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Soc. Sci., Volume 10, Issue 2 (February 2021) – 49 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): In March 2020, the United States government introduced a series of measures designed to dramatically restrict immigration as part of its response to the global health crisis caused by the coronavirus pandemic. These measures worsened an already precarious situation at the US–Mexico border for over 60,000 asylum seekers who were prevented, by an earlier “Remain in Mexico” (aka MPP) policy, from remaining in the United States while awaiting their asylum hearings. In-depth interviews reveal that COVID-19’s primary impact on asylum seekers was a further dismantling of the asylum process and prolonged im/mobility. We explore spatial practices of exclusion and im/mobility that produced the MPP camp in Matamoros, Mexico to understand how legal regimes of exclusion work, the spaces they produce, and how victims of this legal violence use im/mobility as acts of resiliency and contestation. View [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
“Sometimes You Just Need People around You Who Understand You”: A Qualitative Study of Everyday Life at a Residential Care Unit for Young People with Diabetes
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(2), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10020078 - 23 Feb 2021
Viewed by 973
Abstract
Solglimt is the only long-term residential care facility in Denmark for young people with diabetes who, for various reasons, are particularly exposed or vulnerable. This target group is characterized by poorly regulated diabetes and psychosocial challenges. As this unique setting and specific target [...] Read more.
Solglimt is the only long-term residential care facility in Denmark for young people with diabetes who, for various reasons, are particularly exposed or vulnerable. This target group is characterized by poorly regulated diabetes and psychosocial challenges. As this unique setting and specific target group has not been studied before, we designed a qualitative sociological study of the experiences and perceptions of everyday life from the perspectives of current and former residents as well as from those of the residential care social workers (RCSWs). We also studied the specific care practices at Solglimt. The dataset consists of nine days of participatory observations, 29 semi-structured individual interviews with three target groups (9 current residents, 8 former residents and 12 RCSWs) and three participatory workshops. All data were analyzed using radical hermeneutics. The analysis produced four main themes: (1) In it together, like a family—feeling different among peers, (2) Social workers as substitutes for parents and healthcare professionals, (3) Individualization—Increased self-confidence and autonomy, and (4) Tacit knowledge and illness behavior automation. The findings show that the residential care facility is a family-like setting with a strong focus on individualization, which enables new illness behaviors and perceptions. The results offer important steps towards developing improved diabetes care strategies through individualized informal knowledge sharing. Furthermore, the results are applicable to general clinical diabetes care for vulnerable or low-resource children and young people with diabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Children and Youth Studies)
Open AccessArticle
Physical Education in the Colonial Gold Coast: From a Civilizing Mission to “Useful Citizens”
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(2), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10020077 - 22 Feb 2021
Viewed by 846
Abstract
This paper addresses the transfer of Physical Education to the Gold Coast, focusing on its shifting role in producing ideal subjects and its relationship to the imperial politics of the mid-20th century. It explores the contradictory ways in which, in the Gold Coast [...] Read more.
This paper addresses the transfer of Physical Education to the Gold Coast, focusing on its shifting role in producing ideal subjects and its relationship to the imperial politics of the mid-20th century. It explores the contradictory ways in which, in the Gold Coast (now Ghana), the training of young teachers in higher education institutions allowed for the transfer of British citizenship training codes into a colonial setting during the first half of the 20th century. It is focused on the conversation engaged between the Education Department of the Gold Coast and specialists in higher education institutions. The paper is based on archive material collected in the United Kingdom and Ghana. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Distrust of Authorities: Experiences of Outcome and Processes of People Who Had Their Driving License Withdrawn Due to Visual Field Loss
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(2), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10020076 - 22 Feb 2021
Viewed by 985
Abstract
Citizens’ trust of authorities is of general importance, as it can affect trust in society as a whole. The Swedish Transport Agency is a state administrative authority responsible for driving license withdrawal. If withdrawals are experienced as unfair by those affected, this might [...] Read more.
Citizens’ trust of authorities is of general importance, as it can affect trust in society as a whole. The Swedish Transport Agency is a state administrative authority responsible for driving license withdrawal. If withdrawals are experienced as unfair by those affected, this might lead to decreased trust in the agency and in other actors involved. This study accordingly examines how the experiences of people who have had their driving license for a private car withdrawn due to visual field loss might affect their distrust of the authorities, as related to outcomes and processes. Follow-up interviews were conducted with nine people from a previous study. Content analysis revealed one overarching theme, struggling for justice within a system perceived as unfair, which comprised four identified categories: preparedness for and understanding of the withdrawn driving license (WDL); perceptions of assessment methods, reactions and actions regarding the decision, and perceptions of the authorities’ performance. In sum, the vision tests on which withdrawals are based were perceived as unfair, as they did not measure individual driving ability. Furthermore, rejections of appeals led to feelings of hopelessness. Distrust regarding outcomes and processes related to the withdrawals was also fueled by experiences of deficiencies regarding, for example, performance and information. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Contemporary Politics and Society)
Open AccessArticle
Human Values and Religion: Evidence from the European Social Survey
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(2), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10020075 - 20 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1244
Abstract
Values are guiding constructs of social action that connote some actions as desirable, undesirable, acceptable, and unacceptable, containing a normative moral/ethical component, and constituting a guide for actions, attitudes, and objectives for which the human being strives. The role of religion in the [...] Read more.
