of human rights values and for humanitarian interventions. The responses of the Australian state are developed as a case study of actions and policies directed at refugees and temporary migrant workers through the COVID-19 pandemic. The theoretical framing of the article draws on racial capitalism to argue that the developments manifest during the ‘crisis times’ of COVID-19 are in large part a continuity of the exclusionary politics of bordering practices at the heart of neoliberal capitalism. The article proposes that a rethinking of foundational theoretical and methodological approaches in the social sciences are needed to reflect contemporary changes in justice claims, claims that increasingly recognize the multi-species nature of existential threats to all life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Rights and Displaced People in Exceptional Times)
22 pages, 384 KiB  
Article
Immigrant Health Inequities: Exposing Diversions and White Supremacy
by San Juanita García, Taylor Trummel, Monica Cornejo, Katherine Maldonado, Ana Ojeda, Humberto Flores and Bruce G. Link
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(9), 341; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10090341 - 13 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3679
Abstract
Diversions occur when research disregards the inequality-generating actions of advantaged groups and instead focuses attention on the actions and behaviors of disadvantaged groups. We incorporate important insights from COVID-19 to illustrate historical and contemporary examples of diversions. This paper highlights US immigrant health [...] Read more.
Diversions occur when research disregards the inequality-generating actions of advantaged groups and instead focuses attention on the actions and behaviors of disadvantaged groups. We incorporate important insights from COVID-19 to illustrate historical and contemporary examples of diversions. This paper highlights US immigrant health inequities—a burgeoning subfield within the broader health inequalities canon—to explore: (1) if and how diversions appear in immigrant health studies; (2) how often white supremacy and intersectionality are explicitly named in grants, publicly available datasets, and published research. The data derive from: NIH R01 grants (17), publicly available datasets that focus on immigrant health (7), and research published in three health journals (14). Using a qualitative content analysis approach, we analyzed these data as evidence concerning the knowledge production cycle, and investigate whether: (a) the role of advantaged groups in generating inequalities is explicitly mentioned; (b) disadvantaged groups are asked about discriminatory actions perpetuated by advantaged groups; (c) health inequalities are placed on the conditions of disadvantaged groups; (d) if white supremacy and intersectionality are explicitly mentioned in grants, publicly available datasets, and research articles. The findings demonstrate the prevalence of diversions in immigrant health research, given an overemphasis on health behaviors and cultural explanations towards explaining immigrant health inequities. There was no mention of white supremacy across the knowledge production cycle. Intersectionality was mentioned once in a research article. We argue that understanding white supremacy’s role in the knowledge production cycle illuminates how diversions occur and prevail. We provide suggestions on moving away from diversionary research, toward adopting an intersectional approach of the study of immigrant health inequities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immigration and White Supremacy in the 21st Century)
16 pages, 2027 KiB  
Concept Paper
Who Are the Homeless? Centering Anti-Black Racism and the Consequences of Colorblind Homeless Policies
by Earl James Edwards
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(9), 340; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10090340 - 13 Sep 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 14780
Abstract
Since first becoming a major social issue in the 1980s, homelessness has been a racialized problem in the United States. Its disproportionate impact on Black Americans is primarily driven by structural racism and the limited housing and employment opportunities for Black Americans. The [...] Read more.
Since first becoming a major social issue in the 1980s, homelessness has been a racialized problem in the United States. Its disproportionate impact on Black Americans is primarily driven by structural racism and the limited housing and employment opportunities for Black Americans. The first major federal legislation to address the needs of the United States’ homeless population—the Stewart B. McKinney–Vento Homeless Assistance Act of 1987 omitted the root causes of Black housing instability, thereby proving ineffective at mitigating Black homelessness. As a result, Black Americans remain disproportionately impacted today. In addition to being neglected by the McKinney–Vento Homeless Assistance Act, Black men and women experiencing homelessness are more likely to be discriminated against than any other racial group. For example, Black men are more likely to be arrested than anyone else, and Black women are the most likely to experience hyper-surveillance. This paper uses the Public Identity Framework to argue that in the 1980s, advocates and opponents of homeless legislation created two contradictory public personas to shape public discourse and policies for the homeless. A colorblind public persona was used to pass the McKinney–Vento Homeless Act; meanwhile, the public persona of the “underclass” was used to criminalize and shame the homeless. Both personas operated concurrently to create a dual public identity for the homeless that influenced policy and ultimately harmed Black people. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection The Crisis of Homelessness)
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16 pages, 883 KiB  
Essay
Reflections for a Sociological Representation of the Eater
by Jean Pierre Corbeau
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(9), 339; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10090339 - 13 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3032
Abstract
Professor Jean Pierre Corbeau is an important author of the French sociology of food. He played a decisive role in the emergence of the concept of the eater. This essay is a reflexive discussion by the author of one of his theoretical articles [...] Read more.