Values are guiding constructs of social action that connote some actions as desirable, undesirable, acceptable, and unacceptable, containing a normative moral/ethical component, and constituting a guide for actions, attitudes, and objectives for which the human being strives. The role of religion in the development of moral and ideal behaviors is a subject of concern and object of theoretical and empirical debate in various sciences. Analyzing sociodemographic and religious variables, the present work aimed to understand the contribution of religious variables to the explanation of Schwartz’s human values and to identify an explanatory model of second-order values, i.e., self-transcendence, conservation, self-promotion, and openness to change. This study was carried out with a representative sample of the Portuguese population, consisting of 1270 participants from the European Social Survey (ESS), Round 8. Benevolence (as human motivational value) and self-transcendence (as a second-order value) were found to be the most prevalent human values among respondents, with the female gender being the one with the greatest religious identity, the highest frequency of religious practices, and valuing self-transcendence and conservation the most. Older participants had a more frequent practice and a higher religious identity than younger ones, with age negatively correlating with conservation and positively with openness to change. It was concluded that age, religious identity, and an item of religious practice contribute to explain 13.9% of the conservation variance. It was also found that age and religious practice are the variables that significantly contribute to explain 12.2% of the variance of openness to change. Despite the associations between psychological variables (values) and religious ones, it can be concluded that religious variables contribute very moderately to explain human values. The results obtained in this study raised some important issues, namely, if these weakly related themes, i.e., religiosity and human values, are the expression of people belief without belonging. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Hierarchical Cluster Analysis of Human Value Priorities and Associations with Subjective Well-Being, Subjective General Health, Social Life, and Depression across Europe
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(2), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10020074 - 20 Feb 2021
Viewed by 994
Abstract
Human values are a central component in understanding individuals’ choices. Using the Schwartz’s Values instrument, this study aimed to identify patterns of human value priorities of 35,936 participants across 20 European countries and analyse their relations with subjective well-being (SWB), subjective general health [...] Read more.
Human values are a central component in understanding individuals’ choices. Using the Schwartz’s Values instrument, this study aimed to identify patterns of human value priorities of 35,936 participants across 20 European countries and analyse their relations with subjective well-being (SWB), subjective general health (SGH), social life, and depression indices in Europe. A hierarchical cluster analysis of data from the seventh European Social Survey (ESS) round 7, based on the higher order dimensions of the Schwartz values model, allowed identifying four European groups with distinct indicators. Indices of SWB, SGH, social life, and depression showed statistically significant differences among the four different sociodemographic groups. The graphical representation of the monotonic correlations of each of these indices with the value priorities attributed to the ten basic human values was ordered according to the Schwartz circumplex model, yielding quasi-sinusoidal patterns. The differences among the four groups can be explained by their distinct sociodemographic characteristics: social focus, growth focus, strong social focus, and weak growth focus. The results of this study suggest a rehabilitation of the notion of hedonism, raising the distinction between higher and lower pleasures, with the former contributing more to well-being than the latter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Ties and Health Outcomes)
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Open AccessCorrection
Correction: Akosah-Twumasi, Peter, et al. 2020. Prioritising Family Needs: A Grounded Theory of Acculturation for Sub-Saharan African Migrant Families in Australia. Social Sciences 9: 17
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(2), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10020073 - 19 Feb 2021
Viewed by 909
Abstract
The authors wish to make the following change to their paper (Akosah-Twumasi et al [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Learning Body Techniques: Dance and Body Flexibility among Gay Black Teens in Salvador de Bahia, Brazil
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(2), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10020072 - 15 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1271
Abstract
This article is the result of ethnographic fieldwork among amateur dancers, mainly among gay adolescents from the outskirts of Salvador de Bahia (Brazil), who label themselves as “flexible”. This self-definition arises out of bodily flexibility techniques, cultivated through intense physical work. By focusing [...] Read more.
This article is the result of ethnographic fieldwork among amateur dancers, mainly among gay adolescents from the outskirts of Salvador de Bahia (Brazil), who label themselves as “flexible”. This self-definition arises out of bodily flexibility techniques, cultivated through intense physical work. By focusing on specific training situations, such as stretching exercises, I trace understand how the “flexible” body is built. I propose that the language mobilized by these young people offer an important guide to understanding the distinctive elements of this practice. The practitioners’ accounts and my own observations of the practice indicate that the embodiment of acrobatic skills occurs in a process that weaves body and environment. Following Ingold, I argue that an ecological approach help us to comprehend this kinesthetic practice as spatial realization, as well as providing useful insights into its learning practices exploring the richly sensory dimension of learning practices and development of motor sensibilities, such as the sound and the imperative pain experience. Furthermore, I analyze how my interlocutors’ concept of body fits the theoretical idea of how bodies should not be defined by what they are, but rather by what they are able to do. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extreme Sports, Extreme Bodies)
Open AccessArticle
Dismantling the Deadlock: Australian Muslim Women’s Fightback against the Rise of Right-Wing Media
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(2), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10020071 - 13 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1280
Abstract
In Australia, as in other multicultural countries, the global Islamophobic discourse linking Muslims to terrorists to refugees results in the belief of an “enemy within”, which fractures the public sphere. Muslim minorities learn to distrust mainstream media as the global discourse manifests in [...] Read more.
In Australia, as in other multicultural countries, the global Islamophobic discourse linking Muslims to terrorists to refugees results in the belief of an “enemy within”, which fractures the public sphere. Muslim minorities learn to distrust mainstream media as the global discourse manifests in localised right-wing discussion. This fracturing was further compounded in 2020 with increased media concentration and polarisation. In response, 12 young Australian Muslim women opened themselves up to four journalists working for the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC). They engaged in critical journalism research called Frame Reflection Interviews (FRIs). The process gave journalists important knowledge around the power dynamics of Islamophobia and empowered participants to help shape new media discourses tackling Islamophobia. This paper proposes that the FRIs are one method to rebuild trust in journalism while redistributing risk towards the journalists. These steps are necessary to build a normatively cosmopolitan global public sphere capable of breaking the discursive link between refugees and terrorism and fighting back against the rise of the far right. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Rights and Displaced People in Exceptional Times)
Open AccessArticle
Policing Minority Communities: How Perception of Engagement and Level of “Awareness” Influence Officer Attitudes toward Practice
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(2), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10020070 - 11 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1340
Abstract
In the 21st century, policing of all citizens requires officers to have an increased awareness of minority communities. Yet in the wake of public complaints and mass demonstrations regarding police misconduct, it is clear that police bias toward minority communities often negatively influences [...] Read more.
In the 21st century, policing of all citizens requires officers to have an increased awareness of minority communities. Yet in the wake of public complaints and mass demonstrations regarding police misconduct, it is clear that police bias toward minority communities often negatively influences engagement. To better understand police awareness of minority communities and how officers’ levels of awareness and perceptions of policing influence their perceptions of engagement, data were collected from police recruits and protective service officers (N = 1585) training at one of the largest police academies in Australia. The results show significant differences in awareness levels and perceptions of engagement of police recruits and protective service officers toward members of minority communities, as well as the factors influencing awareness during police–citizen engagement. These include the police recruit’s and protective service officer’s gender and sexuality, the frequency of socialization they have with diverse people, as well as the type of social interaction experienced. The results from this study offer suggestions to increase officers’ levels of awareness of minority communities, and how this may improve on-the-job performance overtime. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Policing Vulnerable People: Police Practice, Policy, and Engagement)
Open AccessArticle
The Chemsex ‘Consent Ladder’ in Male Sex Work: Perspectives of Health Providers on Derailment and Empowerment
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(2), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10020069 - 10 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1219
Abstract
Sexualized substance use or ‘chemsex’ is a key element in the syndemic of violence and infection in gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men. Chemsex is more prolific amongst men who have sex with men but is also associated with [...] Read more.
Sexualized substance use or ‘chemsex’ is a key element in the syndemic of violence and infection in gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men. Chemsex is more prolific amongst men who have sex with men but is also associated with high risk behaviours that can negatively impact on health and wellbeing in heterosexual, bisexual men and women, and in homosexual women too. This qualitative study investigated perceptions and experiences of chemsex, motivations, cisgender male sex work, consent, economic exploitation, and ways to address and reduce harms. We conducted semi-structured interviews with health care providers and their clients—including sex workers and their customers (n = 14) between the ages of 28 and 46 years following a purposive sampling strategy. Interview topics included perceptions and experiences of chemsex use, reasons for drug use and chemsex, and proposals to address harms associated with chemsex in the UK. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, coded, and analysed using Grounded Theory. The findings revealed a stepwise process of chemsex use in a ‘ladder of consent’, whereby the process starts with willing participation that is both highly pleasurable and controllable. Sexual polydrug activity often descended in rungs so that lines of consent became blurred, and even broken, resulting in physical detriment and financial exploitation. Strategies for elevation back up the consent ladder also emerged. The findings clarify the conditions of willing participation, the stepwise relationship to exploitation, and the support strategies that help re-empower individuals whose lives get taken over by chemsex, including peer-to-peer support, poly-centres, and smartphone apps to climb back up the consent ladder to improve the health, safety, and social rights of sex workers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Racial Profiling, Surveillance and Over-Policing: The Over-Incarceration of Young First Nations Males in Australia
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(2), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10020068 - 10 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1762
Abstract
Historically, countries such as Australia, Canada and New Zealand have witnessed an increased over-representation of minority groups who are exposed to the criminal justice system. For many years in Australia, young First Nations males have been over-represented in the juvenile justice system in [...] Read more.