Professor Jean Pierre Corbeau is an important author of the French sociology of food. He played a decisive role in the emergence of the concept of the eater. This essay is a reflexive discussion by the author of one of his theoretical articles published in 1997. It is an opportunity for the English-speaking sociological community to become better acquainted with this current in the sociology of food. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Studies and Sociology)
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5 pages, 192 KiB  
Commentary
Rural Proofing Policies for Health: Barriers to Policy Transfer for Australia
by I Nyoman Sutarsa, Lachlan Campbell and Malcolm Moore
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(9), 338; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10090338 - 09 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2384
Abstract
A ‘rural proofing’ framework, which offers assessment of the potential impacts of policies on rural and remote communities, has been advocated for by state governments and interest groups throughout Australia. It is argued that rural proofing can be used to redress health inequities [...] Read more.
A ‘rural proofing’ framework, which offers assessment of the potential impacts of policies on rural and remote communities, has been advocated for by state governments and interest groups throughout Australia. It is argued that rural proofing can be used to redress health inequities between urban and rural and remote communities. While implementation of rural proofing in some countries shows promising results, there are many social and spatial contexts that should be considered prior to its adoption in Australia. Rural proofing is not the best option for rural health policy in Australia. It has been imported from communities where the urban/rural divide is minimal. It is based on a rigid urban/rural binary model that targets disparity rather than accommodating the diversity of rural communities. Rural proofing concentrates on tick-the-box activities, where rural communities are not sufficiently consulted. There is no unified federal ministry in Australia with responsibility for rural and remote affairs. Considering potential shortcomings of rural proofing for health policies, it is imperative for Australia to have a specific rural health policy at both federal and state levels. Full article
12 pages, 297 KiB  
Article
How Did Students with Different Learning Profiles Experience ‘Normal’ and Online Teaching Situation during COVID-19 Spring?
by Anna Parpala, Nina Katajavuori, Anne Haarala-Muhonen and Henna Asikainen
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(9), 337; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10090337 - 08 Sep 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3648
Abstract
This study compares university students’ approaches to learning and experiences with the teaching–learning environment in general and during online studying as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. It examines students’ learning profiles and how students with different learning profiles experienced the teaching–learning environment [...] Read more.
This study compares university students’ approaches to learning and experiences with the teaching–learning environment in general and during online studying as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. It examines students’ learning profiles and how students with different learning profiles experienced the teaching–learning environment during COVID-19 as well as their approaches to learning and study-related burnout in general. The participants were 665 first- and second-year students. The profiles were examined using K-means cluster analyses and the differences in learning profiles using one-way ANOVA and the Tuckey Test. The results show changes in students’ approaches to learning and their experiences with the teaching–learning environment and study-related burnout within the different profiles when comparing a normal situation to the COVID-19 pandemic. We suggest that changes in study-related burnout can be different among different study profiles. The results imply that students with a fragmented knowledge base and difficulties in managing time and effort would require special attention in online teaching situations. Full article
13 pages, 281 KiB  
Article
The Response to COVID-19 by the Italian Populist Government: Is It Populism or Neo-Liberalism That Makes the Response to the Pandemic Inadequate?