Historically, countries such as Australia, Canada and New Zealand have witnessed an increased over-representation of minority groups who are exposed to the criminal justice system. For many years in Australia, young First Nations males have been over-represented in the juvenile justice system in all states and territories. Many of these young males have disengaged from their schooling early, some through deliberate exclusion from the education system and others by choice. However, the choices for many young First Nations males may not be as clear cut as first might seem. This paper shows that over-representation in the juvenile justice system may be as a direct result of racial profiling, surveillance and over-policing of First Nations peoples within Australia. The literature addresses the ways in which young First Nations males experience these phenomena from an early age, and the long-term effects and consequences that can arise from these occurrences. An analysis of the current research both internationally and within Australia is thus conducted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Policing Vulnerable People: Police Practice, Policy, and Engagement)
Open AccessArticle
An Exploratory Study on the Attitudes of the Greek Believers towards the State’s Measures during the First Wave of Coronavirus Pandemic
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(2), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10020067 - 10 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1191
Abstract
During the first wave of the coronavirus pandemic (16 March–5 May 2020), the Greek government took measures to close churches in order to protect the public health of the population. In this case, the purpose of this paper is to explore the response [...] Read more.
During the first wave of the coronavirus pandemic (16 March–5 May 2020), the Greek government took measures to close churches in order to protect the public health of the population. In this case, the purpose of this paper is to explore the response of Greek believers and Churches to the measures of the state, and whether these attitudes are affected by sociodemographic characteristics. Moreover, there was a collection of data on the attitudes of 353 believers through questionnaires, and the proper examination of these data through descriptive analysis and cross-tabulation analysis. The survey results showed that most believers are convinced that national measures are necessary, and they also revealed that believers’ attitudes vary according to demographic variables. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Young Teenagers’ Views Regarding Residential Care in Portugal and Spain: A Qualitative Study
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(2), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10020066 - 10 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1191
Abstract
Research on residential care has been well established in the literature. Nonetheless, research drawing from the actual experiences of adolescents is relatively scarce. A qualitative study was designed highlighting the voices of children, analysing their fostering experience, interpersonal relationships, their participation in daily [...] Read more.
Research on residential care has been well established in the literature. Nonetheless, research drawing from the actual experiences of adolescents is relatively scarce. A qualitative study was designed highlighting the voices of children, analysing their fostering experience, interpersonal relationships, their participation in daily decisions, and future aspirations. The sample included 33 early adolescents in residential care aged 12–14 in Portugal (n = 17) and Spain (n = 16). Results showed that there was agreement in terms of the importance given to education, their satisfaction with the material conditions of residential centre, and their dissatisfaction concerning matters of individuality, autonomy, participation, and socialization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Children and Youth Studies)
Open AccessArticle
Managing Expectations: Impacts of Hostile Migration Policies on Practitioners in Britain, Denmark and Sweden
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(2), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10020065 - 10 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1782
Abstract
The acknowledgement that asylum systems across Europe are “hostile environments” for migrant groups has increased in academic and practitioner consciousness, particularly in the aftermath of the 2015 refugee reception crisis. However, although the impacts of socio-political hostilities on migrants are well documented, little [...] Read more.
The acknowledgement that asylum systems across Europe are “hostile environments” for migrant groups has increased in academic and practitioner consciousness, particularly in the aftermath of the 2015 refugee reception crisis. However, although the impacts of socio-political hostilities on migrants are well documented, little has been written about the implications of border restrictions on practitioners working with refugee populations. This article expands the focus of hostilities to consider the variable impacts of intensified bordering practices on this group. Based on qualitative research which included 74 interviews undertaken across Britain, Denmark, and Sweden (2016–2018), it outlines the experiences of practitioners working with refugee populations. It highlights that increasingly restrictive or punitive approaches to immigration have had multiple negative effects on practitioners working in this sector. This has potential for longer term negative impacts on practitioners, but also—importantly-refugee populations who require various forms of legal aid, or social and psychological support. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Rights and Displaced People in Exceptional Times)
Open AccessArticle
Rival Bodies: Negotiating Gender and Embodiment in Women’s Bikini and Figure Competitions
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(2), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10020064 - 09 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1220
Abstract
Women’s bodybuilding has attracted attention from gender researchers. However, increasingly popular fitness shows that feature different competitive tracks—bikini and figure—have garnered very limited scholarly consideration. This study draws on interview data from twenty bikini and figure competitors as well as ethnographic research conducted [...] Read more.
Women’s bodybuilding has attracted attention from gender researchers. However, increasingly popular fitness shows that feature different competitive tracks—bikini and figure—have garnered very limited scholarly consideration. This study draws on interview data from twenty bikini and figure competitors as well as ethnographic research conducted at several prominent bodybuilding shows in Texas with fitness competition tracks. Our investigation provides a comparative analysis of women’s participation in bikini versus figure fitness competitions as an embodied gender practice. Participation in this relatively new sport underscores the interconnections between gender and variegated forms of embodiment that we call athletic, aesthetic, erotic, and everyday bodies. Pre-competition regimens pose challenges for women’s management of their bodies due to dietary deprivation, rigorous workouts, and the specter of track-specific judging criteria. Pre-competition strains are often evident in primary relationships as women’s bodies are prepared for aesthetic presentation in a way that, for bikini and especially figure competitors, can undermine physical functionality and social capabilities. Competitions themselves reveal relationships marked by a mix of camaraderie and hierarchy among competitors, with those in the figure track often viewed as more “serious” athletes but less conventionally “feminine” than their bikini counterparts. Post-competition, women often struggle to accept the return of their “normal” everyday body. This study reveals the agency of women and their bodies in the context of a fast-growing sport while considering the broader social implications of fitness competitions given their tracking of women’s bodies. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Intersections of Immigration and Sexual/Reproductive Health: An Umbrella Literature Review with a Focus on Health Equity
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(2), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10020063 - 09 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1222
Abstract
Identifying the opportunities and barriers of promoting and fulfilling the sexual health rights of migrants remains a challenge that requires systematic assessment. Such an assessment would include estimating the influence of acculturation processes on sexual and reproductive health, and mapping intersectional inequities that [...] Read more.
Identifying the opportunities and barriers of promoting and fulfilling the sexual health rights of migrants remains a challenge that requires systematic assessment. Such an assessment would include estimating the influence of acculturation processes on sexual and reproductive health, and mapping intersectional inequities that influence migrants’ sexual and reproductive health in comparison with the native population. The aim of this research was to locate, select, and critically assess/summarize scientific evidence regarding the social, cultural, and structural factors influencing migrants’ sexual and reproductive health outcomes in comparison with native population. An umbrella review of systematic reviews and/or meta-analyses, following preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA) standards was undertaken. Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched from their start date until June 2019. The quality of the included articles was determined using the assessment of multiple systematic reviews tool (AMSTAR 2). From the 36 selected studies, only 12 compared migrant with native populations. Overall, the findings indicated that migrants tend to underuse maternal health services and have an increased risk of poor sexual and reproductive health outcomes. Specific intersectional inequities were identified and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Justice in Sexual and Reproductive Health: An Intersectional Approach)
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Open AccessArticle
COVID-19 Campus Closures in the United States: American Student Perceptions of Forced Transition to Remote Learning
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(2), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10020062 - 09 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1432
Abstract
As colleges and universities rapidly closed due to COVID-19, students and faculty were faced with unique challenges. The pandemic forced the cancellation of all campus activities, both extra-curricular and program-focused, such as student teaching experiences and nursing clinical rotations. Additionally, instructors were forced [...] Read more.
As colleges and universities rapidly closed due to COVID-19, students and faculty were faced with unique challenges. The pandemic forced the cancellation of all campus activities, both extra-curricular and program-focused, such as student teaching experiences and nursing clinical rotations. Additionally, instructors were forced to rethink content delivery as coursework was quickly moved online and administered remotely via virtual platforms. Students were impacted as university level programs underwent a major paradigm shift within a matter of days or weeks. This study examined perspectives of undergraduate and graduate students regarding their experiences with rapid conversion from on-ground, in-person courses to remote instruction during the spring 2020 semester. The researchers employed a QUAN-QUAL descriptive mixed methods design. Using questionnaires and semi-structured interviews, the researchers examined general perspectives on in-person learning before the pandemic; initial perceptions about remote learning; and perceptions of the students about effort, engagement, needs, and ethical behavior as they engaged in totally remote learning. Results, analyzed using SPSS (QUAN) and inter-coder agreement (QUAL), indicated that initially students were engaged and satisfied with their in-person instruction, but became less satisfied and engaged during remote instruction. Undergraduate students experienced feelings of increased frustration, decreased accountability and engagement during remote learning, and turned to collaboration to earn points as they finished the semester. Full article
Open AccessEditorial
International Nets and National Links: The Global Rise of the Extreme Right—Introduction to Special Issue
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(2), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10020061 - 09 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1375
Abstract
Work on this special issue has spanned two years, bookended by two highly mediatized, violent, extreme right-wing attacks, perpetrated on opposite sides of the globe [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Global Rise of the Extreme Right)
Open AccessArticle
Training Elites and Structuring the Medico-Social Sector in Guadeloupe (1967–1980). The Role of the 1967 Generation
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(2), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10020060 - 08 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1172
Abstract
Guadeloupe left its status as a colony to become a French department with the “assimilation” law of 19 March 1946. Twenty years later, the promise of republican equality associated with this change is largely disappointed. Affected by the events of “May ‘67”, when [...] Read more.