by Leila Simona Talani and Fabiana De Bellis
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(9), 336; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10090336 - 07 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3480
Abstract
The COVID-19 crisis caused unprecedented disruption in terms of human losses, economic damages, social isolation, and general malaise. It seems that, although the advice of the scientific communities to adopt rigorous measures of track and tracing, mass testing, and lock down was often [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 crisis caused unprecedented disruption in terms of human losses, economic damages, social isolation, and general malaise. It seems that, although the advice of the scientific communities to adopt rigorous measures of track and tracing, mass testing, and lock down was often considered at odds with economic performance, eventually it was precisely that kind of advice that avoided the economic debacle. This article will try and find out the reasons why Italy was more efficient and effective in implementing the measures suggested by national and transnational scientific communities. The article will do so by answering the following questions: (1) What are the political determinants of the different state responses to the pandemic? (2) Why have epistemic communities’ receipts to exit the COVID-19 crisis been ignored in some countries to follow a misguided economic logic? (3) Has the state response to the crisis anything to do with the importance of neo-liberalism and neo-liberal forces in the organization of the economy or have populist countries been less efficient than others as suggested in the recent literature on the subject? Full article
21 pages, 343 KiB  
Article
“Humane Criminology”: An Inclusive Victimology Protecting Animals and People
by Phil Arkow
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(9), 335; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10090335 - 07 Sep 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4609
Abstract
To those who primarily associate the word “humane” with “humane society”, its connection to criminology might appear to be unrelated. The origins of “humane” and “humane society” are complex and primarily reflect an abiding interest in human and societal welfare rather than animal [...] Read more.
To those who primarily associate the word “humane” with “humane society”, its connection to criminology might appear to be unrelated. The origins of “humane” and “humane society” are complex and primarily reflect an abiding interest in human and societal welfare rather than animal welfare. Consequently, the origins and evolution of the current American association of humane societies with animal protection—as contrasted to its British association with rescuing victims of drowning—remain shrouded in mystery. A new focus that returns to the original roots of “humane” describing the implications of animal cruelty, abuse, and neglect as cause for human and societal concern due to their potential as sentinel indicators and predictors of interpersonal violence, rather than a strict focus on animals’ welfare or their alleged “rights”, holds great promise for advancing legislation and community programming that improves the well-being of human and non-human animal species and the prevention of crime. Full article
25 pages, 824 KiB  
Review
A Systematic Review of the Protective and Risk Factors Influencing the Mental Health of Forced Migrants: Implications for Sustainable Intercultural Mental Health Practice
by Hadi Farahani, Natalie Joubert, Janet Carter Anand, Timo Toikko and Mohamad Tavakol
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(9), 334; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10090334 - 07 Sep 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4937
Abstract
This systematic review followed the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. The primary aim of this research was to identify risks and protective factors for the mental health of forced migrants. The secondary aim was to [...] Read more.
This systematic review followed the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. The primary aim of this research was to identify risks and protective factors for the mental health of forced migrants. The secondary aim was to suggest an alternative, more comprehensive approach in social work that surpasses usual diagnoses and intrinsically contradicts the medicalization of mental health issues of forced migrants. The search was conducted between January 2015 and January 2021. As a result, 29 studies met inclusion criteria. Medicalizing mental health issues by relying solely on the effectiveness of medicine was a controversial risk factor that negatively affected daily life activities of refugees and reduced their willingness for seeking professional mental health services. Empowering vulnerable minorities by giving them back their power and agency to be able to speak for themselves and raise voices of trauma and recovery was the missing protective factor for a sustainable mental health practice. The benefits of group-based interventions were highlighted in which communities and individuals address mental health issues as well as isolation through building collective identities and support networks. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) can add more strength to any kind of mental health interventions. Finally, the benefits of applying an ecological perspective for the study of the mental health of refugees, and its implications for a sustainable intercultural practice, were discussed. Social workers in this model are the representatives of at-risk groups, and thus require more agency and creativity in reflecting client’s concrete needs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section International Migration)
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24 pages, 2540 KiB  
Article
Patterns and Persistence of Educational Mismatch: A Trajectory Approach Using Chilean Panel Data
by María Paola Sevilla, Mauricio Farías and Daniela Luengo-Aravena
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(9), 333; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10090333 - 07 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3486
Abstract
The misalignment between workers’ educational levels and the educational level typically required for their occupations, namely educational mismatch, has become widespread. However, despite its potential costs, there is little evidence of this situation in developing countries. Using longitudinal and retrospective data of employment [...] Read more.