Guadeloupe left its status as a colony to become a French department with the “assimilation” law of 19 March 1946. Twenty years later, the promise of republican equality associated with this change is largely disappointed. Affected by the events of “May ‘67”, when the French state violently repressed demonstrations in Pointe-à-Pitre, the generation at the origin of the medico-social sector left to study in France in a tense political context. An analysis of the educational and professionalization paths of this generation, in connection with its political-union commitment, sheds light on the social and identity issues involved in the structuring of this sector. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Publishing Patterns in Greek Media Websites
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(2), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10020059 - 08 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1176
Abstract
The concept of different publishing patterns during a day has been employed for many decades in the broadcasting industry. These patterns are close related with dayparts, which are defined as sequential time blocks on comparable days during which the audience size is homogeneous, [...] Read more.
The concept of different publishing patterns during a day has been employed for many decades in the broadcasting industry. These patterns are close related with dayparts, which are defined as sequential time blocks on comparable days during which the audience size is homogeneous, as is the group depiction using the specific medium. During the first decade of the World Wide Web, Internet media strategy was focused on total web reach, demographics and affinity of content without particular attention to how the nature of the audience changes by time of day. This paper studies the variation of publishing patterns of the top 22 Greek media websites. More than 550 thousand articles were indexed in a period of four and a half months. The study identified distinct WWW time periods that exhibit specific publishing characteristics. Specifically, different categories of news articles present different publishing patterns during weekdays and weekends. The results appear to be in agreement with findings of previous studies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Anti-Trafficking in the Time of FOSTA/SESTA: Networked Moral Gentrification and Sexual Humanitarian Creep
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(2), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10020058 - 08 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1822
Abstract
Globally, sex workers have highlighted the harms that accompany anti-prostitution efforts advanced via anti-trafficking policy, and there is a growing body of social science research that has emerged documenting how anti-trafficking efforts contribute to carceral and sexual humanitarian interventions. Yet mounting evidence on [...] Read more.
Globally, sex workers have highlighted the harms that accompany anti-prostitution efforts advanced via anti-trafficking policy, and there is a growing body of social science research that has emerged documenting how anti-trafficking efforts contribute to carceral and sexual humanitarian interventions. Yet mounting evidence on the harms of anti-trafficking policies has done little to quell the passage of more laws, including policies aimed at stopping sexual exploitation facilitated by technology. The 2018 passage of the Allow States and Victims to Fight Online Sex Trafficking Act (FOSTA) in the U.S. House of Representatives, and the corresponding Senate bill, the Stop Enabling Sex Traffickers Act (SESTA), is a case study in how efforts to curb sexual exploitation online actually heighten vulnerabilities for the people they purport to protect. Drawing on 34 months of ethnographic fieldwork and interviews with sex workers and trafficked persons (n = 58) and key informants (n = 20) in New York and Los Angeles, we analyze FOSTA/SESTA and its harmful effects as a launchpad to more broadly explore how technology, criminalization, shifting governance arrangements, and conservative moralities cohere to exacerbate sex workers’ vulnerability. Full article
Open AccessReview
An Exploration of Ethical Decision Making with Intelligence Augmentation
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(2), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10020057 - 08 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1224
Abstract
In recent years, the use of Artificial Intelligence agents to augment and enhance the operational decision making of human agents has increased. This has delivered real benefits in terms of improved service quality, delivery of more personalised services, reduction in processing time, and [...] Read more.
In recent years, the use of Artificial Intelligence agents to augment and enhance the operational decision making of human agents has increased. This has delivered real benefits in terms of improved service quality, delivery of more personalised services, reduction in processing time, and more efficient allocation of resources, amongst others. However, it has also raised issues which have real-world ethical implications such as recommending different credit outcomes for individuals who have an identical financial profile but different characteristics (e.g., gender, race). The popular press has highlighted several high-profile cases of algorithmic discrimination and the issue has gained traction. While both the fields of ethical decision making and Explainable AI (XAI) have been extensively researched, as yet we are not aware of any studies which have examined the process of ethical decision making with Intelligence augmentation (IA). We aim to address that gap with this study. We amalgamate the literature in both fields of research and propose, but not attempt to validate empirically, propositions and belief statements based on the synthesis of the existing literature, observation, logic, and empirical analogy. We aim to test these propositions in future studies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sexual Prejudice in the Portuguese Political Context
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(2), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10020056 - 06 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1322
Abstract
Sexual prejudice is a negative attitude toward an individual due to their belonging to a group defined by sexual minority behaviors, attractions, or orientations. As no studies assessing sexual prejudice levels among self-identified politicians have been conducted in Portugal, this study was carried [...] Read more.
Sexual prejudice is a negative attitude toward an individual due to their belonging to a group defined by sexual minority behaviors, attractions, or orientations. As no studies assessing sexual prejudice levels among self-identified politicians have been conducted in Portugal, this study was carried out to address this gap in the literature. In addition, we sought to compare differences in levels of sexual prejudice by gender, religiosity, and political orientation. The sample consisted of 302 self-identified active politicians in Portugal, of whom 157 were men (52%) and 145 were women (48%), with an average age of 45.98 years. Study measurement instruments included a sociodemographic questionnaire and the Sexual Prejudice Scale in the Portuguese Political Context. Participants responded to this study’s outreach online, and they received emails that referred them directly to the online survey. The principal results show that, despite moderate overall levels of sexual prejudice among the sample, men and participants with right-wing general, social, and fiscal political views demonstrated significantly higher sexual prejudice scores. Negative levels of political engagement and negative attitudes toward lesbians and gay men were significant predictors of sexual prejudice. It is very important to raise awareness of this phenomenon among both politicians and the general public, so that it can be addressed accordingly. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Relationship between Familizing and Individualizing Policies and Mental Health in Parents in Europe
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(2), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10020055 - 05 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1196
Abstract
Previous studies suggest the relative importance of the impact of childcare policies on mental health in parents. There have also been studies showing that welfare states have differing policy packages, consisting of a mixture of familizing and individualizing policy measures. This study builds [...] Read more.
Previous studies suggest the relative importance of the impact of childcare policies on mental health in parents. There have also been studies showing that welfare states have differing policy packages, consisting of a mixture of familizing and individualizing policy measures. This study builds on and extends this knowledge by carrying out a European comparison of the association between mental well health and family policies. We use Lohmann and Zagel’s familizing and individualizing policy indices to describe family policies. Our main interest is differences in mental health depending on the country, household, and individual-level characteristics. Therefore, we apply a multilevel model to 26 countries included in the 2013 wave of the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions survey (N = 141,648). The analysis found that, in general, parents of children under 13 have better mental health than other adults. We found individualizing policy measures to be positively related to mental health in parents, while familizing policies had a negative relationship. No evidence was found for the combined presence of individualizing and familizing policies making a difference to mental health in parents. These results suggest that welfare states could help parents by promoting individualizing policies to make parenthood a less stressful experience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Work–Family Arrangements: Variation across and within Countries)
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Open AccessReview
The What, Why and How of Child Participation—A Review of the Conceptualization of “Child Participation” in Child Welfare
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(2), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10020054 - 03 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1214
Abstract
This review explores the conceptualization of “child participation” in a child welfare context. The analyses are based on the theories, models and concepts researchers apply when framing their studies. Central to the authors’ conceptualizing is the understanding of why children should participate. Children’s [...] Read more.
This review explores the conceptualization of “child participation” in a child welfare context. The analyses are based on the theories, models and concepts researchers apply when framing their studies. Central to the authors’ conceptualizing is the understanding of why children should participate. Children’s rights are a common starting point for many authors, but they differ on whether children should participate out of consideration for children’s intrinsic value (e.g., concern for their well-being) or for the instrumental value of the participation itself (e.g., service outcome). The analysis also focuses on how authors measure participation level. The analysis showed that most authors presented a limited rights-focused goal for the collaboration with children, while a minority group problematized the concept. Although several researchers emphasize that participation requires a process, few authors see the meaning-making process as the main purpose of child participation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child-Centric Approaches in Theory, Policy and Practice)
Open AccessArticle
Decolonising the Terrorism Industry: Indonesia
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(2), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10020053 - 02 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1562
Abstract
Over the last few decades, discussion of decolonisation and decolonial thinking has gained much traction in many countries. Scholars and students have called on their institutions to decolonise their curriculums and argued for why their respective disciplines need to be decolonised. They have [...] Read more.