The misalignment between workers’ educational levels and the educational level typically required for their occupations, namely educational mismatch, has become widespread. However, despite its potential costs, there is little evidence of this situation in developing countries. Using longitudinal and retrospective data of employment histories between 2009 and 2019, this paper conducts sequence analysis to construct a typology of educational mismatch trajectories among Chilean workers. We demonstrate that mismatch is a prevalent and persistent phenomenon. Once people enter the labor market, either as undereducated or overeducated workers, they tend to stay in such positions for extended periods of time. Moreover, we find significant wage penalties for workers in a mismatch situation. Results indicate that females and young, less-educated men are more prone to follow trajectories with longer periods of mismatch or unemployment. New avenues for research and the need for public policies looking at these phenomena are required to avoid people’s dissatisfaction due to a possible false promise that more education can improve their life standards. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social and Economic Implications of Skill and Educational Mismatch)
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22 pages, 447 KiB  
Article
The Paradoxes of the Pandemic and World Inequalities
by Robert Fatton, Jr.
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(9), 332; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10090332 - 06 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3162
Abstract
While causing over 150,000 deaths in Africa, the spread of the COVID-19 virus did not produce the expected hecatomb. Clearly, the crisis is not over and with the emergence of new variants, the death toll could increase significantly. So far, however, COVID-19 has [...] Read more.
While causing over 150,000 deaths in Africa, the spread of the COVID-19 virus did not produce the expected hecatomb. Clearly, the crisis is not over and with the emergence of new variants, the death toll could increase significantly. So far, however, COVID-19 has caused fewer African victims than elsewhere. Explaining this reality remains difficult and speculative. It appears, however, that a major reason might be the continent’s very young population and the fact that it enjoys relatively low levels of obesity. These two factors have played a significant role in the high COVID-19 mortality rate in the most affected industrialized countries. In addition, many African countries have learned how to deal with health emergencies from their past experiences with other major pandemics. A final and more controversial explanation of the low death rate in the region is that in their fight against malaria, Africans have used hydroxychloroquine—a medicine that has allegedly curbed the effects of COVID-19—on a mass scale and for generations. COVID-19 has also had crippling consequences for the continent’s already debilitated economies and raised poverty to alarming levels. The pandemic has also highlighted the persistence of narrow nationalistic interests, as well as the massive inequalities of wealth and power that structure the global system. This is evident in the very uneven worldwide distribution of the COVID-19 vaccines. Full article
15 pages, 1165 KiB  
Article
Participation in Higher Education Curricula Development in Armenia and Possible Effects for the Labour Market—The Case of an “Organic Agriculture” Master’s Program
by Hasmik Hovakimyan, Milena Klimek, Bernhard Freyer and Stefan Vogel
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(9), 331; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10090331 - 04 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2474
Abstract
Weak or unstructured stakeholder participation in higher education curricula development still remains a problem in Armenia. Change in outdated curricula development processes is needed, as they often do not meet students’ needs; do not adopt innovative teaching methods or tools; and do not [...] Read more.
Weak or unstructured stakeholder participation in higher education curricula development still remains a problem in Armenia. Change in outdated curricula development processes is needed, as they often do not meet students’ needs; do not adopt innovative teaching methods or tools; and do not fit the labour market’s demand. This paper traces the evolution of the participatory curriculum development process of the Organic Agriculture Master’s program at the Armenian National Agrarian University (ANAU). Prioritizing mainly qualitative methods of research, five relevant stakeholder groups with approximately 10–12 members each at varying levels were involved in this action research. Additionally, paper-based and online surveys were conducted with 290 ANAU students. The results focus on the conceptual mapping of the process of participatory action research, bridging its relevance to the Armenian labour market’s needs. Moreover, the results highlight lessons learned from the process—shaping them around significant theories for participatory action research—and underline the possibilities of the Organic Agriculture Master’s development process as a model program at ANAU and perhaps elsewhere. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transition from Higher Education to Employment)
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14 pages, 294 KiB  
Article
Cash Transfer Programmes in Pakistan through a Child Well-Being Lens
by Altaf Hussain and Susanne Schech
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(9), 330; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10090330 - 04 Sep 2021
Viewed by 3002
Abstract
This paper analyses data from a qualitative study undertaken with children and their families in two cash transfer programmes (CTPs) in Pakistan. Using a three-dimensional child well-being model that distinguishes material, relational and subjective dimensions, it argues that CTPs have helped extremely poor [...] Read more.