Over the last few decades, discussion of decolonisation and decolonial thinking has gained much traction in many countries. Scholars and students have called on their institutions to decolonise their curriculums and argued for why their respective disciplines need to be decolonised. They have recognised that the knowledge produced by the social sciences remains Western-centric. However, unlike the other social sciences, the terrorism industry, on the other hand, has not reflected on its Western centrism. This situation is especially the case with the security side of the terrorism industry, which is the most visible and arguably the most problematic side. By adopting a decolonial approach and Indonesia as a case study, this paper highlights some of the ways through which the terrorism industry reproduces Western centrism. The paper concludes by raising several issues regarding the role that the industry plays in Indonesia and urges scholars to research them. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Theorizing the Continuities Between Marriage and Sex Work in the Experience of Female Sex Workers in Pune, Maharashtra
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(2), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10020052 - 01 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1476
Abstract
Marriage is near-universal in India, where most cisgender women sex workers have been married at some point in their lives, while also navigating responsibilities to family and children. In this paper, we explore how cisgender women sex workers in Pune, in the Indian [...] Read more.
Marriage is near-universal in India, where most cisgender women sex workers have been married at some point in their lives, while also navigating responsibilities to family and children. In this paper, we explore how cisgender women sex workers in Pune, in the Indian state of Maharashtra, experience continuities between sex work and marriage, while navigating an ideological landscape where sex work and marriage are positioned as opposites. Returning to feminist theoretical models that highlight the economic underpinnings of marriage, we outline three arenas in the Indian context where marriage and sex work overlap rather than remaining opposed and separate entities: (a) migration, (b) attributions of respect and stigma, coded through symbols of marriage and sexual availability, and (c) building and dissolving kinship networks that contest the primacy of biological or affinal kin. In each of these realms the distinction between marriage and sex work is a fraught and contested issue, and the roles of wife, mother, and sex worker can shade into one another based on context. We then examine how three women navigate these contradictions, arguing that focusing on kinship and marriage can circumvent the limitations of the choice versus coercion paradigm that structures current debates on sex work. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Crimes of the Powerful: Between Force and Consensus
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(2), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10020051 - 01 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1231
Abstract
Power entails the ability to act and overcome the obstacles erected by those who are subject to it. It also entails the capacity to make one’s crimes acceptable, while formulating criminal imputations against others. The crimes of the powerful, in this contribution, are [...] Read more.
Power entails the ability to act and overcome the obstacles erected by those who are subject to it. It also entails the capacity to make one’s crimes acceptable, while formulating criminal imputations against others. The crimes of the powerful, in this contribution, are examined through the lenses of a number of intertwined variables: coercion, legitimacy, violence, secrecy, consensus, and hegemony. Ostentation, imitation, and admiration are also considered as components of these types of crimes and the feelings they elicit. While the controversies surrounding legal responses to the crimes of the powerful are discussed, the efficacy of concerted action against them is optimistically invoked. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Uptake of Childcare Arrangements—Grandparental Availability and Availability of Formal Childcare
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(2), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10020050 - 01 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1099
Abstract
Grandparents constitute an important source of childcare to many parents. Focusing on the Belgian context, this paper improves our understanding of childcare decision-making by investigating how formal childcare availability and availability of grandparents affect childcare arrangements. By means of multinomial regression models we [...] Read more.
Grandparents constitute an important source of childcare to many parents. Focusing on the Belgian context, this paper improves our understanding of childcare decision-making by investigating how formal childcare availability and availability of grandparents affect childcare arrangements. By means of multinomial regression models we simultaneously model uptake of formal and informal childcare by parents. Combining linked microdata from the Belgian censuses with contextual data on childcare at the level of municipalities, we consider formal childcare availability at a local level, while including a wide array of characteristics which may affect grandparental availability. Results indicate that increasing formal care crowds-out informal care as the sole care arrangement, whereas combined use of formal and informal care becomes more prevalent. Characteristics indicating a lack of grandmaternal availability increase uptake of formal care and inhibit to a lesser extent the uptake of combined formal and informal care. While increasing formal care substitutes informal care use, the lack of availability of informal care by grandparents may be problematic, particularly for those families most prone to use informal care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Work–Family Arrangements: Variation across and within Countries)
Open AccessReview
Military Service and Offending Behaviors of Emerging Adults: A Conceptual Review
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(2), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10020049 - 01 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1122
Abstract
Focusing on the United States, this paper examines the impact of military service for the cohort of individuals that have experienced the social factors that characterize emerging adulthood as a unique stage in the life course. We argue that military service, as a [...] Read more.
Focusing on the United States, this paper examines the impact of military service for the cohort of individuals that have experienced the social factors that characterize emerging adulthood as a unique stage in the life course. We argue that military service, as a turning point, may act differently in contemporary times compared to findings from past research. This difference is driven by changes in military service, the draft versus volunteer military service, and the prevalence of emerging adulthood. As a background, we describe emerging adulthood, examine how emerging adulthood relates to crime and deviance, explore the impact of military life on young adults, provide an overview of the demographics of military service, discuss the influence and outcomes of military life on young adults, and explore existing research linking military service and deviant and criminal behavior. We develop a theoretical model of the relationship between military service and emerging adulthood and explore the impact on criminological theory and policy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding Criminal Behavior and Young Adult)
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