This paper analyses data from a qualitative study undertaken with children and their families in two cash transfer programmes (CTPs) in Pakistan. Using a three-dimensional child well-being model that distinguishes material, relational and subjective dimensions, it argues that CTPs have helped extremely poor families sustain their basic dietary needs and marginally increase their health spending. Additional conditional payments have led to increased primary school enrolments, but CTPs have failed to address the distinctive vulnerabilities of children, including their nutritional needs, relational well-being and social status. A more holistic and child-sensitive approach to social protection would be the way forward to improve child well-being in line with the United Nations Charter on Rights of Children (UNCRC) to which Pakistan is a signatory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Childhood and Youth Studies)
12 pages, 283 KiB  
Article
The Exceptional Becomes Everyday: Border Control, Attrition and Exclusion from Within
by Regina C. Serpa
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(9), 329; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10090329 - 04 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3539
Abstract
This article examines processes of migration and border control, illustrating the ways by which everyday housing and welfare services function as mechanisms of exclusion in both direct and indirect ways. Using the thesis of crimmigration, the article demonstrates how border controls have become [...] Read more.
This article examines processes of migration and border control, illustrating the ways by which everyday housing and welfare services function as mechanisms of exclusion in both direct and indirect ways. Using the thesis of crimmigration, the article demonstrates how border controls have become deeply implicated in systems claiming to offer welfare support—and how a global public health emergency has intensified exclusionary processes and normalised restrictive practices. The article compares border controls in two localities—under the UK government’s coercive ‘hostile environment’ policies (based on technologies of surveillance) and a more indirect ‘programme of discouragement’ in The Netherlands (based on technologies of attrition). The study demonstrates the role of contemporary welfare states in entrenching inequality and social exclusion (from within), arguing that the exceptional circumstances of the COVID-19 pandemic have facilitated the differential everyday treatment of migrants, revealing a hierarchy of human worth through strategies of surveillance and attrition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crimmigration in the Age of COVID-19)
43 pages, 659 KiB  
Systematic Review
A Systematic Review of Barriers to Accessing Undergraduate Research for STEM Students: Problematizing Under-Researched Factors for Students of Color
by Sophie Pierszalowski, Jana Bouwma-Gearhart and Lindsay Marlow
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(9), 328; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10090328 - 02 Sep 2021
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 7722
Abstract
While the benefits of undergraduate research experiences for students from underrepresented racial/ethnic groups have been well explored, more research is needed to better understand how students of color access these experiences. We summarize a non-structured review of literature that highlights barriers to success [...] Read more.
While the benefits of undergraduate research experiences for students from underrepresented racial/ethnic groups have been well explored, more research is needed to better understand how students of color access these experiences. We summarize a non-structured review of literature that highlights barriers to success that students of color face in relation to STEM programming at the postsecondary level. Building from this, we report on a structured review of barriers to accessing undergraduate research. We discuss implications of the relative lack of research on access to undergraduate research for students of color at postsecondary institutions. We consider how barriers for the success and persistence of students of color in postsecondary STEM, overall, may manifest as barriers to accessing the undergraduate research experiences argued to help reduce these barriers. With the hope of guiding future relevant action, we put forth recommendations for researchers and practitioners. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Stratification and Inequality)
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15 pages, 299 KiB  
Article
Qualification (Mis)Match for Upper Secondary and Higher Education
by Mariya Neycheva
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(9), 327; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10090327 - 30 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2273
Abstract
The expansion of education all over the world is expected to improve economic and social development. However, the oversupply of educated labor force might bring unfavorable consequences for the labor market and long-run growth prospects. In this regard the purpose of this paper [...] Read more.
The expansion of education all over the world is expected to improve economic and social development. However, the oversupply of educated labor force might bring unfavorable consequences for the labor market and long-run growth prospects. In this regard the purpose of this paper is two-fold. First, it aims at summarizing the main channels and mechanisms through which education–job mismatch could impact the changes of per capita income. Second, the study presents empirical evidence on that impact by differentiating between qualification mismatch among workers having completed tertiary education and those with upper secondary education. The sample comprises the EU member countries between 2000 and 2019. The results suggest that whereas the higher percentage of the properly matched labor force increases the steady-state level of per capita output for both educational levels being considered, the effect of qualification mismatch is either negative or insignificant. There is some evidence that overeducation among higher education graduates exhibits a stronger negative effect on economic activity in comparison with overeducation among workers with upper secondary education. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social and Economic Implications of Skill and Educational Mismatch)
15 pages, 296 KiB  
Article
“We Are Peronists, We Are Organic”: Discipline, Authority, and Loyalty in Argentine Populism
by Julia Beth Fierman
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(9), 326; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10090326 - 30 Aug 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3401
Abstract
Since 1945, Argentine politics has been largely defined by Peronism, a populist movement established by General Juan Perón. While the ideology of Peronism has shifted and swerved over its seven-decade history, its central emphasis on loyalty has remained constant. This paper examines the [...] Read more.
Since 1945, Argentine politics has been largely defined by Peronism, a populist movement established by General Juan Perón. While the ideology of Peronism has shifted and swerved over its seven-decade history, its central emphasis on loyalty has remained constant. This paper examines the notion of “organicity” (organicidad), a Peronist conception of obedience, to elucidate how populist movements valorize discipline and loyalty in order to unify their ranks around sentiment and ritual in the absence of more stable programmatic positions. The original sense of “organicity”, as Perón developed it in his early writings, equated to strict military notions of discipline, obedience, and insubordination. In other words, Perón understood loyalty as an organic conception of discipline that consisted of both unyielding deference for the leader and unwavering commitment to the Peronist Movement. Yet, at particular moments in Argentine political history, Peronist militants either find organicity and loyalty to be intrinsically incompatible, or vocalize definitions of organicity that seem to question the top-down structure of the movement celebrated in Perón’s writings. As a result, among Peronists there is disagreement over what it means to behave organically and loyally. This article draws on extensive ethnographic fieldwork among Peronist militants to argue that populism’s authoritarian preoccupation with fealty attempts to obscure the internal contradictions that result from its lack of clear ideological commitments. However, an emphasis on loyalty cannot produce eternally harmonious uniformity. As Peronists come to view those holding alternate interpretations of their doctrine as heretical and traitorous, their accusations against their comrades reveal the intrinsic fragility of populist unity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Resurgence of Populism: Tackling the Crisis of Liberal Democracy)
15 pages, 813 KiB  
Article
Food and Nutrition Myths among Future Secondary School Teachers: A Problem of Trust in Inadequate Sources of Information
by Vanessa P. Moreno-Rodríguez, Roberto Sánchez-Cabrero, Alfonso Abad-Mancheño, Almudena Juanes-García and Fernando Martínez-López
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(9), 325; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10090325 - 28 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 5531
Abstract
The Internet and social networks are full of nutrition information, offering people guidance to make healthy eating choices. These sources always present themselves as a gateway to reliable information on healthy eating; however, too often this is not the case. Far from being [...] Read more.
The Internet and social networks are full of nutrition information, offering people guidance to make healthy eating choices. These sources always present themselves as a gateway to reliable information on healthy eating; however, too often this is not the case. Far from being trustworthy, there are usually plenty of food myths. A food myth is a widespread false belief about food, nutrition, and eating facts that gives rise to certain behaviors, from fashionable trends to diets. Academic training is a valuable tool to combat food myths and the pseudoscience linked to them, but educators must participate in this battle. To test this idea, we analyzed the prevalence of nine highly popular food myths held by 201 secondary school Spanish teachers. The aim was to assess whether expertise in science areas prevents teachers from falling into these food misconceptions. Our study results showed that food myths are held regardless of specialty area. The power of the media in popularizing and spreading nutrition myths among educators may be the cause, even more potent than academic training. We conclude that since scientific knowledge is not enough to erase food myths, we need further actions if we aim to prevent the problems that food myths may cause. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Studies and Sociology)
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16 pages, 302 KiB  
Article
An Ethnographic Perspective of Well-Being, Salutogenesis and Meaning Making among Refugees and Asylum Seekers in the Gambia and the United Kingdom
by Brianne Wenning
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(9), 324; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10090324 - 27 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3542
Abstract
Research on refugees and asylum seekers largely focuses on the negative impacts that forced migration has on well-being. Though most individuals do not experience poor long-term mental health because of forced migration, less attention has been given to what factors promote positive well-being. [...] Read more.
Research on refugees and asylum seekers largely focuses on the negative impacts that forced migration has on well-being. Though most individuals do not experience poor long-term mental health because of forced migration, less attention has been given to what factors promote positive well-being. Using an ethnographic approach, I elucidate how the concept of salutogenesis can be applied to African refugees and asylum seekers living in the greater Serrekunda area of the Gambia and in Newcastle-upon-Tyne in the United Kingdom. Specifically, I explore what resources impact on the sense of coherence construct and its three components—comprehensibility, manageability and meaningfulness—and how these are embedded in everyday discussions and understandings. In total, I spent twenty months conducting ethnographic fieldwork between the two sites and conducted forty individual interviews. Amongst my interlocutors, the three most common resources that people spoke positively about, particularly as it relates to meaning making, are work, education and religion. Further research in this area is crucial in order to identify, promote and strengthen those factors facilitating positive well-being amongst those who have been forcibly displaced. Full article
13 pages, 760 KiB  
Article
The COVID-19 Pandemic and Latvia–Russia Relations: Landscape for Desecuritization or Further Securitization?
by Māris Andžāns and Una Aleksandra Bērziņa-Čerenkova
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(9), 323; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10090323 - 25 Aug 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2900
Abstract
This article revisits the traditionally jittery Latvian–Russian relations during the COVID-19 pandemic through the lens of securitization. Though the pandemic might have offered less space for confrontation and possible prospects for differentiation of (de)securitization vectors, the mutual securitization processes have continued in the [...] Read more.
This article revisits the traditionally jittery Latvian–Russian relations during the COVID-19 pandemic through the lens of securitization. Though the pandemic might have offered less space for confrontation and possible prospects for differentiation of (de)securitization vectors, the mutual securitization processes have continued in the vein of previous years. Furthermore, they have showed no signs of easing as not only have the traditional issues remained securitized but new thematic areas both related and unrelated to the pandemic have taken center stage. All in all, the pandemic has opened new avenues for securitization, though it had no fundamental impact on the established securitization trends. Full article
15 pages, 715 KiB  
Article
Enabling Artificial Intelligence Adoption through Assurance
by Laura Freeman, Abdul Rahman and Feras A. Batarseh
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(9), 322; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10090322 - 25 Aug 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4018
Abstract
The wide scale adoption of Artificial Intelligence (AI) will require that AI engineers and developers can provide assurances to the user base that an algorithm will perform as intended and without failure. Assurance is the safety valve for reliable, dependable, explainable, and fair [...] Read more.
The wide scale adoption of Artificial Intelligence (AI) will require that AI engineers and developers can provide assurances to the user base that an algorithm will perform as intended and without failure. Assurance is the safety valve for reliable, dependable, explainable, and fair intelligent systems. AI assurance provides the necessary tools to enable AI adoption into applications, software, hardware, and complex systems. AI assurance involves quantifying capabilities and associating risks across deployments including: data quality to include inherent biases, algorithm performance, statistical errors, and algorithm trustworthiness and security. Data, algorithmic, and context/domain-specific factors may change over time and impact the ability of AI systems in delivering accurate outcomes. In this paper, we discuss the importance and different angles of AI assurance, and present a general framework that addresses its challenges. Full article
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18 pages, 721 KiB  
Review
Are Working Children in Developing Countries Hidden Victims of Pandemics?
by Polyxeni Kechagia and Theodore Metaxas
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(9), 321; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10090321 - 24 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 6500
Abstract
The consequences of the recent pandemic have been disproportionately disruptive to several social groups, including children. As developing economies have been firefighting the recent pandemic, the welfare of minors could be affected and children’s economic exploitation and abuse could increase. Therefore, the present [...] Read more.
The consequences of the recent pandemic have been disproportionately disruptive to several social groups, including children. As developing economies have been firefighting the recent pandemic, the welfare of minors could be affected and children’s economic exploitation and abuse could increase. Therefore, the present research aims to shed light on and to investigate the association between child labour in developing countries and pandemics, including the coronavirus, through conducting a systematic literature review on previous empirical studies. The present research concludes that previous studies on non-COVID-19 pandemics have mainly focused on the African economies, while studies on the recent pandemic have focused on Asian countries. In addition, differences were observed in relation to the methodological approaches and the characteristics of minor employees and the protection services in certain countries have proven to be insufficient. Suggestions for future research and policy implications are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Child Abuse and Child Protection)
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